Compiègne

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Compiègne
Hotel de ville de Compiegne.jpg
Town hall
Blason ville fr Compiegne (Oise).svg
Location of Compiègne
Compiegne
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Compiègne
Hauts-de-France region location map.svg
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Compiègne
Coordinates: 49°24′54″N2°49′23″E / 49.4149°N 2.8231°E / 49.4149; 2.8231 Coordinates: 49°24′54″N2°49′23″E / 49.4149°N 2.8231°E / 49.4149; 2.8231
Country France
Region Hauts-de-France
Department Oise
Arrondissement Compiègne
Canton Compiègne-1 and 2
Intercommunality CA Région de Compiègne et Basse Automne
Government
  Mayor (20202026) Philippe Marini [1]
Area
1
53.1 km2 (20.5 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2018) [2]
40,542
  Density760/km2 (2,000/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
60159 /60200
Elevation31–134 m (102–440 ft)
(avg. 41 m or 135 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Compiègne (French pronunciation:  [kɔ̃pjɛɲ] ; Picard : Compiène) is a commune in the Oise department in northern France. [3] It is located on the river Oise. [3] Its inhabitants are called Compiégnois.

Contents

Administration

Compiègne is the seat of two cantons:

History by year

665 - Saint Wilfrid was consecrated Bishop of York. Wilfrid refused to be consecrated in Northumbria at the hands of Anglo-Saxon bishops. Deusdedit, Archbishop of Canterbury, had died, and as there were no other bishops in Britain whom Wilfrid considered to have been validly consecrated, he travelled to Compiègne, to be consecrated by Agilbert, the Bishop of Paris.
833 - Louis the Pious (also known as King Louis I, the Debonair) was deposed in Compiègne. [3]
February 888 - Odo, Count of Paris and king of the Franks was crowned in Compiègne.
23 May 1430 - During the Hundred Years' War, Joan of Arc was captured by the Burgundians while attempting to free Compiègne. They then sold her to the English. [4]

1557 Bataille de Saint Quentin 1557 Les Anglais occupe Compiegne-1558

1624 - Compiègne gave its name to the Treaty of Compiègne, a treaty of alliance concluded by Cardinal Richelieu with the Dutch. [3]
1630 - Marie de' Medici's attempts to displace Richelieu ultimately led to her exile to Compiègne, from where she escaped to Brussels in 1631.
17 July 1794 - The Martyrs of Compiègne are executed in Paris during the Reign of Terror.
1900 - The golf events for the 1900 Summer Olympics took place. [5]
11 November 1918 - The Armistice with Germany (Compiègne), agreed at Le Francport near Compiègne, ends fighting of World War I
22 June 1940 - Another Armistice with France (Second Compiègne) was signed between Nazi Germany and the defeated France in Le Francport, near Compiègne, in the same place as in 1918, in the same railroad carriage, but with the seats swapped.
1941 - During the German occupation of France, the Compiègne internment camp was established in Compiègne. A memorial of the camp, and another along the railway tracks, commemorate the tragedy.
1968 - The starting location of the Paris–Roubaix bicycle race was changed from Paris to Compiègne.
1972 - Creation of the University of Technology of Compiègne

Population

Compiègne is the central commune of an urban unit with 70,699 inhabitants, and a larger commuter zone with 141,504 inhabitants as of 2017. [6] The population data in the table and graph below refer to the commune of Compiègne proper.

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 8,000    
1800 7,058−1.77%
1806 7,165+0.25%
1821 7,228+0.06%
1831 8,879+2.08%
1836 8,895+0.04%
1841 9,076+0.40%
1846 9,762+1.47%
1851 10,795+2.03%
1856 10,364−0.81%
1861 12,137+3.21%
1866 10,714−2.46%
1872 10,775+0.09%
1876 13,393+5.59%
1881 14,008+0.90%
1886 14,375+0.52%
1891 14,498+0.17%
1896 15,225+0.98%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901 16,503+1.63%
1906 16,868+0.44%
1911 17,046+0.21%
1921 16,179−0.52%
1926 17,361+1.42%
1931 17,852+0.56%
1936 18,885+1.13%
1946 18,218−0.36%
1954 22,325+2.57%
1962 24,427+1.13%
1968 29,700+3.31%
1975 37,699+3.47%
1982 40,384+0.99%
1990 41,896+0.46%
1999 41,254−0.17%
2007 41,714+0.14%
2012 40,028−0.82%
2017 40,199+0.09%
Source: EHESS [7] and INSEE (1968-2017) [8]

Sights

View of Compiegne Compiegne from the UTC.jpg
View of Compiègne
Compiegne-Noyon Hospital Compiegne-Noyon Hospital.jpg
Compiegne-Noyon Hospital

Museums

Compiègne Forest

The Glade of the Armistice in the Compiègne Forest was the site of the signing of two armistices; those of 11 November 1918 and 22 June 1940. Hitler specifically chose the location of the second, and had the original signing carriage moved from Paris to Compiègne, as an irony for the defeated French.

The site still houses several memorials to the 1918 armistice, including a copy of the original railway carriage. The original, Marshal Foch's Carriage was taken to Germany as a trophy of victory following the second armistice. Various rumors about what happened to this railway-carriage thereafter, have flourished ever since. Some believe it was destroyed by the SS in Thuringia in April 1945; others say this happened in Berlin, but most likely was it destroyed during an allied air-raid on Berlin. The latter version seems most plausible, since Ferdinand Foch's carriage actually was displayed at a Berlin museum. [9] [10] [11]

The University of Technology of Compiègne

Compiègne is home to the University of Technology of Compiègne (UTC), one of the top ranking engineering school in France, founded as a Technology University in 1972 to provide an alternative to the traditional "grandes écoles" for students interested in technologies and applied science. [12]

Transport

The Gare de Compiègne railway station offers connections with Paris, Amiens, Cambrai and several regional destinations. The nearest motorway is the A1 Paris-Lille.

Cycling

Since 1968 Compiègne is the traditional start city of the famous Paris–Roubaix bicycle race. It was also the finish city of 3rd stage in the 2007 Tour de France.

Notable People

Compiègne was the birthplace of:

International relations

Compiègne is twinned with:

Compiègne is also partnered with:

See also

Related Research Articles

Oise Department of France

Oise is a department in the north of France. It is named after the river Oise. Inhabitants of the department are called Oisiens or Isariens, after the Latin name for the river, Isara.

Ferdinand Foch French general and military theorist

Ferdinand Foch was a French general and military theorist who served as the Supreme Allied Commander during the First World War. An aggressive, even reckless commander at the First Marne, Flanders and Artois campaigns of 1914–1916, Foch became the Allied Commander-in-Chief in late March 1918 in the face of the all-out German spring offensive, which pushed the Allies back using fresh soldiers and new tactics that trenches could not contain. He successfully coordinated the French, British and American efforts into a coherent whole, deftly handling his strategic reserves. He stopped the German offensive and launched a war-winning counterattack. In November 1918, Marshal Foch accepted the German cessation of hostilities and was present at the Armistice of 11 November 1918.

Armistice of 11 November 1918 Armistice during First World War between Allies and Germany

The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice signed at Le Francport near Compiègne that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last remaining opponent, Germany. Previous armistices had been agreed with Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Also known as the Armistice of Compiègne from the place where it was officially signed at 5:45 a.m. by the Allied Supreme Commander, French Marshal Ferdinand Foch, it came into force at 11:00 a.m. Paris time on 11 November 1918 and marked a victory for the Allies and a defeat for Germany, although not formally a surrender.

Armistice of 22 June 1940 Armistice between France and Nazi Germany in World War II

The Armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed at 18:36 near Compiègne, France, by officials of Nazi Germany and the Third French Republic. It did not come into effect until after midnight on 25 June.

Montmorency, Val-dOise Commune in Île-de-France, France

Montmorency is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 15.3 km (9.5 mi) from the center of Paris.

Wattrelos Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Wattrelos is a commune in the Nord department in the Nord-Pas de Calais region of northern France. It is located on the border with Belgium, northeast of the city of Lille. The fifth-largest component of the Métropole Européenne de Lille, Wattrelos borders the communes of Roubaix, Tourcoing and Leers in France and the communes of Mouscron and Estaimpuis in Belgium.

Arrondissement of Compiègne Arrondissement in Hauts-de-France, France

The arrondissement of Compiègne is an arrondissement of France in the Oise department in the Hauts-de-France region. It has 156 communes. Its population is 182,266 (2016), and its area is 1,274.5 km2 (492.1 sq mi).

Forest of Compiègne

The Forest of Compiègne is a large forest in the region of Picardy, France, near the city of Compiègne and approximately 60 kilometres (37 mi) north of Paris.

Verberie Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Verberie is a commune in the Oise department in northern France.

La Capelle Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

La Capelle is a commune in the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France in northern France. Its inhabitants are called Capellois.

Asfeld Commune in Grand Est, France

Asfeld is a commune in the Ardennes department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France, formerly named Ecry or Ecri.

Saint-Trojan Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

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Gorcy Commune in Grand Est, France

Gorcy is a commune, located in the department of Meurthe-et-Moselle and the Grand Est region, France. This village on the north of the Meurthe-et-Moselle is next to the Belgian frontier, and about 10 km from Longwy, main city of the "Pays-Haut".

Libermont Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Libermont is a French commune with a population of 180, located in the department of Oise in the region of Hauts-de-France. It belongs to the Canton of Noyon and is part of the commune-association Pays Noyonnais.

Rethondes Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Rethondes is a commune in the Oise department in northern France. It is associated with the signing of the armistice of 11 November 1918, which ended World War I, although the actual location of the signing was on the other side of the Aisne in the commune of Compiègne. The same spot was also where Nazi Germany had Vichy government sign the armistice of 22 June 1940, during World War II.

La Neuville-en-Hez Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

La Neuville-en-Hez is a commune in the Oise department in northern France.

War memorials (Oise)

The War memorials (Oise) or Monuments aux Morts of Oise are French war memorials commemorating those men of the region who died in World War I.

Glade of the Armistice French national and war memorial in the Forest of Compiègne in Picardy

The Glade of the Armistice is a French national and war memorial in the Forest of Compiègne in Picardy, France, near the city of Compiègne and approximately 60 kilometres (37 mi) north of Paris. It was built at the location where the Germans signed the Armistice of 11 November 1918 that ended World War I. During World War II, Adolf Hitler chose the same spot for the French and Germans to sign the Armistice of 22 June 1940 after Germany won the Battle of France. The site was destroyed by the Germans but rebuilt after the war.

Royallieu-Compiègne internment camp

The Royallieu-Compiègne was an internment and deportation camp located in the north of France in the city of Compiègne, open from June 1941 to August 1944. French resistance fighters and Jews were among some of the prisoners held in this camp. It is estimated that around 40,000 people were deported from the Royallieu-Compiègne camp to other camps in the German territory of the time.

Compiègne Wagon Train carriage

The Compiègne Wagon was the train carriage in which both the Armistice of 11 November 1918 and Armistice of 22 June 1940 were signed.

References

  1. "Répertoire national des élus: les maires". data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises (in French). 2 December 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  2. "Populations légales 2018". INSEE. 28 December 2020.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Compiègne"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 811.
  4. Deborah A. Fraioli (2005). Joan of Arc and the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 101. ISBN   978-0-313-32458-1.
  5. 1900 Summer Olympics official report. p. 15. Accessed 14 November 2010. (in French)
  6. Comparateur de territoire: Unité urbaine 2020 de Compiègne (60502), Aire d'attraction des villes 2020 de Compiègne (078), INSEE
  7. Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Compiègne, EHESS. (in French)
  8. Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  9. Moved to Berlin - Steven Budiansky, "The Complete story of Codebreaking during WW2", ISBN   0-684-85932-7, page 136
  10. Moved to Berlin, and there destroyed in an air-raid - Brian Hanley, "Planning for Conflict in the 21st Century", page 116" available here
  11. Also William L Shirer in his "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich" (unknown ISBN) states it was destroyed during a bombing raid on Berlin
  12. https://www.utc.fr/en/utc.html
  13. "Elbląg - Podstrony / Miasta partnerskie". Elbląski Dziennik Internetowy (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2011-03-15. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
  14. "Elbląg - Miasta partnerskie". Elbląg.net (in Polish). Retrieved 2013-08-01.