Compton Mackenzie

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Sir Compton Mackenzie
Compton Mackenzie.jpg
Born
Edward Montague Compton Mackenzie

(1883-01-17)17 January 1883
Died30 November 1972(1972-11-30) (aged 89)
Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland
Resting place Barra, Scotland
OccupationScottish croquet player, actor, broadcaster, writer and political activist
Years active1907–1971
Notable work
Whisky Galore
The Monarch of the Glen
Home town Barra
Spouse(s) Faith Stone (1905–60; her death)
Christine McSween (1962–63; her death)
Lilian McSween (1965–1972; his death)
Relatives Fay Compton (sister)
Viola Compton (sister)
Henry Compton (grandfather)

Sir Edward Montague Compton Mackenzie, OBE (17 January 1883 – 30 November 1972) was an English-born Scottish writer of fiction, biography, histories and a memoir, as well as a cultural commentator, raconteur and lifelong Scottish nationalist. He was one of the co-founders in 1928 of the Scottish National Party along with Hugh MacDiarmid, RB Cunninghame Graham and John MacCormick. He was knighted in 1952.

Scottish independence is the political movement for Scotland to become a sovereign state independent from the United Kingdom. In 2014, a national referendum was held in Scotland. Voters were asked: "Should Scotland be an independent country?" 45 percent of voters answered "Yes" and 55 percent answered "No" with a turnout of 85 percent.

The Scottish National Party is a Scottish nationalist and social-democratic political party in Scotland. The SNP supports and campaigns for Scottish independence. It is the second-largest political party by membership in the United Kingdom, behind the Labour Party and ahead of the Conservative Party; it is the third-largest by overall representation in the House of Commons, behind the Conservative Party and the Labour Party; and it is the largest political party in Scotland, where it has the most seats in the Scottish Parliament and 35 out of the 59 Scottish seats in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The current Scottish National Party leader, Nicola Sturgeon, has served as First Minister of Scotland since November 2014.

John MacCormick Scottish lawyer

John MacDonald MacCormick was a Scottish lawyer, Scottish nationalist politician and advocate of Home Rule in Scotland.

Contents

Background

Edward Montague Compton Mackenzie was born in West Hartlepool, County Durham, England, into a theatrical family of Mackenzies, many of whose members used Compton as their stage surname, starting with his grandfather Henry Compton, a well-known Shakespearean actor of the Victorian era. His father, Edward Compton, and mother, Virginia Bateman, were actors and theatre company managers; his sister, Fay Compton, starred in many of J. M. Barrie's plays, including Peter Pan . He was educated at St Paul's School, London, and Magdalen College, Oxford, where he graduated with a degree in modern history. [1]

West Hartlepool western part of the borough of Hartlepool in North East England

West Hartlepool refers to the western part of what has since the 1960s been known as the borough of Hartlepool in North East England. It was originally formed in 1854 as the result of the opening of seaside docks and railways that connected the docks to cities to the east and west.

County Durham County of England

County Durham is a county in North East England. The county town is Durham, a cathedral city. The largest settlement is Darlington, closely followed by Hartlepool and Stockton-on-Tees. It borders Tyne and Wear to the north east, Northumberland to the north, Cumbria to the west and North Yorkshire to the south. The county's historic boundaries stretch between the rivers Tyne and Tees, thus including places such as Gateshead, Jarrow, South Shields and Sunderland.

Henry Compton (actor) British actor

Henry Compton was an English actor best known for his Shakespearean comic roles.

Writing

Sir Compton Mackenzie is perhaps best known for two comic novels set in Scotland: Whisky Galore (1947) set in the Hebrides, and The Monarch of the Glen (1941) set in the Scottish Highlands. They were the sources of a successful film and a television series respectively. He published almost a hundred books on different subjects, including ten volumes of autobiography: My Life and Times (1963–71). He wrote history (on the Battle of Marathon and the Battle of Salamis), biography (Mr Roosevelt, a 1943 biography of FDR), literary criticism, satires, apologia (Sublime Tobacco 1957), children's stories, poetry and so on. Of his fiction, The Four Winds of Love is sometimes considered his magnum opus . [2]

<i>Whisky Galore</i> (novel) book by Compton Mackenzie

Whisky Galore is a novel written by Compton Mackenzie, published in 1947. It was adapted for the cinema under the title Whisky Galore!.

Hebrides archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland

The Hebrides comprise a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland. There are two main groups: the Inner and Outer Hebrides.

<i>The Monarch of the Glen</i> (novel) book by Compton Mackenzie

The Monarch of the Glen is a Scottish comic farce novel written by English-born Scottish author Compton Mackenzie and published in 1941. The first in Mackenzie's Highland Novels series, it depicts the life in the fictional Scottish castle of Glenbogle. The television programme Monarch of the Glen is very loosely based on the series.

He was admired by F. Scott Fitzgerald, whose first book, This Side of Paradise , was written under the literary influence of Compton. [3]

F. Scott Fitzgerald 20th-century American novelist and screenwriter

Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald was an American fiction writer, whose works helped to illustrate the flamboyance and excess of the Jazz Age. While he achieved popular success, fame, and fortune in his lifetime, he did not receive much critical acclaim until after his death. Perhaps the most notable member of the "Lost Generation" of the 1920s, Fitzgerald is now widely regarded as one of the greatest American writers of the 20th century. He finished four novels: This Side of Paradise, The Beautiful and Damned, The Great Gatsby, and Tender Is the Night. A fifth, unfinished novel, The Last Tycoon, was published posthumously. Four collections of his short stories were published, as well as 164 short stories in magazines during his lifetime.

<i>This Side of Paradise</i> novel by F. Scott Fitzgerald

This Side of Paradise is the debut novel by F. Scott Fitzgerald. It was published in 1920. Taking its title from a line of Rupert Brooke's poem Tiare Tahiti, the book examines the lives and morality of post–World War I youth. Its protagonist, Amory Blaine, is an attractive Princeton University student who dabbles in literature. The novel explores the theme of love warped by greed and status seeking. The novel famously helped F. Scott Fitzgerald gain Zelda Sayre's hand in marriage; its publication was her condition of acceptance.

Sinister Street , his lengthy 1913–14 bildungsroman, influenced such young men as George Orwell and Cyril Connolly, who both read it as schoolboys. [4] [5] Max Beerbohm praised Mackenzie's writing for vividness and emotional reality. [6] Frank Swinnerton, a literary critic, comments on Mackenzie's "detail and wealth of reference". John Betjeman said of it, "This has always seemed to me one of the best novels of the best period in English novel writing." Henry James thought it to be the most remarkable book written by a young author in his lifetime.

<i>Sinister Street</i> book by Compton Mackenzie

Sinister Street is a 1913–1914 novel by Compton Mackenzie. It is a kind of bildungsroman or novel about growing up, and concerns two children, Michael Fane and his sister Stella. Both of them are born out of wedlock, something which was frowned upon at the time, but from rich parents.

In literary criticism, a Bildungsroman is a literary genre that focuses on the psychological and moral growth of the protagonist from youth to adulthood, in which character change is extremely important.

George Orwell English author and journalist

Eric Arthur Blair, better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic, whose work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism, and outspoken support of democratic socialism.

After his conversion to Roman Catholicism in 1914, Mackenzie explored religious themes in a trilogy of novels, The Altar Steps (1922), The Parson's Progress (1923) and The Heavenly Ladder (1924). Following his time on Capri, socialising with the gay exiles there, he treated the homosexuality of a politician sensitively in Thin Ice (1956). He was the literary critic for the London-based national newspaper Daily Mail . [7]

Capri island near Naples

Capri is an island located in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrentine Peninsula, on the south side of the Gulf of Naples in the Campania region of Italy. The main town Capri that is located on the island shares the name. It has been a resort since the time of the Roman Republic.

<i>Daily Mail</i> British daily middle-market tabloid newspaper published in London

The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-market newspaper published in London in a tabloid format. Founded in 1896, it is the United Kingdom's second-biggest-selling daily newspaper after The Sun. Its sister paper The Mail on Sunday was launched in 1982, while Scottish and Irish editions of the daily paper were launched in 1947 and 2006 respectively. Content from the paper appears on the MailOnline website, although the website is managed separately and has its own editor.

A novel which ranks with Brave New World and 1984 as outstanding political satire but with perhaps more humour is The Lunatic Republic (1959). For the version of English spoken by the inhabitants of Lunamania on the far side of the moon, Mackenzie invented over 150 new words.

Greek Memories

Mackenzie worked as an actor, political activist and broadcaster. He served with British Intelligence in the Eastern Mediterranean during the First World War, later publishing four books on his experiences. According to these books, he was commissioned in the Royal Marines, rising to the rank of captain. His ill-health making front-line service impractical, he was assigned counter-espionage work during the Gallipoli campaign, [8] and in 1916 built up a considerable counter-intelligence network in Athens, Greece then being neutral. [9] While his secret service work seems to have been valued highly by his superiors, including Sir Mansfield Smith-Cumming, his passionate political views, especially his support for the Venizelists, made him a controversial figure and he was expelled from Athens following the Noemvriana. [10]

In 1917, he founded the Aegean Intelligence Service, and enjoyed considerable autonomy for some months as its director. He was offered the Presidency of the Republic of Cerigo, which was briefly independent while Greece was split between Royalists and Venizelists, but declined the office. He was recalled in September 1917. Smith-Cumming considered appointing him as his deputy, but withdrew the suggestion after opposition from within his own service, and Mackenzie played no further active role in the war. In 1919, he was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE), and was also honoured with the French Legion of Honour, the Serbian Order of the White Eagle, and the Greek Order of the Redeemer. [11]

After the publication of his Greek Memories in 1932, he was prosecuted the following year at the Old Bailey under the Official Secrets Act for quoting from supposedly secret documents. His account of the trial, vividly described, is in Octave Seven (1931–38) of his autobiography: the result was a fine of £100 and (prosecution) costs of £100. His own costs were over £1,000. Mackenzie states that a plea-bargain (described in the text as "an arrangement") had been reached with the judge prior to the trial: in exchange for his pleading guilty, he would be fined £500 with £500 costs. However Sir Thomas Inskip, then attorney general who prosecuted the case, succeeded in annoying the trial judge to such an extent that he then reduced the penalties to a token amount. Even so, the costs of his defence and the withdrawal from sale of Greek Memories left Mackenzie out of pocket and an attempt was made to ask the authorities exactly which passages in the book they objected to so it could be re-issued with the offending material removed. This approach was rebuffed. [12] In Octave Eight, covering the years 1939–45, Mackenzie recounts that the matter was raised in Parliament and a new version of Greek Memories was eventually published in 1939. [13] However, in spite of the withdrawal of the 1st edition a copy had already been deposited at the British Museum [14] (which then contained what is now the independent British Library) but was not given a general catalogue reference making it effectively impossible to access. In 1994 The Guardian newspaper published an article about this anomaly The muzzling of Compton Mackenzie – 62 years on. [15] Following this the 1932 edition was entered in the British Library’s public catalogue. [16] In 2011 Biteback published the original 1932 edition of Greek Memories, including the Secret Intelligence Service memo detailing the offending passages of the book. [17]

He was president of the Croquet Association from 1953–66. He was president of the Siamese Cat Club. [18] He was the subject of This Is Your Life in 1956 when he was surprised by Eamonn Andrews at the King's Theatre, Hammersmith, London. In 1923 he and his brother-in-law Christopher Stone founded The Gramophone , the still-influential classical music magazine. [19]

A strong supporter of Edward VIII, Mackenzie was a leading member of the Octavians, a minor society that campaigned in support of Edward VIII and for his return to the UK after he became the Duke of Windsor. [20] According to a 1938 Time article Mackenzie had intended to write a book in support of Edward but abandoned the plan when the Duke of Windsor asked him not to publish. [21]

Capri

Between 1913 and 1920 he lived with his wife, Faith, on Capri at Villa Solitaria, and returned to visit in later years. This Italian island near Sorrento was known to be tolerant not just of foreigners in general, but of artists and homosexuals in particular. He became friends with the writer Somerset Maugham, a frequent visitor to the island. Faith had an affair with the Italian pianist Renata Borgatti, [22] who was connected to Romaine Brooks.

Compton Mackenzie's observations on the local life of the Italian islanders and foreign residents led to at least two novels, Vestal Fire (1927) and Extraordinary Women (1928). The latter, a roman à clef about a group of lesbians arriving on the island of Sirene, a fictional version of Capri, [23] [24] was published in Britain in the same year as two other ground-breaking novels with lesbian themes, Virginia Woolf's love letter to Vita Sackville-West, Orlando , and Radclyffe Hall's controversial polemic, The Well of Loneliness , but Mackenzie's satire did not attract legal attention. [25] He was a friend of Axel Munthe, who built Villa San Michele, and Edwin Cerio, who later became mayor of Capri. [26]

Scottish identity

Grave of Compton MacKenzie, Eoligarry, Isle of Barra GraveOfComptonMacKenzieEolaigearraidhBarra(PaddyHeron)Jun2001.jpg
Grave of Compton MacKenzie, Eoligarry, Isle of Barra

Mackenzie went to great lengths to trace the steps of his ancestors back to his spiritual home in the Highlands, and displayed a deep and tenacious attachment to Gaelic culture throughout his long and very colourful life. As his biographer, Andro Linklater, commented, "Mackenzie wasn't born a Scot, and he didn't sound like a Scot. But nevertheless his imagination was truly Scottish." He was an ardent Jacobite, the third Governor-General of the Royal Stuart Society, and a co-founder of the Scottish National Party. He was rector of University of Glasgow from 1931 to 1934, defeating Oswald Mosley, who later led the British Union of Fascists, in his bid for the job. [27]

From 1920–23, Mackenzie was the Tenant of Herm and Jethou. He built a house on Barra, Scottish Isles, in the 1930s. On Barra, he gained inspiration and found creative solitude, and befriended a great number of people that he described as "the aristocrats of democracy". [ citation needed ]

He was a member of Clann Albain.[ citation needed ]

Private life

Mackenzie was married three times. On 30 November 1905 (at age 22), he married Faith Stone in St Saviour's, Pimlico: they remained married for more than 50 years, until her death. [28] In 1962 (at age 79), he married Christina MacSween, who died the following year. Lastly, he married his dead wife's sister, Lilian MacSween in 1965 (at age 82). [29]

Mackenzie was a keen supporter of West Bromwich Albion Football Club. Although from the north east of England, he "was influenced in the choice of Albion as 'my' team by the fact that their ground was romantically called The Hawthorns and that they were nicknamed the Throstles". [30]

He was also a keen fan of the game of snooker, and gave an account of the origin of the game's name in ‘The Billiard Player’ magazine of 1939, describing how young lieutenant Neville Chamberlain (not the former British Prime Minister) was experimenting on the officers’ mess table with the existing game of ‘Black Pool’ featuring 15 red balls and a black. [31] [32] He presented the World Championship trophy to Joe Davis at the 1939 Championships.[ citation needed ]

Death and taxes

He converted to Roman Catholicism in 1914. He died on 30 November 1972, aged 89, in Edinburgh and was interred at Eoligarry on the Isle of Barra.

After his retirement Mackenzie sold the entire copyright in 20 of his books for a lump sum of £10,000 arguing that this was a capital receipt and not the proceeds of the business. The Court of Appeal held that this was assessable income as part of the proceeds of his business: Mackenzie v Arnold (1952) 33 TC 363. [33]

Select bibliography

A list based on Kenneth Young's Compton Mackenzie, 1968: [34]

Novels and romances

Plays

Verse

History and biography

Essays and criticism

Children's stories

Autobiography

Biographies of Compton Mackenzie

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References

  1. "Compton Mackenzie". Undiscovered Scotland: The Ultimate Online Guide. Undiscovered Scotland. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  2. Massie, Allan (26 September 2007). "The magnum opus of Compton Mackenzie". The Spectator. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  3. Piper, Henry Dan (1956). "Frank Norris and Scott Fitzgerald". Huntington Library Quarterly . University of California Press. 19 (4): 393–400. doi:10.2307/3816401. ISSN   1544-399X. JSTOR   3816401 via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).
  4. Cyril Connolly, Enemies of Promise (White Samite), Routledge, London, 1938.
  5. Sonia Orwell and Ian Angus, The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell Volume I Letter to Connolly 14 December 1938, Secker & Warburg, 1968.
  6. "On Compton Mackenzie" by Allan Massie, faber.co.uk; accessed 10 August 2014.
  7. "Compton Mackenzie". Compton's by Britannica. Britannica Online for Kids. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  8. Sir Compton Mackenzie: Gallipoli Memories
  9. Sir Compton Mackenzie: Athenian Memories.
  10. Sir Compton Mackenzie, Greek Memories
  11. Sir Compton Mackenzie, Aegean Memories
  12. Sir Compton Mackenzie: Octave Seven p.104
  13. Sir Compton Mackenzie: Octave Eight pp. 14,15
  14. The official stamp in the book is dated 22 November 1932
  15. The Guardian 8 January 1994, page 6. Available on microfiche at the British Library and via ProQuest
  16. Shelfmark Cup.410.f.383
  17. Greek Memories backstory, bitebackpublishing.com; accessed 10 August 2014.
  18. Faber author page
  19. "Compton Mackenzie". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  20. Martin Pugh, "Hurrah for the Blackshirts!" Fascists and Fascism in Britain Between the Wars, Pimlico, 2006, p. 260
  21. Foreign News: Want Him Back!, time.com; accessed 10 August 2014.
  22. Infinite variety: the life and legend of the Marchesa Casati, by Scot D. Ryersson, Michael Orlando Yaccarino, p. 99
  23. Castle, Terry (2005). The Literature of Lesbianism: A Historical Anthology from Ariosto to Stonewall. Columbia University Press. p. 38. ISBN   0-231-12511-9.
  24. Tamagne, Florence (2006). A history of homosexuality in Europe: Berlin, London, Paris, 1919–1939, volume I & II. A History Of Homosexuality In Europe. 1–2. Algora Publishing. p. 322. ISBN   0-87586-355-8.
  25. Profile Archived 19 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine , capri.com; accessed 10 August 2014.
  26. Compton Mackenzie profile, universitystory.gla.ac.uk; accessed 10 August 2014.
  27. "Marriages: 40th Anniversary". The Times. 30 November 1945.
  28. Webster, Jack (1994). The Express Years. Edinburgh: Black & White Publishing. ISBN   1873631367 . Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  29. Profile, spectator.co.uk; accessed 10 August 2014.
  30. "History of Snooker". World Snooker. 1955-01-22. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  31. "Billiard and Snooker Heritage Collection – Origins of Snooker". Snookerheritage.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  32. Tiley, John (2013). Studies in the History of Tax Law, Volume 6. Portland OR: Hart Publishing. pp. 310–11. ISBN   9781849464802 . Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  33. Young, Kenneth (1968). Compton Mackenzie. London: Longman, Green & Co. pp. 29–32 (bibliography).
  34. "Compton Mackenzie Ably Tells The Heroic Tale of Greece, 1941". The Montreal Gazette. 6 November 1943. p. 10. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  35. "Essays by Compton Mackenzie. Unconsidered trifles. By Compton Mackenzie". The Glasgow Herald. 19 May 1932. p. 4. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
Academic offices
Preceded by
Stanley Baldwin
Rector of the University of Glasgow
1931—1934
Succeeded by
Iain Colquhoun