Concepción, Chile

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Concepción

La Concepción de María Purísima
del Nuevo Extremo (original name)
Ciudad-Puerto-de-Concepcion.png
Collage from Concepción, Top: Skyline; Upper left: University of Concepción; Upper right: Store in downtown; Middle left: Ecuador Park; Middle center: Bonilla/Alonso de Ribera Highway; Middle right: University of Concepción clock tower; Lower left: Lautaro statue; Lower center: San Sebastián University; Bottom center: Court of Appeals; Bottom right: Biotrén.
Flag of Concepcion, Chile.svg
Flag
Coat of arms of Concepcion, Chile.svg
Coat of arms
Txu-oclc-224571178-sj18-04.jpg
Location in the Bío Bío Region
Chile location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Concepción
Location in Chile
Nicknames: 
Biobío's Pearl, The University City, The cradle of Chilean rock
Motto(s): 
La Capital del Sur de Chile
The Capital of Southern Chile
Coordinates(Alcalde's office): 36°49′41.50″S73°03′04.93″W / 36.8281944°S 73.0513694°W / -36.8281944; -73.0513694 Coordinates: 36°49′41.50″S73°03′04.93″W / 36.8281944°S 73.0513694°W / -36.8281944; -73.0513694
Country Chile
Region Bío Bío
Province Concepción
FoundedOctober 5, 1550
Founded by Pedro de Valdivia
Government
[1]
  Type Municipality
   Alcalde Álvaro Ortiz (DC)
Area
   City and Commune 222 km2 (86 sq mi)
Elevation
12 m (39 ft)
Population
 (2006)
   City and Commune 992,589
  Density1,318/km2 (3,410/sq mi)
   Metro
1,322,581
Demonym(s) Penquista
Time zone UTC−4 (CLT)
  Summer (DST) UTC−3 (CLST)
Post code
3349001
Telephone prefix56 + 41
Climate Csb
Website www.concepcion.cl (in Spanish)

Concepción (Spanish pronunciation:  [kon.sepˈsjon] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); in full: Concepción de la Madre Santísima de la Luz, "Conception of the Blessed Mother of Light") is a Chilean city and commune belonging to the metropolitan area of Greater Concepción, it is one of the largest urban conurbations of Chile. [2] It has a significant impact on domestic trade [3] being part of the most heavily industrialized region in the country. [4] Its location is in the called Zona Centro Sur (Central South Zone), in the geographic center of the country, [5] and it is the capital of the Concepción Province and Bío Bío Region. It sits about 500 km south of Santiago, the country's capital.

Chile Republic in South America

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.

Communes of Chile smallest administrative subdivision in Chile

A commune is the smallest administrative subdivision in Chile. It may contain cities, towns, villages, hamlets as well as rural areas. In highly populated areas, such as Santiago, Valparaíso and Concepción, a conurbation may be broken into several communes. In sparsely populated areas, conversely, a commune may cover a substantial rural area together with several settled areas which could range from hamlets to towns or cities.

Metropolitan area region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated but economically-linked surroundings

A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metro area usually comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships, boroughs, cities, towns, exurbs, suburbs, counties, districts, states, and even nations like the eurodistricts. As social, economic and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities, towns and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core, typically measured by commuting patterns. In the United States, the concept of the metropolitan statistical area has gained prominence. Metropolitan areas may themselves be part of larger megalopolises.

Contents

Greater Concepción (Gran Concepción, including Talcahuano, San Pedro de la Paz, Hualpén, Chiguayante, Penco, Tomé, Lota, Coronel, Hualqui and Concepción) is the second-largest conurbation in the country, with 945,650 inhabitants (2012 census). Individually, it is the 11th largest commune in the country, with a population of 229,665. [6]

Greater Concepción Place in Concepción Province, Biobío

Gran Concepción is the second largest conurbation in Chile, after Greater Santiago, with 945,650 inhabitants according to the 2012 pre census.

Talcahuano Place in Biobío, Chile

Talcahuano is a port city and commune in the Biobío Region of Chile. It is part of the Greater Concepción conurbation. Talcahuano is located in the south of the Central Zone of Chile.

San Pedro de la Paz City and Commune in Biobío, Chile

San Pedro de la Paz is a Chilean city and commune located in the Concepción Province, Biobío Region. It has some 80,447 inhabitants according to the 2002 national census. In 2005, the Pedro Aguirre Cerda avenue, the main avenue in the city, was completed. Most of the inhabitants of this comuna commute daily to Concepción - either by car, bus or train - over the Biobío River. It is considered to be part of Greater Concepción conurbation.

History

Plaza de la Independencia, the Plaza de Armas of Concepcion, in 1910 Plaza de la Independencia (1910).jpg
Plaza de la Independencia, the Plaza de Armas of Concepción, in 1910
Skyline Concepcion (Chile).jpg
Skyline

Concepción was founded by Pedro de Valdivia [FN 1] in 1550 north of the Bío Bío River, at the site which is today known as Penco. At that time it was given the name Concepción de María Purísima del Nuevo Extremo (Mary Immaculate Conception of the New End). The new settlement of Concepción was just a few kilometers north of La Frontera (The Frontier), the boundary between Spanish territory and the land of the Mapuche, an American Indian ethnic group that remained independent until the 1870s. The settlement was formally recognized by the Spanish authorities as a town two years later by a royal decree. It was given a coat-of-arms that is still in use today.

Pedro de Valdivia Spanish conquistador;1st Royal Governor of Chile

Pedro Gutiérrez de Valdivia or Valdiva was a Spanish conquistador and the first royal governor of Chile. After serving with the Spanish army in Italy and Flanders, he was sent to South America in 1534, where he served as lieutenant under Francisco Pizarro in Peru, acting as his second in command. In 1540 he led an expedition of 150 Spaniards into Chile, where he defeated a large force of indigenous natives and founded Santiago in 1541. He extended Spanish rule south to the Biobío River in 1546, fought again in Peru, and returned to Chile as governor in 1549. He began to conquer Chile south of the Biobío and founded Concepción in 1550. He was captured and killed in a campaign against the Mapuche. The city of Valdivia in Chile is named after him.

Penco City and Commune in Bío Bío, Chile

Penco is a Chilean city and commune in Concepción Province, Bío Bío Region on the Bay of Concepción. Founded as the city of Concepción del Nuevo Extremo on February 12, 1550 by Pedro de Valdivia, it is the third oldest city in Chile, after capital Santiago founded first in 1541 and La Serena second in 1544.

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

At the time of the Spanish arrival to the Concepción area chronicler Jerónimo de Vivar noted local Mapuches wore gold and silver bracelets and "sort of crowns". This is interpreted either as Incan gifts, war spoils from defeated Incas, or adoption of Incan metallurgy. [7]

Jerónimo de Vivar was a Spanish historian of the early conquest and settlement of the Kingdom of Chile, and author of Crónica y relación copiosa y verdadera de los reinos de Chile.

Bracelet article of jewellery worn around an arm

A bracelet is an article of jewellery that is worn around the wrist. Bracelets may serve different uses, such as being worn as an ornament. When worn as ornaments, bracelets may have a supportive function to hold other items of decoration, such as charms. Medical and identity information are marked on some bracelets, such as allergy bracelets, hospital patient-identification tags, and bracelet tags for newborn babies. Bracelets may be worn to signify a certain phenomenon, such as breast cancer awareness, or for religious/cultural purposes. If a bracelet is a single, inflexible loop, it is often called a bangle. When it is worn around the ankle it is called an ankle bracelet or anklet. A boot bracelet is used to decorate boots. Colloquially, handcuffs are sometimes called bracelets. Bracelets can be manufactured from metal, leather, cloth, plastic, bead or other materials, and jewelry bracelets sometimes contain jewels, rocks, wood, shells, crystals, metal, or plastic hoops, pearls and many more materials.

Incas in Central Chile Inca rule in Chile lasting from the 1470s to the 1530s when the Inca Empire collapsed

Inca rule in Chile was brief; it lasted from the 1470s to the 1530s when the Inca Empire collapsed. The main settlements of the Inca Empire in Chile lay along the Aconcagua, Mapocho and Maipo rivers. Quillota in Aconcagua Valley was likely the Incas' foremost settlement. The bulk of the people conquered by the Incas in Central Chile were Diaguitas and part of the Promaucae.

Although Concepción was a significant military settlement for the Captaincy General of Chile, it was overrun and destroyed by Mapuche armies in 1554, and once again after being refounded in 1555. Concepción was restored during the governorship of García Hurtado de Mendoza when he landed there and built a fort on the Alto de Pinto in 1557. The town was refounded once more on January 6, 1558, by captain Jerónimo de Villegas. It became the headquarters of the military forces engaged against the Mapuche in La Araucanía over the next two centuries, growing to a population of 10,000 despite a siege in 1564 and other attacks by the Mapuche. Concepción was the home of the Real Audiencia from 1565 to 1575.

Captaincy General of Chile Spanish 1541-1818 possession in South America

The General Captaincy of Chile or Gobernación de Chile, was a territory of the Spanish Empire, from 1541 to 1818. It comprised most of modern-day Chile and southern parts of Argentina. Its capital was Santiago de Chile. In 1818 it declared itself independent, becoming the Republic of Chile. It had a number of Spanish governors over its long history and several kings.

Arauco War Conflict between Spanish settlers of Chile and indigenous peoples

The Arauco War was a long-running conflict between colonial Spaniards and the Mapuche people, mostly fought in the Araucanía. The conflict begun at first as a reaction to the Spanish conquest attempt establishing cities and forcing Mapuches into unfree labour. It subsequently evolved over time into phases of low intensity warfare, drawn-out sieges, slave-hunting expeditions, pillaging raids, punitive expeditions and renewed Spanish attempts to secure lost territories.

García Hurtado de Mendoza, 5th Marquis of Cañete Royal Governor of Chile

García Hurtado de Mendoza y Manrique, 5th Marquis of Cañete was a Spanish soldier, governor of Chile, and later viceroy of Peru. He is often known simply as "Marquis of Cañete". Belonging to an influential family of Spanish noblemen Hurtado de Mendoza successfully fought the native Mapuche during his stay as Governor of Chile, and got the city of Mendoza named after him. In his later position as Viceroy of Peru he sponsored Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira expedition to the Solomon Islands and had the Marquesas Islands named after him.

Earthquakes and tsunamis, which razed the town in 1570, 1657, 1687, 1730 and 1751, led the authorities to move the town to its current site in the Valle de la Mocha, alongside the Bío Bío River; the old site lay empty until March 29, 1842, when the present town of Penco was founded.

1570 Concepción earthquake

The 1570 Concepción earthquake occurred at 9:00, on February 8, 1570. The strong earthquake destroyed Concepción, Chile. It was accompanied by a tsunami, and aftershocks were felt for months. According to NOAA at least 2000 lives were lost and every house was destroyed. Because of a delay between the earthquake and the tsunami, much of the population was able to escape to higher ground.

1751 Concepción earthquake

The 1751 Concepción earthquake was one of the strongest and most destructive recorded quakes in Chilean history. It struck the Central Valley of the country, destroying the cities of Concepción, Chillán, Cauquenes, Curicó and Talca, probably on May 24, 1751, although there is currently a debate among scholars as to the exact date of the earthquake.

Valle de la Mocha is a plain in Chile on the north shore of the Bio-Bio River that contained the reducción of Mapuche who were transported in 1685, from Mocha Island by Governor José de Garro; from which the valley and plain took its name. Governor Domingo Ortiz de Rosas transferred the old city of Concepcion to this site from Penco after the May 25, 1751 Concepción earthquake.

The new site for the town of Concepción became the main town of the Intendancy of Concepción, whose jurisdiction extended from the Maule River to La Frontera. The first Intendant of Concepción was the Irishman Ambrose O'Higgins, Marquis of Osorno, who later became Royal Governor of Chile and Viceroy of Peru.

When the First National Government Board met in Santiago on September 18, 1810, citizens of Concepción joined up. Concepción was used as the point of entry by the Spanish Army in the attempt by the Viceroyalty of Peru to re-conquer Chile. Concepción politicians and soldiers became a significant political force in the newly independent country.

On January 1, 1818, Ambrose O'Higgins's son, Bernardo O'Higgins, proclaimed and took the oath of the Chilean War of Independence in the main square of Concepción, which since then has been known as "Plaza de la Independencia". On February 20, 1835, the town again was largely destroyed by an earthquake and had to be rebuilt.

As of 2010, Concepción is the second largest city of Chile. The Universidad de Concepción, founded in 1919, became the first secular private university in Chile. The neighboring harbor of Talcahuano is the site of the largest naval base in Chile.

27 February 2010 earthquake

The partially collapsed O'Higgins Tower Torre O'Higgins conce.jpg
The partially collapsed O'Higgins Tower

On February 27, 2010, an 8.8 magnitude earthquake struck the city of Concepción, killing more than 521 people and injuring thousands nationwide. Following the earthquake, geologists relying on global positioning satellite (GPS) data concluded that the city had been displaced roughly 3 meters (9.8 feet) to the west as a result of the event. [8] The tsunami that followed missed the city. [9]

After the 2010 Chile earthquake, a prison riot began in Concepción's El Manzano prison following a failed escape attempt by the internees. Different parts of the prison were set on fire and the riot was controlled only after the guards shot into the air and received help from military units. [10] As of 5 March 2010, a Peruvian field hospital has been deployed to the city. [11]

Seismology

Like most of Chilean territory, the Concepción region is seismically active, with much of Concepción destroyed by a violent earthquake in 1939. An earthquake in 1953 damaged 15% of the town's buildings. Another major earthquake in 1960 had a nearby epicenter. [FN 2]

On February 27, 2010, an earthquake of 8.8 magnitude struck at 35.846°S, 72.719°W, 115 km (71 mi) NNE of the city. The United States Geological Survey said the earthquake struck at 0334 GMT on Saturday at a depth of 35 km (22 mi). The effects were felt as far away as São Paulo, Brazil2,870 miles (4,620 km).

Education

Concepción is known as "the university city" [12] [13] thanks to the numerous universities within the urban agglomeration, [14] since one of the most important universities of the country were founded here, such as the Universidad de Concepción, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción and Universidad del Biobío. This city also has numerous headquarters for many other universities. In addition, this metropolis has a large educational offer, focused on institutes, centers of technical formation and the universities already mentioned above.

The campanile of the Universidad de Concepcion Campanil udec.jpg
The campanile of the Universidad de Concepción
Universidad Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion San andres ucsc.JPG
Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción
The Universidad San Sebastian, Concepcion headquarters, located at the Laguna Las Tres Pascualas Uss.jpg
The Universidad San Sebastián, Concepción headquarters, located at the Laguna Las Tres Pascualas
Universidad Santo Tomas, Concepcion headquarters, located in the Arturo Prat avenue Universidad Santo tomas concepcion.jpg
Universidad Santo Tomás, Concepción headquarters, located in the Arturo Prat avenue

Universities

The University Pencopolitana whose name was Pontificia Universidad Pencopolitana de La Concepción (Pontifical Pencopolitana University of The Conception) was an old university founded though a decree of the Bishop of Concepción, delivered to the administration of the Society of Jesus which functioned between the years 1724 and 1767. In May 24 of 1751 an earthquake followed by a tsunami, ravaged the city causing serious damage, including the destruction of the library of the University and all of its funds. As a product of the fury of the waters, a rich collection of texts of the governance of southern Chile were lost, which resulted in a disaster for the culture and collective memory of the city. Due to the natural disasters, it was decided to relocate the city to the called Valle de la Mocha, location where it is currently situated. Slowly the seminary was revived in the new location, in a period of decline in academic activity in Chilean monastic universities after the creation of the Universidad de San Felipe, yet some degrees continued to be granted before the Suppression of the Society of Jesus in 1767. The aforementioned University is considered to be the natural and legitimate predecessor of the Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción (UCSC), erected by the Archbishop of Concepción in 1991, from the Talcahuano Regional Headquarters of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.

The image of the Pontifical University of Concepción Pencopolitana, is still valid, for His Majesty King Juan Carlos I of Spain in his 1990 speech on the occasion of his inauguration as Doctor Honoris Causa in the University of Chile, in Santiago de Chile, said: "The work of the Pontifical University Pencopolitana should not be ignored, even before the creation of the University of San Felipe" (Juan Carlos's account fails to acknowledge the existence of San Felipe's predecessor, the Dominican Universidad de Santo Tomás de Aquino, from the sixteenth century in Santiago).

Meanwhile, the University of Chile allowed schools in the city to teach courses in law which allowed men to obtain a law degree. Among itsstudents was Henry Urrutia Manzano, who decades later became president of the Supreme Court of Chile.

The Universidad de Concepción was created in 1919 by a group of citizens including Enrique Molina Garmendia, its first rector.

Eventually the university began to receive state support, becoming part of the traditional universities, becoming one of three most important universities in the country, and the most importance at the regional level.

Traditional universities

Private universities

Professional institutes

Primary and secondary schools

The city has a French international school, the Lycée Français Charles de Gaulle and a German school, the Colegio Alemán de Concepción. [15]

Transportation

The city is served by Carriel Sur International Airport in Talcahuano.

Climate

The climate of Concepción is classified as Köppen Csb, with a dry summer nadir in February. The cool waters of the Pacific Ocean help to maintain mild temperatures throughout the year. Temperatures rarely exceed 30 °C (86 °F) or fall below 0 °C (32.0 °F). In the six-month period between May and October, the city receives approximately 83% of its total annual precipitation, which totals 1,130 mm (44 in). The wettest month since records began in 1912 was June 2000 with 565.7 millimetres (22.3 in), whilst all months from November to April have been rainless on occasions. [16] The maritime cooling brings much cooler temperatures than nearby inland areas on the same parallel in Argentina, where average summer highs match Concepción's all-time records. Summer temperatures for the 36 degrees latitude are rarely as cool as they are in Concepción, and on the Atlantic coast of Argentina, similar or hotter summer temperatures are found much further from the equator. However, this moderation is evident for the entire Chilean Pacific so is not unique for Concepción. Similar cool-summer mediterranean climate tendencies are found on the West Coast of North America on similar parallels, even though Concepción tends to have slightly wetter winters than San Francisco for example. Conversely, record winter nighttime temperatures in Concepcion are significantly more moderate than temperatures recorded on the Argentine Atlantic coast at the same latitude, where temperatures below −10 °C (14 °F) have occurred. [17]

Climate data for Concepción, Chile (Carriel Sur International Airport) 1981–2010, extremes 1966–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)34.1
(93.4)
33.2
(91.8)
30.9
(87.6)
27.2
(81.0)
25.8
(78.4)
22.0
(71.6)
21.7
(71.1)
25.0
(77.0)
28.8
(83.8)
27.6
(81.7)
32.5
(90.5)
33.4
(92.1)
34.1
(93.4)
Average high °C (°F)22.8
(73.0)
22.5
(72.5)
21.0
(69.8)
18.3
(64.9)
15.4
(59.7)
13.7
(56.7)
13.2
(55.8)
14.0
(57.2)
15.5
(59.9)
17.2
(63.0)
19.4
(66.9)
21.4
(70.5)
17.9
(64.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)16.5
(61.7)
15.9
(60.6)
14.5
(58.1)
12.3
(54.1)
10.7
(51.3)
9.5
(49.1)
8.8
(47.8)
9.3
(48.7)
10.2
(50.4)
11.9
(53.4)
13.8
(56.8)
15.6
(60.1)
12.4
(54.3)
Average low °C (°F)10.9
(51.6)
10.6
(51.1)
9.8
(49.6)
8.1
(46.6)
7.5
(45.5)
6.6
(43.9)
5.8
(42.4)
6.0
(42.8)
6.1
(43.0)
7.4
(45.3)
8.7
(47.7)
10.1
(50.2)
8.1
(46.6)
Record low °C (°F)0.9
(33.6)
3.6
(38.5)
1.6
(34.9)
−1.0
(30.2)
−2.1
(28.2)
−2.2
(28.0)
−3.8
(25.2)
−2.5
(27.5)
−1.4
(29.5)
−0.8
(30.6)
1.0
(33.8)
3.4
(38.1)
−3.8
(25.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)15.7
(0.62)
15.4
(0.61)
25.4
(1.00)
72.4
(2.85)
182.7
(7.19)
230.7
(9.08)
198.4
(7.81)
153.6
(6.05)
84.1
(3.31)
57.2
(2.25)
33.4
(1.31)
21.3
(0.84)
1,090.3
(42.93)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)2.62.63.77.614.516.115.313.510.27.64.83.5102.0
Average relative humidity (%)75778083878886858281787682
Mean monthly sunshine hours 334.8271.2248.0183.0136.4108.0133.3155.0192.0238.7282.0331.72,614.1
Mean daily sunshine hours 10.89.68.06.14.43.64.35.06.47.79.410.77.2
Source #1: Dirección Meteorológica de Chile (precipitation days and humidity 1970–2000) [18] [19] [20]
Source #2: Universidad de Chile (sunshine hours only) [21]

As might be expected for such a large urban area heavily dependent on wood-burning for heat and diesel for transport, the air in Concepción is the third-most polluted in Chile, after Santiago and Temuco. [22]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1970 161,006    
1982 267,891+4.33%
1992 326,784+2.01%
2002 216,061−4.05%
2006 225,158+1.04%
2012 229,684+0.33%
Source: 1970–1992, [23] 2002, [24] 2006–2012 [25]

According to data collected on 2002 in the Census of the National Institute of Statistics, the township has an area of 221.6 km2 (86 sq mi) and a population of 216,061 inhabitants, of whom 103,860 are men and 112,201 are women.

Conception is home to 11.61% of the total population of the region. 1.88% (4,058 persons) is for rural population and 98.12% (212,003) to urban population.

Between 1970 and 1982 there is a large increase in the population. One reason is the inclusion of San Pedro, segregated from the municipality of Coronel.

The Concepción commune population declined sharply because in 1996 it was divided, creating Chiguayante and San Pedro de la Paz. In these communes the population has grown quickly since they have become bedroom communities of Concepción, i.e. residential cities that do not have a center with many shops, such as Concepcion.

It is projected that by 2009 an estimated population of 227,768 inhabitants live in the commune. [6]

There is a significant percentage of foreign residents in the city, the most numerous are the Spanish, Italian and US expatriate communities. There are also smaller segments of German, French, British, Dutch, Greek, Portuguese, Croatian, Scandinavian, Arab and Australian descendants in a city settled by waves of immigration.

Cultural life

Fireworks in celebration for the arrival of 2007 in Concepcion Ano nuevo en Concepcion.jpg
Fireworks in celebration for the arrival of 2007 in Concepción

To an outsider, there may be confusion between the demonyms of the inhabitants of Concepción and the nearby city of Penco. Due to the previous location of Concepción being where Penco currently stands, inhabitants of Concepción are called penquistas while inhabitants of Penco are known as pencones.

Concepción is one of the most active cities in Chilean rock music and many famous rock groups in Chile started up in Concepción. Concepción has the second largest concentration of universities in Chile, and is home to three major universities. Concepción currently has four traditional universities:

Music

Concepción is considered to be the "capital of Chilean rock", since numerous bands of this genre have been founded in this city, such as the internationally recognized bands Los Tres and Los Bunkers, and the now missing Emociones Clandestinas and Santos Dumont, or heavier rock bands such as Machuca. Also, known musicians have declared that their first massive presentations have been in this city, as is the case of Los Prisioneros. [26]

Concepción is also known as "the university city", for the number of universities that exist and which also represent an alternative to various regions of Chile. This is why there is a feedback effect in Concepción, due to that the city is formed by many young adults coming from other places of Chile. This makes the city to be characterized by a youth culture such as music, art, social demands, etc.

Sports

Concepción is home of three professional football teams:

Basketball is also played at a high professional level. The most notable team is:

Economy

Concepcion is the second commercial nucleus of Chile. In the image, the Concepcion Central Market Mercado Central de Concepcion.jpg
Concepción is the second commercial nucleus of Chile. In the image, the Concepción Central Market

Historically characterized by a strong manufacturing industry, Concepción has also been a major center for distribution and services and the financial basis of the regional economy.

Commerce

Trade in the city is concentrated in the Plaza Independencia (Independence Square), the pedestrian street Alonso de Ercilla y Zúñiga (built in 1981), and along the major avenues. One such avenue is the Diego Barros Arana street which has developed into the commercial center of the city and the region was until 1907 even known as "calle Comercio" ("Commerce Street"). New commercial centers are being developed around the old central station and the new civic district as a part of the Chilean bicentennial (September 18, 2010). A considerable percentage of local trade is taking place in settlements around the city, in communes such as Hualpén, Talcahuano and San Pedro de la Paz, where there are bustling shopping centers, such as Mall Plaza del Trébol, and where there is a constant commercial development.

Other commercial spots, related to food, are the Vega Monumental and Mercado Central de Concepción (Central Market of Concepción) places offering various services and agricultural and livestock products.

Administration

As a commune, Concepción is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde who is directly elected every four years. The municipal building (alcaldía) is located at O'Higgins Nº 525 36°49′41.50″S73°03′04.93″W / 36.8281944°S 73.0513694°W / -36.8281944; -73.0513694 . [27] The 2016–2020 Mayor is Alvaro Ortiz Vera (Christian Democratic Party), who was first elected in 2012. The communal council has 10 seats, which are currently occupied (2016–2020) by three for Christian Democratic Party, two for National Renewal, two for Independent Democrat Union, one for Communist Party, one for Socialist Party, and one for Radical Party. The following members is: [1]

SeatsCouncillorParty
1Fabiola Troncoso AlvaradoChristian Democratic
2Yanina Contreras ÁlvarezNational Renewal
3Jaime Monjes FariasChristian Democratic
4Emilio Armstrong DelpinI.D.U.
5Christian Paulsen Espejo-PandoI.D.U.
6Joaquin Eguiluz HerreraNational Renewal
7Alex Iturra JaraCommunist
8Boris Negrete CanalesChristian Democratic
9Patricia Garcia MoraSocialist
10Ricardo Trostel ProvosteRadical

Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Concepción is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Gaston Saavedra (PS), José Miguel Ortiz (PDC), Jaime Toha (PS), Felix Gonzalez (PEV), Enrique Van Rysselberghe (UDI), Sergio Bobadilla (UDI), Francesca Muñoz (RN) and Leonidas Romero (RN), as part of the 21th electoral district (Concepción Province without Lota). The commune is represented in the Senate by Alejandro Navarro Brain (MAS) and Jacqueline Van Rysselberghe (UDI) as part of the 12th senatorial constituency (Biobío-Costa).

Notable citizens

Twin towns – sister cities

The following cities have sister city associations with Concepción.

See also

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References

Line notes

  1. I.S.W. Vernon, 1969
  2. J.M. Nickles, 1965

Citations

  1. 1 2 "Municipality of Concepción" (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  2. Quezada, Rojas; Alejandra, Carolina; Muñiz Olivera, Iván; García-López, Miguel Ángel (1 August 2009). "Estructura urbana y policentrismo en el Área Metropolitana de Concepción". 35 (105): 47–70. doi:10.4067/S0250-71612009000200003 via SciELO.
  3. "Concepción: la nueva capital de negocios del sur de Chile – soyconcepcion.cl". soychile.cl.
  4. "INE – Error 404" (PDF). www.ine.cl.
  5. Coronel.cl. "Hito Centro Geográfico de Chile Continental" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2013-12-15. Retrieved 20 January 2013. Playa Blanca (comuna de Coronel, corresponde a la representación del Centro Geográfico de Chile Continental. El Hito corresponde a una estructura monolítica de hormigón de tan solo 2,5 metros de altura, y posee una forma de flecha que indica la orientación Norte-Arica y Sur-Punta Arenas.
  6. 1 2 Según proyecciones del INE.
  7. Silva Galdames, Osvaldo (1983). "¿Detuvo la batalla del Maule la expansión inca hacia el sur de Chile?". Cuadernos de Historia (in Spanish). 3: 7–25. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
  8. CNN, "Chile quake moves city more than 10 feet", "9 March 2010" (accessed 10 March 2010)
  9. Time Magazine, "Quake Response Doesn't Live Up to Chile's Self-Image", Eben Harrell, 4 March 2010 (accessed 4 March 2010)
  10. El Mercurio, March 1. Cuerpo C, page C13
  11. UKPA, "Foreign hospitals help out Chile" [ dead link ], 6 March 2010 (accessed 6 March 2010)
  12. "Concepción". bblatinamerica.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-19.
  13. "Turismo en Concepción 2017: Vacaciones de verano en Concepción". welcomechile.com.
  14. www.universia.cl. "MAPA GEOGRAFICO DE LAS UNIVERSIDADES SOCIAS DE UNIVERSIA". universia.cl. Archived from the original on 2013-12-04. Retrieved 2013-01-16.
  15. https://www.dsc.cl/
  16. Climate explorer for Concepción
  17. Template:Servicio Meteorologico Nacional
  18. "Datos Normales y Promedios Históricos Promedios de 30 años o menos" (in Spanish). Dirección Meteorológica de Chile. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  19. "Temperatura Histórica de la Estación Carriel Sur, Concepción. (360019)" (in Spanish). Dirección Meteorológica de Chile. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  20. "Estadistica Climatologica Tomo II" (PDF) (in Spanish). Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil. March 2001. pp. 89–161. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 17, 2014.
  21. "Tabla 4.6: Medias mensuales de horas de sol diarias extraídas del WRDC ruso (en (hrs./dia))" (PDF). Elementos Para La Creación de Un Manual de Buenas Prácticas Para Instalaciones Solares Térmicas Domiciliarias (in Spanish). Universidad de Chile. September 2007. p. 81. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
  22. Severe air pollution plagues Chilean cities Friday, June 29th 2007 – 21:00 UTC
  23. According to Last 5 census, the INE
  24. According to Census 2002, operated by the INE. Note that the agency's projections indicate that 2006 the estimated population of 225,158 inhabitants.
  25. Projections by the INE.
  26. Nuestro.cl. "El sorprendente sonido penquista" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  27. "Government of Chile: SUBDERE – Alcaldes and Councilors" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2007-01-18. Retrieved 18 September 2010.