La Concepción de María Purísima
del Nuevo Extremo (original name)
Collage of some Concepción landmarks, Top: Skyline; Upper left: University of Concepción; Upper right: Store in downtown; Middle left: Ecuador Park; Middle center: General Bonilla/Alonso de Ribera freeway; Middle right: University of Concepción bell tower; Lower left: Lautaro statue on Plaza de la Independencia (Independence Square); Lower center: Las Tres Pascualas lake with San Sebastián University in the background; Bottom center: Court of Appeals; Bottom right: Train belonging to Biotrén, Concepción metro area's suburban rail.
Biobío's Pearl, The University City, The cradle of Chilean rock
La Capital del Sur de Chile
The Capital of Southern Chile
|Coordinates(Alcalde's office): Coordinates:|
|Founded||October 5, 1550|
|Founded by||Pedro de Valdivia|
|• Alcalde||Álvaro Ortiz (DC)|
|• City and Commune||222 km2 (86 sq mi)|
|Elevation||12 m (39 ft)|
|• City and Commune||223,574|
|• Density||1,318/km2 (3,410/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC−4 (CLT)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−3 (CLST)|
|Telephone prefix||56 + 41|
Concepción (Spanish pronunciation: [kon.sepˈsjon] ( listen ); in full: Concepción de la Madre Santísima de la Luz, "Conception of the Blessed Mother of Light") is a city and commune in central Chile, and the geographical and demographic core of the Greater Concepción metropolitan area, one of the three major conurbations in the country. It has a significant impact on domestic trade being part of the most heavily industrialized region in the country. It is the seat of the Concepción Province and capital of the Bío Bío Region. It sits about 500 km south of the nation's capital, Santiago.
The city was first settled in the Bay of Concepción, in the zone that would later become the commune of Penco, now part of the Concepción conurbation. The city's demonym, «penquista», comes from the place of its original foundation. The city center and historic district is located in the Valle de la Mocha (La Mocha Valley), where it relocated after serious damages left by an earthquake.
The origin of Concepción dates back to 1550, when it was founded by Pedro de Valdivia as part of the Spanish Empire, under the name of Concepción de María Purísima del Nuevo Extremo, and was the capital of the Kingdom of Chile between 1565 and 1573, holding the position of military and political center of the kingdom for the rest of the Chilean colonial period. The city was an important stage for the process of independence of Chile, with lawyer Juan Martínez de Rozas as a key figure. The solemn declaration on the Chilean liberation from the Spanish rule took place at the Plaza de la Independencia.
The city has a "college town" reputation,since it is home to numerous educational institutions, including the University of Concepción, the University of the Bío Bío, and the Catholic University of the Most Holy Conception. The commune also contains various historical bridges, murals, parks and lakes, as well as important cultural venues such as the Teatro Biobío, the Casa del Arte , the local Natural History Museum, and the Teatro Universidad de Concepción. As part of its touristic offer, it also highlights a variety of bars and entertainment venues that provide an active nightlife to the city.
Concepción was founded by Don Pedro de Valdiviain 1550 north of the Bío Bío River, at the site which is today known as Penco. At that time it was given the name Concepción de María Purísima del Nuevo Extremo (Mary Immaculate Conception of the New End). The new settlement of Concepción was just a few kilometers north of La Frontera (The Frontier), the boundary between Spanish territory and the land of the Mapuche, an American Indian ethnic group that remained independent until the 1870s. The settlement was formally recognized by the Spanish authorities as a town two years later by a royal decree. It was given a coat-of-arms that is still in use today.
At the time of the Spanish arrival to the Concepción area chronicler Jerónimo de Vivar noted local Mapuches wore gold and silver bracelets and "sort of crowns". This is interpreted either as Incan gifts, war spoils from defeated Incas, or adoption of Incan metallurgy.
Although Concepción was a significant military settlement for the Captaincy General of Chile, it was overrun and destroyed by Mapuche armies in 1554, and once again after being refounded in 1555. Concepción was restored during the governorship of García Hurtado de Mendoza when he landed there and built a fort on the Alto de Pinto in 1557. The town was refounded once more on January 6, 1558, by captain Jerónimo de Villegas. It became the headquarters of the military forces engaged against the Mapuche in La Araucanía over the next two centuries, growing to a population of 10,000 despite a siege in 1564 and other attacks by the Mapuche. Concepción was the home of the Real Audiencia from 1565 to 1575.
Earthquakes and tsunamis, which razed the town in 1570, 1657, 1687, 1730 and 1751, led the authorities to move the town to its current site in the Valle de la Mocha, alongside the Bío Bío River; the old site lay empty until March 29, 1842, when the present town of Penco was founded.
The new site for the town of Concepción became the main town of the Intendancy of Concepción, whose jurisdiction extended from the Maule River to La Frontera. The first Intendant of Concepción was the Irishman Ambrose O'Higgins, Marquis of Osorno, who later became Royal Governor of Chile and Viceroy of Peru.
When the First National Government Board met in Santiago on September 18, 1810, citizens of Concepción joined up. Concepción was used as the point of entry by the Spanish Army in the attempt by the Viceroyalty of Peru to re-conquer Chile. Concepción politicians and soldiers became a significant political force in the newly independent country.
On January 1, 1818, Ambrose O'Higgins's son, Bernardo O'Higgins, proclaimed and took the oath of the Chilean War of Independence in the main square of Concepción, which since then has been known as "Plaza de la Independencia". On February 20, 1835, the town again was largely destroyed by an earthquake and had to be rebuilt.
By 1875, a key British community and German colony existed within the province. By 1895, there was an even larger Spanish presence.
The Universidad de Concepción, founded in 1919, became the first secular private university in Chile. The neighboring harbor of Talcahuano is the site of the largest naval base in Chile.
On February 27, 2010, an 8.8 magnitude earthquake struck the city of Concepción, killing more than 521 people and injuring thousands nationwide. Following the earthquake, geologists relying on global positioning satellite (GPS) data concluded that the city had been displaced roughly 3 meters (9.8 feet) to the west as a result of the event. The tsunami that followed missed the city.
After the 2010 Chile earthquake, a prison riot began in Concepción's El Manzano prison following a failed escape attempt by the inmates. Different parts of the prison were set on fire and the riot was controlled only after the guards shot into the air and received help from military units.As of March 5, 2010, a Peruvian field hospital has been deployed to the city.
Like most of Chilean territory, the Concepción region is seismically active, with much of Concepción destroyed by a violent earthquake in 1939. An earthquake in 1953 damaged 15% of the town's buildings. Another major earthquake in 1960 had a nearby epicenter.
On February 27, 2010, an earthquake of 8.8 magnitude struck at 35.846°S, 72.719°W, 115 km (71 mi) NNE of the city. The United States Geological Survey said the earthquake struck at 0334 GMT on Saturday at a depth of 35 km (22 mi). The effects were felt as far away as São Paulo, Brazil—2,870 miles (4,620 km).
Concepción is known as "the university city"thanks to the numerous universities within the urban agglomeration, since one of the most important universities of the country were founded here, such as the Universidad de Concepción, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción and Universidad del Biobío. This city also has numerous headquarters for many other universities. In addition, this metropolis has a large educational offer, focused on institutes, centers of technical formation and the universities aforementioned.
The University Pencopolitana whose name was Pontificia Universidad Pencopolitana de La Concepción (Pontifical Pencopolitana University of The Conception) was an old university founded though a decree of the Bishop of Concepción, delivered to the administration of the Society of Jesus which functioned between the years 1724 and 1767. On May 24, 1751, an earthquake followed by a tsunami, ravaged the city causing serious damage, including the destruction of the library of the University and all of its funds. As a product of the fury of the waters, a rich collection of texts of the governance of southern Chile were lost, which resulted in a disaster for the culture and collective memory of the city. Due to the natural disasters, it was decided to relocate the city to the called Valle de la Mocha, location where it is currently situated. Slowly the seminary was revived in the new location, in a period of decline in academic activity in Chilean monastic universities after the creation of the Universidad de San Felipe, yet some degrees continued to be granted before the Suppression of the Society of Jesus in 1767. The aforementioned University is considered to be the natural and legitimate predecessor of the Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción (UCSC), erected by the Archbishop of Concepción in 1991, from the Talcahuano Regional Headquarters of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.
The image of the Pontifical University of Concepción Pencopolitana, is still valid, for His Majesty King Juan Carlos I of Spain in his 1990 speech on the occasion of his inauguration as Doctor Honoris Causa in the University of Chile, in Santiago de Chile, said: "The work of the Pontifical University Pencopolitana should not be ignored, even before the creation of the University of San Felipe" (Juan Carlos's account fails to acknowledge the existence of San Felipe's predecessor, the Dominican Universidad de Santo Tomás de Aquino, from the sixteenth century in Santiago).
Meanwhile, the University of Chile allowed schools in the city to teach courses in law which allowed men to obtain a law degree. Among its students was Henry Urrutia Manzano, who decades later became president of the Supreme Court of Chile.
The Universidad de Concepción was created in 1919 by a group of citizens including Enrique Molina Garmendia, its first rector.
Eventually the university began to receive state support, becoming part of the traditional universities, becoming one of three most important universities in the country, and the most importance at the regional level.
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The city has a French international school, the Lycée Français Charles de Gaulle and a German school, the Colegio Alemán de Concepción and a British school, Saint John's School, the former located in the city downtown and the latter examples in San Pedro de la Paz.
The city is served by Carriel Sur International Airport in Talcahuano. The metro area's public transportation comprises a number of bus lines which run through several avenues and streets of the communes belonging to the agglomeration, as well as the commuter rail system known as Biotrén.
The climate of Concepción is classified as Köppen Csb , with a dry summer in February. The cool waters of the Pacific Ocean help to maintain mild temperatures throughout the year. Temperatures rarely exceed 30 °C (86 °F) or fall below 0 °C (32.0 °F). In the six-month period between May and October, the city receives approximately 83% of its total annual precipitation, which totals 1,130 mm (44 in). The wettest month since records began in 1912 was June 2000 with 565.7 millimetres (22.3 in), whilst all months from November to April have been rainless on occasions. The maritime cooling brings much cooler temperatures than nearby inland areas on the same parallel in Argentina, where average summer highs match Concepción's all-time records. Summer temperatures for the 36 degrees latitude are rarely as cool as they are in Concepción, and on the Atlantic coast of Argentina, similar or hotter summer temperatures are found much further from the equator. However, this moderation is evident for the entire Chilean Pacific so is not unique for Concepción. Similar cool-summer mediterranean climate tendencies are found on the West Coast of North America on similar parallels, even though Concepción tends to have slightly wetter winters than San Francisco for example. Conversely, record winter nighttime temperatures in Concepcion are significantly more moderate than temperatures recorded on the Argentine Atlantic coast at the same latitude, where temperatures below −10 °C (14 °F) have occurred.
|Climate data for Concepción, Chile (Carriel Sur International Airport) 1981–2010, extremes 1966–present|
|Record high °C (°F)||34.1|
|Average high °C (°F)||22.8|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||16.5|
|Average low °C (°F)||10.9|
|Record low °C (°F)||0.9|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||15.7|
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||2.6||2.6||3.7||7.6||14.5||16.1||15.3||13.5||10.2||7.6||4.8||3.5||102.0|
|Average relative humidity (%)||75||77||80||83||87||88||86||85||82||81||78||76||82|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||341||278||255||191||133||114||129||162||197||254||296||331||2,681|
|Source 1: Dirección Meteorológica de Chile (precipitation days and humidity 1970–2000)|
|Source 2: Ogimet (sun 1981–2010)|
As might be expected for such a large urban area heavily dependent on wood-burning for heat and diesel for transport, the air in Concepción is the third-most polluted in Chile, after Santiago and Temuco.
|Source: 1970–1992, 2002, 2017|
According to data collected on 2002 in the Census of the National Institute of Statistics, the township has an area of 221.6 km2 (86 sq mi) and a population of 216,061 inhabitants, of whom 103,860 are men and 112,201 are women.
As a commune, Concepcion is home to 14.35% of the total population of the region. 1.88% (4,058 persons) is for rural population and 98.12% (212,003) to urban population. Moreover, 5.5% of the country's population lives in the Greater Concepción metro area.
Between 1970 and 1982 there is a large increase in the population. One reason is the inclusion of San Pedro, segregated from the municipality of Coronel.
The Concepción commune population sharply declined in 1996 as its territory was divided, creating Chiguayante and San Pedro de la Paz. The number of people living in these communes has grown quickly since they have become bedroom communities of Concepción, i.e. residential cities that do not have a center with many shops, as is the case of Concepcion.
There is a significant percentage of foreign residents in the city, the most numerous are the Spanish, Italian and US expatriate communities. There are also smaller segments of German, French, British, Dutch, Greek, Portuguese, Croatian, Scandinavian, Arab and Australian descendants in a city settled by waves of immigration.
To an outsider, there may be confusion between the demonyms of the inhabitants of Concepción and the nearby city of Penco. Due to the previous location of Concepción being where Penco currently stands, inhabitants of Concepción are called penquistas while inhabitants of Penco are known as pencones. Additionally, the unofficial term pencopolitano has been coined to refer to locals of any commune belonging to the metropolis or, in a wider definition, to the Concepción province, although the term penquista can technically be used in this case as well.
In 2014, the Rock en Conce festival began to take shape. It would be held outdoors, in the city's Parque Bicentenario (Bicentennial Park), and access to it would be free. The aim of the festival would be to restore the musical spotlight that the city embodied and that earned it the reputation of being the cradle of Chilean rock and, at the same time, to establish itself as a major tourist attraction for the city.Its first edition took place on Saturday, March 7, 2015, and since then it has been held with great success every year at the end of each summer, bringing together emerging local bands with major and renowned artists from the national and international scene.
Concepción has been described as the "Chilean capital of rock",since numerous bands of this genre have started their careers in the city, such as Los Tres, Los Bunkers, Emociones Clandestinas, Santos Dumont, De Saloon, Machuca and Julius Popper, among others. Numerous bands have played their first major concerts in the city, such as Los Prisioneros.
The city's music venues are a main feature of the tourist route, La Ruta de la Música, a project driven by the National Service of Tourism (SERNATUR), where besides the rock scene, the local jazz and folk scenes are also shown.
Concepción was one of the host cities of the official 1959 Basketball World Cup, where Chile won the bronze medal.
Today, Concepción is home of three professional football teams:
The most notable professional basketballteam is:
Historically characterized by a strong manufacturing industry, Concepción has also been a major center for distribution and services and the financial basis of the regional economy.
Trade in the city is concentrated in the Plaza Independencia (Independence Square), the pedestrian street Alonso de Ercilla y Zúñiga (built in 1981), and along the major avenues. One such avenue is the Diego Barros Arana street which has developed into the commercial center of the city and the region was until 1907 even known as "calle Comercio" ("Commerce Street"). New commercial centers are being developed around the old central station and the new civic district as a part of the Chilean bicentennial (September 18, 2010). A considerable percentage of local trade is taking place in settlements around the city, in communes such as Hualpén, Talcahuano and San Pedro de la Paz, where there are bustling shopping centers, such as Mall Plaza del Trébol, and where there is a constant commercial development.
Other commercial spots, related to food, are the Vega Monumental and Mercado Central de Concepción (Central Market of Concepción) places offering various services and agricultural and livestock products.
As a commune, Concepción is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde who is directly elected every four years. The 2016–2020 mayor is Alvaro Ortiz Vera (Christian Democratic Party), who was first elected in 2012. The communal council has 10 seats, which are currently occupied (2016–2020) by three for Christian Democratic Party, two for National Renewal, two for Independent Democrat Union, one for Communist Party, one for Socialist Party, and one for Radical Party. The following members are:
|1||Fabiola Troncoso Alvarado||Christian Democratic|
|2||Yanina Contreras Álvarez||National Renewal|
|3||Jaime Monjes Farias||Christian Democratic|
|4||Emilio Armstrong Delpin||I.D.U.|
|5||Christian Paulsen Espejo-Pando||I.D.U.|
|6||Joaquin Eguiluz Herrera||National Renewal|
|7||Alex Iturra Jara||Communist|
|8||Boris Negrete Canales||Christian Democratic|
|9||Patricia Garcia Mora||Socialist|
|10||Ricardo Trostel Provoste||Radical|
Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Concepción is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Gaston Saavedra (PS), José Miguel Ortiz (PDC), Jaime Toha (PS), Felix Gonzalez (PEV), Enrique Van Rysselberghe (UDI), Sergio Bobadilla (UDI), Francesca Muñoz (RN) and Leonidas Romero (RN), as part of the 21st electoral district (Concepción Province without Lota). The commune is represented in the Senate by Alejandro Navarro Brain (MAS) and Jacqueline Van Rysselberghe (UDI) as part of the 12th senatorial constituency (Biobío-Costa).
Concepción's sister cities are:
The Biobío Region, is one of Chile's sixteen regions. With a population of 1.5 million, thus being the third most populated region in Chile, it is divided into three provinces: Arauco, Biobío and Concepción. The latter contains its capital and largest city, Concepción, a major city and metro area in the country. Los Ángeles, capital of the Biobío Province, is another important city in the region.
Talcahuano is a port city and commune in the Biobío Region of Chile. It is part of the Greater Concepción conurbation. Talcahuano is located in the south of the Central Zone of Chile.
Cañete is a city and commune in Chile, located in the Arauco Province of the Biobío Region. It is located 135 km to the south of Concepción. Cañete is known as a "Historic City" as it is one of the oldest cities in country. The Battle of Tucapel and Pedro de Valdivia's death happened near the city's current location. Cañete was also an important location in the Arauco War.
The Arauco War was a long-running conflict between colonial Spaniards and the Mapuche people, mostly fought in the Araucanía. The conflict begun at first as a reaction to the Spanish conquerors attempting to establish cities and force Mapuches into servitude. It subsequently evolved over time into phases comprising drawn-out sieges, slave-hunting expeditions, pillaging raids, punitive expeditions, and renewed Spanish attempts to secure lost territories. Abduction of women and war rape was common on both sides.
Coronel is a Chilean city and commune, located in the Concepción Province of the eighth region of Bio Bío.
Penco (Mapudungun: "See Water, is a Chilean city and commune in Concepción Province, Bío Bío Region on the Bay of Concepción. Founded as the city of Concepción del Nuevo Extremo on February 12, 1550 by Pedro de Valdivia, it is the third oldest city in Chile, after capital Santiago founded first in 1541 and La Serena second in 1544.
Gran Concepción is the third largest conurbation in Chile, after Greater Santiago and Greater Valparaíso, with 945,650 inhabitants according to the 2012 pre census.
The Destruction of the Seven Cities is a term used in Chilean historiography to refer to the destruction or abandonment of seven major Spanish outposts in southern Chile around 1600 caused by the Mapuche and Huilliche uprising of 1598. The Destruction of the Seven Cities is in traditional historiography the defining event that marks the end of the Conquest period and the beginning of the proper colonial period.
The battle of Andalien, fought in early February 1550, was a night battle between 20,000 Mapuche under the command of their Toqui Ainavillo and Pedro de Valdivia's army of 200 Spanish soldiers and cavalry with a large number of yanakuna, including 300 Mapochoes auxiliaries under their leader Michimalonco.
Battle of Quilacura was a battle in the Arauco War, fought at night, four leagues from the Bio-Bio River, between the Spanish expedition of Pedro de Valdivia and a force of Mapuche warriors led by Malloquete on February 11, 1546.
The Battle of Penco, on March 12, 1550 was a battle between 60,000 Mapuche under the command of their toqui Ainavillo with his Araucan and Tucapel allies and Pedro de Valdivia's 200 Spaniards on horse and afoot with many yanakuna including 300 Mapochoes auxiliaries under their leader Michimalonco, defending their newly raised fort at Penco. It was part of a war.
Chile can be considered astronomy's world capital. In 2011, Chile was home to 42% of the world's astronomical infrastructure consisting mostly of telescopes. In 2015 it expected to contain around 70% of the global infrastructure by 2020. In the Atacama desert region of northern Chile, the skies are exceptionally clear and dry for more than 300 days a year. These conditions have attracted the world's scientific community to develop in the Atacama desert the most ambitious astronomical projects in the history of mankind.
Santa Juana is a city and commune of the Concepción Province in the Bío Bío Region of Chile. It lies south and west of the Biobío River in the valley of Catirai and is 48 kilometers from Concepción, Chile.
During the Siege of Concepcion of the Arauco War, 20,000 warriors of the army of the Mapuche laid siege to the Spanish garrison and civil population in the fortress of Concepcion, Chile.
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the Republic of Chile.
The Confederation of Chilean Students is a student organization in Chile that congregates the student federations of universities in Chile.
The 2011 Torneo Apertura or LXXXVIII Campeonato Nacional de Fútbol Profesional de la Primera División de Chile was the 88th season of Chilean Primera División.
The 2011 Torneo Clausura or LXXXIX Campeonato Nacional de Fútbol Profesional de la Primera División de Chile was the 89th season of the Chilean Primera División. The champions was Universidad de Chile which won its 15th league title after beating Cobreloa in the finals.
José Hipólito Salas y Toro was a Chilean Catholic priest and theologian. He served as bishop of Concepción between 1854 and 1883.
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