Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques

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Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques
World Underwater Federation
Confederacion Mundial De Actividades Subacuaticas
Confederation Mondiale des Activites Subaquatiques logo.svg
CMAS Logo
AbbreviationCMAS
MottoQuality in Diving
Predecessor CIPS, Comité des Sports Sous-Marins
FormationJanuary 11, 1959;60 years ago (1959-01-11) at Monaco
Type
PurposeUnderwater sports & sciences, and diver training
Headquarters Rome, Italy
Location
  • Viale Tiziano, 74 00196 Roma Italy
Region served
International
Membership
National Federations
Official language
French, English, Spanish
LeaderAnna Arzhanova
Key people
Jacques-Yves Cousteau
Main organ
General assembly
Affiliations
Staff
5
Website www.cmas.org

Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques (CMAS) is an international federation that represents underwater activities in underwater sport and underwater sciences, and oversees an international system of recreational snorkel and scuba diver training and recognition. It is also known by its English name, the World Underwater Federation, and its Spanish name, Confederacion Mundial De Actividades Subacuaticas. Its foundation in Monaco during January 1959 makes it one of the world's oldest underwater diving organisations. [1]

Underwater sports is a group of competitive sports using one or a combination of the following underwater diving techniques - breath-hold, snorkelling or scuba including the use of equipment such as diving masks and fins. These sports are conducted in the natural environment at sites such as open water and sheltered or confined water such as lakes and in artificial aquatic environments such as swimming pools. Underwater sports include the following - aquathlon, finswimming, freediving, spearfishing, sport diving, underwater football, underwater hockey, underwater ice hockey, underwater orienteering, underwater photography, underwater rugby, underwater target shooting and underwater video.

Scuba diving Using bottled air to swim underwater

Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba), which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater. Scuba divers carry their own source of breathing gas, usually compressed air, allowing them greater independence and freedom of movement than surface-supplied divers, and longer underwater endurance than breath-hold divers. Although the use of compressed air is common, a new mixture called enriched air (Nitrox) has been gaining popularity due to its benefit of reduced nitrogen intake during repetitive dives. Open circuit scuba systems discharge the breathing gas into the environment as it is exhaled, and consist of one or more diving cylinders containing breathing gas at high pressure which is supplied to the diver through a regulator. They may include additional cylinders for range extension, decompression gas or emergency breathing gas. Closed-circuit or semi-closed circuit rebreather scuba systems allow recycling of exhaled gases. The volume of gas used is reduced compared to that of open circuit, so a smaller cylinder or cylinders may be used for an equivalent dive duration. Rebreathers extend the time spent underwater compared to open circuit for the same gas consumption; they produce fewer bubbles and less noise than open circuit scuba which makes them attractive to covert military divers to avoid detection, scientific divers to avoid disturbing marine animals, and media divers to avoid bubble interference.

Monaco Country in Europe

Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state, country, and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea. Monaco is about 15 km (9.3 mi) from the state border with Italy.

Contents

Origins

An international congress of diving federations representing all underwater disciplines met in Brussels on 28 September 1958. National delegates attended from following countries: Belgium, Brazil, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Italy, Monaco, Portugal, Switzerland, the United States of America and the former Yugoslavia. Following a decision at that congress, a meeting was held in Monaco on 9–11 January 1959, which officially established the World Underwater Federation, with an acronym based on its French title as CMAS. [2]

Brussels Capital region of Belgium

Brussels, officially the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region. Brussels is the most densely populated and the richest region in Belgium in terms of GDP per capita. It covers 161 km2 (62 sq mi), a relatively small area compared to the two other regions, and has a population of 1.2 million. The metropolitan area of Brussels counts over 2.1 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium. It is also part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp, Leuven and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people.

Yugoslavia 1918–1992 country in Southeastern and Central Europe

Yugoslavia was a country in Southeastern and Central Europe for most of the 20th century. It came into existence after World War I in 1918 under the name of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs with the Kingdom of Serbia, and constituted the first union of the South Slavic people as a sovereign state, following centuries in which the region had been part of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary. Peter I of Serbia was its first sovereign. The kingdom gained international recognition on 13 July 1922 at the Conference of Ambassadors in Paris. The official name of the state was changed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929.

A founding member and key proponent of CMAS was the French underwater explorer and diving pioneer Jacques-Yves Cousteau who was chosen to be the inaugural president with Luigi Ferraro, Italian underwater pioneer, appointed as vice-president. [3]

CMAS succeeded the Comité des Sports Sous-Marins (Underwater Sports Committee) of the Confédération Internationale de la Pêche Sportive (CIPS) (International Confederation of Sport Fishing), which was founded on 22 February 1952. [2] [3]

Confédération Internationale de la Pêche Sportive (CIPS) which was founded in 1952 is the international sport federation representing a number of international federations concerned with angling sports that are carried out in fresh or seawater environments, fly fishing and with casting sport.

Organisation

CMAS consists of three major committees - sport, technical and scientific. [4] [5] [6] These committees are overseen by a board of directors (BoD) elected periodically at the annually convened general assembly. The BoD, the sport committee and the scientific committee oversee sub-committees known as commissions. Day-to-day operation is overseen by a steering committee appointed from the BoD. Its headquarters is currently located in Rome.

Rome Capital of Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

The steering committee

The steering committee consists of seven members. As of 2013, the members were: [7]

  • President - Anna Arzhanova (Russia)
  • Secretary general - Hassen Baccouche (Tunisia)
  • Vice president - Xavier Duran Soler (Spain)
  • President sports committee - Ilias Xiarchos (Greece)
  • President technical committee - Jean Rondia (Belgium)
  • President scientific committee - Ralph Schill (Germany)
  • Treasurer - Alain Germain (France)

Sport committee

The sports committee consists of commissions representing the following underwater sports - apnoea, aquathlon, finswimming, spearfishing, sport diving, underwater hockey, underwater orienteering, underwater rugby and underwater target shooting. [8] [9] [10] [11] An additional commission known as "visual" represents the sports of underwater photography and underwater video. [12] All of those sports are governed at the international level uniquely by CMAS with exception of apnoea in which competition and governance is also provided by a rival organisation, AIDA International. [13]

Technical committee

Role

The role of the technical committee is the provision of "safe diving for CMAS members" and seeks to achieve this by "promoting world class standards for all aspects of Scuba Diving and ensuring adherence of them by member federations and dive providers". [14] Its officers who are elected from persons nominated at the CMAS General Assembly by affiliated national diving federations include the following positions - president, secretary, standards director, education director, technical director, diving security director, special tasks director and a number of general members. It oversees the two following systems - a diver training standards system known as the "CMAS International Diver Training Standards" and a certification system known as "CMAS International Diver Certificates". [14] [15]

Since CMAS effectively started as a volunteer organisation for hobbyists, its courses tend to reflect the full range of European and world diving standards. Compared to other diving organisations which may be more geared towards holiday and tropical water diving. While organisations like PADI or SSI tend to bring divers into the water immediately, CMAS entry-level training is more extensive, featuring more "classroom" delivered theory. [16]

Qualifications

Standards, certification and training delivery

The CMAS training system. CMAS-Ausbildung.svg
The CMAS training system.

The CMAS Technical Committee has developed a qualification system currently known as the "CMAS International Diver Training Standards" which consists of published universal standards for recreational diving, technical diving and leadership diver grades. [17]

The CMAS Technical Committee has also developed a diving certification system called the "CMAS International Diver Training Certification System" for most of its diver training standards and which permits divers that have been trained in accordance with the CMAS International Diver Training Standards, to have their training recognised worldwide particularly in countries where CMAS affiliated federations exist. The system includes a double sided certification card format where one side depicts the achieved CMAS standard while the other side has details of the issuing organisation and the diver. [15] [18]

CMAS itself does not provide training or conduct the issuing of certifications - this is available from two sources. Firstly, from national diving federations affiliated to the CMAS Technical Committee using their member diving clubs, their member instructors where the federation is exclusively an instructor organisation or by agreement with independent underwater diving training organizations operating in the countries where those federations are based. [19] [20] [21] Secondly, from specially accredited dive centres known as "CMAS Dive Centers" (CDC) who use dedicated CMAS training materials. [22]

Recreational diver training programmes

CMAS four-star diver certification card CMAS 4-star diver certification card PC160019.jpg
CMAS four-star diver certification card

Standards are offered for recreational diver training for the following grades of scuba and snorkel divers. [17]

  • Introductory SCUBA Experience - "this training programme aims at providing interested persons with an introductory diving experience, to a maximum depth of ten (10) metres under the direct supervision of a CMAS Instructor, whilst using air as a breathing gas, in a safe manner." [23]
  • One Star Diver - "a diver who is competent in the safe and correct use of all appropriate open water scuba diving equipment in a sheltered water training area and is ready to gain open water diving experience in the company of an experienced diver." [24]
  • Two Star Diver - "a diver who has gained some open water diving experience and is considered ready to take part in dives partnered by a diver of at least the same or a higher grade. The two-star diver may dive with a One Star Diver in sheltered shallow water." [24]
  • Three Star Diver - "a fully trained, experienced, senior diver who is considered competent to supervise other divers of any grade in open water and support an instructor in the pool and open water training." [24]
  • Four Star Diver - "a three-star diver who has attained a higher than average level of knowledge and ability supported by broad diving experience. They are able to assist in the training of One Star Divers and be competent to lead divers in order to accomplish major diving tasks or project objectives." [24]

Snorkelling

  • One Star Snorkel Diver - "a snorkel diver who is competent in the safe and correct use of relevant snorkel diving equipment used in a swimming pool or sheltered water. The snorkel diver is familiar with relevant personal equipment and its use in a sheltered open water area. The snorkel diver is ready to gain further open water training." [25]
  • Two Star Snorkel Diver - "a snorkel diver who has gained some open water diving experience. The snorkel diver is considered ready to take part in dives with other snorkel divers, under supervision if a minor. The CMAS 2 star snorkel diver is considered trained." [25]
  • Three Star Snorkel Diver - "A fully trained snorkel diver who has gained considerable experience in open water snorkel diving under various conditions. The three-star snorkel diver has acquired life-saving skills and can lead snorkel divers in open water dives." [25]

Speciality diver training programmes

Standards are provided for the following speciality training for recreational divers: [17]

Technical diver training programmes

Standards are provided for the following technical diver training grades: [17]

Leadership diver training programmes

Standards are provided for the training of the following grades of recreational snorkel and scuba instructors: [17]

  • One Star Snorkel Diver Instructor - "a CMAS 2 star snorkel diver who is interested in and has knowledge of practical snorkel diver instruction. The instructor is qualified to conduct practical lessons in a swimming pool and to teach the CMAS 1 star snorkel diver certificate. The instructor can be used as an assistant instructor in open water, but cannot plan an open water dive and lead a group of divers on his own." [25]
  • Two Star Snorkel Diver Instructor - "an experienced one-star snorkel diver instructor who has the knowledge, skills, and experience required to lead and instruct 1, 2 and 3 Star snorkel diver students in the classroom, swimming pool, and open water. The experienced CMAS 2 Star snorkel diver instructor may assist in the training and education of CMAS 1 Star snorkel diver instructors." [25]
  • One Star Instructor - "a three- or four-star diver who has demonstrated a knowledge of the techniques of diving instruction and has proven, under evaluation, to be competent in practical instructional skills and diving safety procedures: They are qualified to train and certify novice diving students in a full CMAS One-Star Diver scuba program." [24]
  • Two Star Instructor - "an experienced one-star instructor who has the knowledge, skills, and experience required to teach groups of divers in the classroom, pool, and in open water, and to train qualified dive supervisors, assistant instructors and assist in the training & evaluation of One-Star Instructors. They are qualified to teach and certify all CMAS diver levels including snorkel instructor levels." [24]
  • Three Star Instructor - "a highly experienced two-star instructor who is competent to train all grades of divers and instructors and able to take responsibility for instructor certification programs and the conduct of diving schools/centres and specialised training courses or events." [24]

Instructor speciality grades

Standards are provided for speciality training of assistants, dive supervisors, snorkel instructors and scuba instructors: [17]

  • Apnoea Instructor
  • Instructors Assistant for Disabled Divers
  • Instructor for Disabled Divers
  • Instructor Trainer for Disabled Divers
  • Nitrox Instructor
  • Advanced Nitrox Instructor
  • Nitrox Instructor Three Star
  • Ice Diver Instructor
  • Trimix Instructor
  • Advanced Trimix Instructor
  • Nitrox Gas Blender Instructor
  • Trimix Gas Blender Instructor
  • Cave Diving Instructor I (Cavern Diving Instructor)
  • Cave Diving Instructor II (Full Cave Diving Instructor)
  • Cave Diving Instructor III (Cave Diving Staff Instructor)
  • Recreational Scooter Assistant
  • Technical Scooter Assistant
  • Overhead Environment Scooter Assistant
  • Recreational Scooter Instructor
  • Technical Scooter Instructor
  • Overhead Environment Scooter Instructor
  • Semi-Closed Rebreather Instructor
  • Advanced Semi-Closed Rebreather
  • Closed Circuit Rebreather Instructor
  • Children Diving Dive Leader
  • Children Diving Instructor
  • Children Diving Instructor Trainer

Scientific committee

Role

The committee considers its main task is to bring to the attention of the world underwater diving community, the important issues concerning the marine environment and how divers can play a major role in protecting it by serving as frontline observers of its overall health, particularly in respect to invasive species, coastal ecosystems and biodiversity. [26] Its officers who are elected from persons nominated at the CMAS General Assembly by affiliated national diving federations include the following positions - president, secretary, a number of general members and presidents of the following commissions - marine biology, marine archaeology, geology and professional relationships. [6]

Scientific diving codes

Over a 10-year period from 1977, it was responsible for the development of the "Code of Practice for Scientific Diving" for UNESCO [27] in cooperation with Sea Grant. [ citation needed ]

Qualifications

The CMAS Scientific Committee oversees a system of diving standards and certification that operates in parallel to the CMAS International Diver Training Certification System. The system was developed to which recognize the status of a diver who is qualified to dive in the course of research whilst employed. This internationally recognized standard of competence is a distinct advantage for working scientists who wish to travel between laboratories and institutes in different countries. Known as the CMAS Scientific Diver Standard, the system consists of the following diver and instructor grades:

A programme of specialist courses both at entry and advanced levels in underwater archaeology, freshwater biology, marine biology, marine geology and oceanology is also offered. Training and certification (also known as brevets) for the above qualifications is available from organisations known as CMAS Scientific Centres (CSC). [28]

Recognitions, agreements and affiliations

Recognitions

Organisations which recognise CMAS as the international federation for underwater sport and activities include:

Agreements

Affiliations

Member federations

CMAS membership consists of at least 130 national federations from five continents: [2] [38]

AfricaAmericaAsiaEuropeOceania
  • Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria (Fédération Algerienne De Sauvetage De Secourisme Et Des Activites Subaquatiques)
  • Flag of Cape Verde.svg  Cape Verde (Federacao Cabo Verde Desportivo Subm. José Maria Aquatico Herrer)
  • Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt (Egyptian Underwater & Lifesaving Federation)
  • Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya (Kenya Lifesaving Federation)
  • Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar (Fédération Malgache De Plongée Sous Marinem)
  • Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco (Federation Royale Marocaine De Plongée Et Activites Subaquatiques)
  • Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius (Mauritian Scuba Diving Association)
  • Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia (Namibia Underwater Federation)
  • Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti (Federation Djiboutienne De Sports Subaquatiques)
  • Flag of the Seychelles.svg  Seychelles (Scuba Divers Federation Of Seychelles)
  • Flag of the Seychelles.svg  Seychelles (Submarine Activity Federation Seychelles)
  • Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa (Cmas Instructors South Africa)
  • Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa ( South African Underwater Sports Federation )
  • Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia (Fédération Des Activites Subaquatiques De Tunisie)
  • Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia (Fédération Tunisienne Des Pêches Sportives)
  • Flag of the United States.svg  United States (United States Underwater Sport Federation)
  • Flag of the United States.svg  United States (U.S. Freediving Federation)
  • Flag of the United States.svg  United States ( Underwater Society Of America )
  • Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina (FederaciÓn Argentina De Actividades Subacuaticas)
  • Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina (Asociación De Hockey Subacuático De Argentina)
  • Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil (Confederaço Brasileira De Pesca E Desportos SubaquÁticos)
  • Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada (Canadian Underwater Games Association)
  • Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada (Association Des Moniteurs De La Cmas Qc)
  • Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada (Canadian Diving Program)
  • Flag of Chile.svg  Chile (Federación Deportiva Nacional De Actividades Subacuáticas Y Salvamento Acuático)
  • Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia (Federacion Colombiana De Actividades Subauaticas)
  • Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba (Federacion Cubana De Actividades Subacuaticuas)
  • Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador (Federación Ecuatoriana De Buceo Y Actividades Subacuaticas)
  • Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico (Federacion Mexicana De Actividades Subacuaticas A.C.)
  • Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico (International Diving Instructors Mexico)
  • Flag of Peru.svg  Peru (Federacion Deportiva Peruana De Actividades Subacuaticas)
  • Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay (Federacion Uruguaya De Actividades Subacuaticas)
  • Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela (Federacion Venezolana De Actividades Subacuaticas)
  • Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates (Fujairah International Marine Club)
  • Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China (Chinese Underwater Association)
  • Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong (Hong Kong Underwater Association)
  • Flag of India.svg  India (Underwater Sport Association India)
  • Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia (Indonesian Subaquatic Sport Association)
  • Flag of Iran.svg  Iran (Islamic Republic Of Iran Lifesaving Federation)
  • Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan (Royal Jordanian Marine Sports Federation)
  • Flag of Japan.svg  Japan (Japan Cmas Instructor Association)
  • Flag of Japan.svg  Japan (Japan Underwater Sports Federation)
  • Flag of Japan.svg  Japan (Japan Educational Facilities Federation)
  • Flag of Japan.svg  Japan (Jcs)
  • Flag of Japan.svg  Japan (Marine Techno Educational System Diving Division)
  • Flag of Japan.svg  Japan (Kansai Sports Diving Federation Japan)
  • Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan (Underwater Federation Republic Of Kazakhstan)
  • Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait (Kuwait Academy For Diving & Swimming)
  • Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait (Kuwait Diving And Lifesaving Committee)
  • Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Underwater Federation)
  • Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon (Lebanon Water Festival)
  • Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia (Malayan Sub Aqua Club)
  • Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia (Malaysia Coastal Subaquatic Federation)
  • Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives (Maldives Underwater Federation)
  • Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg  Northern Mariana Islands (Toa Engineering Corporation)
  • Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestine (Palestinian Swimming & Aquatic Sport Federation)
  • Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines (Philippine Federation Of Cmas Underwater Activities)
  • Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines (Philippine Association On Underwater Activities)
  • Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia Maritime Sports Federation)
  • Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore (Singapore Underwater Federation)
  • Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea (Asia Diving Council)
  • Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea (Korea Underwater Association)
  • Flag of Syria.svg  Syria (Syrian Underwater Sport Federation)
  • Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg  Chinese Taipei (Chinese Taipei Underwater Federation)
  • Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg  Chinese Taipei (Taiwan Technical & Science Diving Association)
  • Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand (Association Of Thailand Underwater Sports)
  • Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam (Vietnam Aquatic Sports Association)

See also

General

Key people

International organisations

Organisations

Sport

Related Research Articles

British Sub-Aqua Club Recreational diving club, training and certification agency based in the UK

The British Sub-Aqua Club or BSAC has been recognised since 1954 by the Sports Council as the national governing body of recreational diving in the United Kingdom.

CMAS one-star scuba diver is the entry-level diving certification for recreational scuba diving issued by the Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques (CMAS).

The World Recreational Scuba Training Council (WRSTC) was founded in 1999 and is dedicated to creating minimum recreational diving training standards for the various scuba diving certification agencies across the world. The WRSTC restricts its membership to national or regional councils. These councils consist of individual training organizations who collectively represent at least 50% of the annual diver certifications in the member council's country or region. A national council is referred to as a RSTC.

Federazione Italiana Attività Subacquee Italian non-profit recreational diver training organisation affiliated to CMAS

The Federazione Italiana Attività Subacquee (FIAS) is an Italian non-profit diver training organization. It is member of:

European Underwater Federation Ubrella organisation representing scuba diver training organisations in Europe

The European Underwater Federation (EUF) is an umbrella organisation representing the interests of scuba diver training organisations operating in both the not for profit and for profit sectors within Europe.

Diver certification Certification as competent to dive to a specified standard

A Diving certification or C-card is a document recognizing that an individual or organization authorized to do so, "certifies" that the bearer has completed a course of training as required by the agency issuing the card. This is assumed to represent a defined level of skill and knowledge in underwater diving. Divers carry a qualification record or certification card which may be required to prove their qualifications when booking a dive trip, hiring scuba equipment, filling diving cylinders or in the case of professional divers, seeking employment.

Open Water Diver An entry-level autonomous diver certification for recreational scuba diving

Open Water Diver (OWD) is an entry-level autonomous diver certification for recreational scuba diving. Although different agencies use different names, similar entry-level courses are offered by all recreational diving agencies and consist of a combination of knowledge development (theory), confined water dives and open water dives (experience) suitable to allow the diver to dive on open circuit scuba, in open water to a limited depth and in conditions similar to those in which the diver has been trained or later gained appropriate experience, to an acceptable level of safety.

The Fédération Française d'Études et de Sports Sous-Marins (FFESSM) is a French sports federation specialized in recreational and competition underwater sports, like scuba diving and freediving. It is the main diver training organization in France.

Krzysztof Starnawski Polish technical and cave diver

Krzysztof Starnawski is a Polish technical and cave diver and International Association of Nitrox and Technical Divers (IANTD), Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques (CMAS), French Federation of Speleology (FFS) diving instructor.

The Nederlandse Onderwatersport Bond (NOB) is the national governing body for recreational diving and underwater sports in the Netherlands. It was founded in 1962. In 2008 there were 290 scuba diving clubs and schools with a total of 20.000 members. The NOB is a member of CMAS Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. The aim of the NOB is to develop recreational scuba diving in the Netherlands.

The Australian Underwater Federation (AUF) is the governing body for underwater sports in Australia.

Sport diving is an underwater sport that uses recreational open circuit scuba diving equipment and consists of a set of individual and team events conducted in a swimming pool that test the competitors' competency in recreational scuba diving techniques. The sport was developed in Spain during the late 1990s and is currently played mainly in Europe. It is known as Plongée Sportive en Piscine in French and as Buceo De Competición in Spanish.

Comhairle Fo-Thuinn, also known as Irish Underwater Council, is the national governing body for recreational diving and underwater sports in Ireland.

Underwater photography is a scuba-based underwater sport governed by Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques (CMAS) where teams of competitors using digital underwater camera systems all dive at the same saltwater ocean sites at the same time over a two-day period. The submitted digital images are then assessed and ranked by a jury using a maximum of five photographic categories as well as an overall score. The sport was developed prior to 1985 as a photographic film-based event and is currently mainly practised in non-English speaking countries.

The Underwater Society of America (USOA) is the peak body for underwater sport and recreational diving in the United States of America.

Outline of underwater diving Hierarchical outline list of articles related to underwater diving

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to underwater diving:

Diver organisations are membership based organisations where the membership is wholly, or at least in large part, underwater divers, and the organisation is intended to further a mutual interest related to underwater diving or the aquatic environment as it affects divers or diving activity. Some organisations have more than one focus of interest.

Diving regulations are the stipulations of the delegated legislation regarding the practice of underwater diving.

CMAS two-star scuba diver is a diving certification for recreational scuba diving issued by the Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques (CMAS).

References

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