Congregation for the Oriental Churches

Last updated
Congregation for the Oriental Churches
Latin: Congregatio pro Ecclesiis Orientalibus
Coat of arms Holy See.svg
Coat of arms of the Holy See
V d Conciliazione - pal Convertendi P1090089.JPG
Palazzo dei Convertendi, seat of the Congregation for the Eastern Churches
Congregation overview
FormedJanuary 6, 1862;159 years ago (1862-01-06)
Preceding agencies
  • Congregatio de Propaganda Fide pro negotiis ritus orientalis
  • Congregatio pro Ecclesia Orientali
Type Congregation
Headquarters Palazzo dei Convertendi,
Rome, Italy
Congregation executives


The Congregation for the Oriental Churches (Latin : Congregatio pro Ecclesiis Orientalibus) is a dicastery of the Roman Curia, and the curial congregation responsible for contact with the Eastern Catholic Churches for the sake of assisting their development and protecting their rights. It also maintains whole and entire in the one Catholic Church, alongside the liturgical, disciplinary, and spiritual patrimony of the Latin Rite, the heritage and Eastern Catholic canon law of the various Eastern Catholic traditions. It has exclusive authority over the following regions: Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula, Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, southern Albania and Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Israel (and Palestinian territories), Syria, Jordan and Turkey, [1] and also oversees jurisdictions based in Romania, Southern Italy, Hungary, India and Ukraine. It was founded by the Motu Proprio Dei Providentis of Pope Benedict XV as the "Sacred Congregation for the Oriental Church" on 1 May 1917 and "considers those matters, whether concerning persons or things, affecting the Catholic Oriental Churches." [2]

Contents

Structure

Patriarchs and Major Archbishops of the Oriental Churches, and the president of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, are members of this Congregation by virtue of the Law itself. [3] The consultors and officials are selected reflecting the diversity of rites. [4]

Authority

This congregation has authority over:

This congregation's authority does not include the exclusive authority of the Congregations for the Doctrine of the Faith and for the Causes of Saints, of the Apostolic Penitentiary, the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, and the Tribunal of the Roman Rota, including what pertains to dispensations from a marriage ratum sed non consummatum ('"ratified but not consummated"). [note 1] In matters which affect the Eastern as well as the Latin Churches, the Congregation operates, if the matter is important enough, in consultation with the Dicastery that has authority in the matter for the Latin Church. [6] The Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem is exempt from the authority of the Congregation, being directly subject to the Holy See. [7]

The Congregation pays special attention to communities of Eastern Catholic faithful who live in the territory of the Latin Church and attends to their spiritual needs by providing visitors and even their own hierarchs, so far as possible and where numbers and circumstances require, in consultation with the Congregation competent to establish Particular Churches in the region. [8]

In regions where the Eastern Churches have been dominant from ancient times, apostolic and missionary activity is solely the responsibility of this Congregation, even if the above is carried out by Latin Rite missionaries. [9]

The congregation collaborates with the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity in matters that concern relations with non-Catholic Eastern Churches and with the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue in matters within the scope of the latter. [10]

History

On 6 January 1862, Pope Pius IX established the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide pro negotiis ritus orientalis, a section of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith "for the affairs of the Oriental Rite", with the apostolic constitution Romani Pontifici. [11] Pope Benedict XV declared it independent on 1 May 1917 with the motu proprio Dei Providentis and named it Congregatio pro Ecclesia Orientali. Pope Paul VI gave it its current name by adopting the plural Congregatio pro Ecclesiis Orientalibus with the apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiae Universae of 15 August 1967, reflecting the major decree Orientalium Ecclesiarum of the Second Vatican Council. [1]

Structure in 1917

In May 1917, Pope Benedict XV established a congregation for the Eastern Catholic Churches. [12] It was presided over by the pope and included several Cardinals, one of whom filled the role of Secretary. [13]

There were also Councillors, chosen from among the more distinguished clergy and those experienced in things oriental. [13]

The current Cardinal Prefect of the Congregation is Leonardo Sandri. [14] The Archbishop Secretary is Giorgio Gallaro. [15] The Undersecretary is Monsignor Flavio Pace. [16]

Leadership

From 1917 to 1967, the pope held the title of Prefect of the Congregation.

Cardinal Secretaries
No.NameFromUntilPrefect/Appointer
1 Coat of arms of Niccolo Marini.svg Niccolò Marini 19171922 Benedict XV
2 Giovanni Tacci Porcelli.jpg Giovanni Tacci Porcelli 19221927 Pius XI
3 Coat of arms of Luigi Sincero.svg Luigi Sincero 19271936 Pius XI
4 Tisserant.jpg Eugène-Gabriel-
Gervais-Laurent
Tisserant
19361959 Pius XI
5 CICOGNANI AMLETO GIOVANNI (+1973).jpg Amleto Giovanni Cicognani 19591961 John XXIII
6 External Ornaments of a Cardinal Bishop.svg Gabriel Acacius Coussa 1961
Pro-Prefect
1962
Prefect
John XXIII
7 Coat of arms of Gustavo Testa.svg Gustavo Testa 19621967 John XXIII
Cardinal Prefects
No.NameFromUntilAppointer
1 Coat of arms of Gustavo Testa.svg Gustavo Testa 15 August 196713 January 1968 Paul VI
2 Coat of arms of Maximilien de Furstenberg OESSJ.svg Maximilien de Furstenberg 15 January 19688 February 1973 Paul VI
3 Coat of arms of Paul-Pierre Philippe.svg Paul-Pierre Philippe 6 March 197327 June 1980 Paul VI
4 Wladyslaw Rubin.jpg Władysław Rubin 27 June 198030 October 1985 John Paul II
5 Coat of arms of Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy.svg Duraisamy Simon
Lourdusamy
30 October 198524 May 1991 John Paul II
6 Achille Silvestrini.jpg Achille Silvestrini 24 May 19917 September 2000 John Paul II
7 Coat of arms of Ignatius Moses I Daoud.svg Ignatius Moussa Daoud 25 November 20009 June 2007 [14] John Paul II
7 Leonardo Sandri.jpg Leonardo Sandri 9 June 2007 [14] Incumbent Benedict XVI

Related Research Articles

The Roman Curia comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted. It acts in the pope's name and with his authority for the good and for the service of the particular churches and provides the central organization for the church to advance its objectives.

The Congregation for the Clergy is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for overseeing matters regarding priests and deacons not belonging to religious orders. The Congregation for the Clergy handles requests for dispensation from active priestly ministry, as well as the legislation governing presbyteral councils and other organisations of priests around the world. The Congregation does not deal with clerical sexual abuse cases, as those are handled exclusively by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.

The Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments is the congregation of the Roman Curia that handles most affairs relating to liturgical practices of the Latin Church as distinct from the Eastern Catholic Churches and also some technical matters relating to the Sacraments. Its functions were originally exercised by the Sacred Congregation of Rites, set up in January 1588 by Pope Sixtus V.

The Congregation for Catholic Education is the pontifical congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for: (1) universities, faculties, institutes and higher schools of study, either ecclesial or non-ecclesiastical dependent on ecclesial persons; and (2) schools and educational institutes depending on ecclesiastical authorities.

The Roman Rota, formally the Apostolic Tribunal of the Roman Rota, and anciently the Apostolic Court of Audience, is the highest appellate tribunal of the Catholic Church, with respect to both Latin-rite members and the Eastern-rite members and is the highest ecclesiastical court constituted by the Holy See related to judicial trials conducted in the Catholic Church. An appeal may be had to the pope himself, who is the supreme ecclesiastical judge. The Catholic Church has a complete legal system, which is the oldest in the West still in use. The court is named Rota (wheel) because the judges, called auditors, originally met in a round room to hear cases. The Rota was established in the 13th century.

The Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei was a commission of the Catholic Church established by Pope John Paul II's motu proprioEcclesia Dei of 2 July 1988 for the care of those former followers of Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre who broke with him as a result of his consecration of four priests of his Society of St. Pius X as bishops on 30 June 1988, an act that the Holy See deemed illicit and a schismatic act. It was also tasked with trying to return to full communion with the Holy See those traditionalist Catholics who are in a state of separation, of whom the Society of Saint Pius X (SSPX) is foremost, and of helping to satisfy just aspirations of people unconnected with these groups who want to keep alive the pre-1970 Roman Rite liturgy.

The Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura is the highest judicial authority in the Catholic Church. In addition, it oversees the administration of justice in the church.

Leonardo Sandri

Leonardo Sandri is an Argentine Cardinal of the Catholic Church. He has been the Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches since June 2007 and a cardinal since November of that year. He served in the diplomatic service of the Holy See from 1974 to 1991, in several overseas assignments including as permanent observer of the Holy See before the Organization of American States from 1989 to 1991, and in Rome as Substitute for General Affairs in the Secretariat of State from 1999 to 2007. On 24 January 2020, Pope Francis approved his election as Vice Dean of the College of Cardinals.

Bishops in the Catholic Church Ordained minister in the Catholic Church (for other religious denominations, use Q29182); catholic bishop

In the Catholic Church, a bishop is an ordained minister who holds the fullness of the sacrament of holy orders and is responsible for teaching doctrine, governing Catholics in his jurisdiction, sanctifying the world and representing the Church. Catholics trace the origins of the office of bishop to the apostles, who it is believed were endowed with a special charism by the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. Catholics believe this special charism has been transmitted through an unbroken succession of bishops by the laying on of hands in the sacrament of holy orders.

The Pontifical Biblical Commission is a body established within the Roman Curia to ensure the proper interpretation and defense of Sacred Scripture.

Summorum Pontificum is an apostolic letter of Pope Benedict XVI, issued in July 2007, which specifies the circumstances in which priests of the Latin Church may celebrate Mass according to what he calls the "Missal promulgated by Blessed John XXIII in 1962", and administer most of the sacraments in the form used before the liturgical reforms that followed the Second Vatican Council.

Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church

The Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church was an institution within the Roman Curia of the Catholic Church that presided over the guardianship of the historical and artistic patrimony of the entire Church - that is to say, works of art, historical documents, books, and everything kept in ecclesiastical museums as well as in ecclesiastical libraries and archives.

1917 Code of Canon Law First official, comprehensive codification of Catholic canon law, promulgated 1917

The 1917 Code of Canon Law, also referred to as the Pio-Benedictine Code, was the first official comprehensive codification of Latin canon law. It was promulgated on 27 May 1917 and took legal effect on 19 May 1918. It was in force until the 1983 Code of Canon Law took legal effect and abrogated it on 27 November 1983. It has been described as "the greatest revolution in canon law since the time of Gratian".

1983 Code of Canon Law 1983 codification of canonical legislation for the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church

The 1983 Code of Canon Law, also called the Johanno-Pauline Code, is the "fundamental body of ecclesiastical laws for the Latin Church". It is the second and current comprehensive codification of canonical legislation for the Latin Church sui iuris of the Catholic Church. It was promulgated on 25 January 1983 by John Paul II and took legal effect on the First Sunday of Advent 1983. It replaced the 1917 Code of Canon Law which had been promulgated by Benedict XV on 27 May 1917.

The Pontifical Council for Promoting the New Evangelization, also translated as Pontifical Council for Promoting New Evangelization, is a dicastery of the Roman Curia whose creation was announced by Pope Benedict XVI at vespers on 28 June 2010, eve of the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul, to carry out the New Evangelization. The Pope said that "the process of secularisation has produced a serious crisis of the sense of the Christian faith and role of the Church", and the new pontifical council would "promote a renewed evangelisation" in countries where the Church has long existed "but which are living a progressive secularisation of society and a sort of 'eclipse of the sense of God'."

The term ratum sed non consummatum or ratum et non consummatum refers to a juridical-sacramental category of marriage in Catholic matrimonial canon law. If a matrimonial celebration takes place (ratification) but the spouses have not yet engaged in intercourse (consummation), then the marriage is said to be a marriage ratum sed non consummatum. The Tribunal of the Roman Rota has exclusive competence to dispense from marriages ratum sed non consummatum, which can only be granted for a "just reason". This process should not be confused with the process for declaring the nullity of marriage, which is treated of in a separate title of the 1983 Code of Canon Law.

The Eastern Catholic canon law is the law of the 23 Catholic sui juris (autonomous) particular churches of the Eastern Catholic tradition. Eastern Catholic canon law includes both the common tradition among all Eastern Catholic Churches, now chiefly contained in the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, as well as the particular law proper to each individual sui juris particular Eastern Catholic Church. Oriental canon law is distinguished from Latin canon law, which developed along a separate line in the remnants of the Western Roman Empire, and is now chiefly codified in the 1983 Code of Canon Law.

Marco Dino Brogi, O.F.M. was an Italian prelate of the Catholic Church who worked in the Roman Curia and in diplomatic service of the Holy See.

The Congregation for Indulgences and Sacred Relics was a body of the Roman Curia, created in 1669 and suppressed in 1904.

References

  1. 1 2 "Congregation for the Oriental Churches: Profile". vatican.va. Retrieved 2019-06-10.
  2. Ap. Const. Pastor Bonus , Art. 56
  3. Ap. Const. Pastor Bonus , Art. 57 §1
  4. Ap. Const. Pastor Bonus , Art. 57 §2
  5. Ap. Const. Pastor Bonus , Art. 58 §1
  6. Ap. Const. Pastor Bonus , Art. 58 §2
  7. "Exemption". Catholic Encyclopedia . Retrieved 2007-02-18.
  8. Ap. Const. Pastor Bonus , Art. 59
  9. Ap. Const. Pastor Bonus , Art. 60
  10. Ap. Const. Pastor Bonus , Art. 61
  11. Noonan, The Church Visible, pp. 69 & 537.
  12. Norwich, Absolute Monarchs, pg. 426.
  13. 1 2 Benedict XV, Motu Proprio Dei Providentis, 2
  14. 1 2 3 "Rinunce e nomine, 09.06.2007" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 9 June 2007. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  15. "Rinunce e nomine". press.vatican.va. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  16. "Rinunce e nomine, 03.02.2020" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.

Notes

  1. This is according to the Ap. Const. Pastor Bonus , Art. 58 §2. However, on 30 August 2011, Pope Benedict XVI amended Pastor Bonus with the Motu Proprio Quaerit Semper, thereby transferring jurisdiction over marriages ratum sed non consummatum from the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments to a special Office at the Tribunal of the Roman Rota. The law obrogated the provision stating the "exclusive competence" of the Congregation for Divine Worship regarding these marriages, for this provision was not expressly abrogated and the Office at the Roman Rota now oversees dispensations from such marriages. (Cf. Benedict XVI, MP Quaerit Semper, accessed August 8, 2012.)

Bibliography