Congress of the Union

Last updated
Congress of the Union

Congreso de la Unión
LXIV Legislature
Seal of the Government of Mexico (linear).svg
Type
Type
Houses Senate
Chamber of Deputies
History
FoundedSeptember 28, 1821 (1821-09-28)
Leadership
President of the
Senate
Martí Batres, Morena Party (Mexico).png (MORENA)
since September 1, 2018 (2018-09-01)
President of the
Chamber of Deputies
Porfirio Muñoz Ledo, Morena Party (Mexico).png (MORENA)
since September 1, 2018 (2018-09-01)
Structure
Seats628
(500 Deputies)
(128 Senators)
Senado de Mexico (2018-2024).svg
Senate political groups
Government (70)

Opposition (58)

Diputados de Mexico (2018-2021).svg
Chamber of Deputies political groups
Government (314)

Opposition (186)

AuthorityTitle III, Chapter II of the
Political Constitution of
the United Mexican States
Salary$500,000 pesos (Senator) [1] [2]
$150,139 pesos (Deputy) [3] [4]
Elections
Senate last election
July 1, 2018 (2018-07-01)
Chamber of Deputies last election
July 1, 2018 (2018-07-01)
Motto
La Patria Es Primero
(The Country Is First)
Meeting place
NewSenateBldgMexicoCity.jpg
Senate
Palacio del Senado
Mexico City
San lazaro.jpg
Deputies
Palacio Legislativo de San Lázaro
Mexico City
Website
Senate Website
Chamber of Deputies Website
Constitution
Mexican Constitution of 1917

The Congress of the Union (Spanish : Congreso de la Unión), formally known as the General Congress of the United Mexican States (Congreso General de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of Mexico consisting of two chambers: the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Federal government of Mexico

The Federal government of Mexico is the national government of the United Mexican States, the central government established by its constitution to share sovereignty over the republic with the governments of the 31 individual Mexican states, and to represent such governments before international bodies such as the United Nations. The Mexican federal government has three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial and functions per the Constitution of the United Mexican States, as enacted in 1917, and as amended.

Senate of the Republic (Mexico) upper house of the parliament of Mexico

The Senate of the Republic, constitutionally Chamber of Senators of the Honorable Congress of the Union, is the upper house of Mexico's bicameral Congress.

Contents

The Congress of the Union meets in Mexico City and consists of 628 members: 500 deputies and 128 senators.

Mexico City Capital in Mexico

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.

Structure

The Congress is a bicameral body, consisting of two chambers: Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies. Its structure and responsibilities are defined in the Third Title, Second Chapter, Articles 50 to 79 of the 1917 Constitution. The upper chamber is the Senate, "Cámara de Senadores" or "Senado". It comprises 128 seats, 96 members are elected by direct popular vote for six-year terms; the other 32 seats are allocated based on proportional representation. The lower house is the Chamber of Deputies, or "Cámara de Diputados". It has 500 seats; 300 members are elected by popular vote to three-year terms, and the other 200 seats are allocated according to proportional representation.

A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a single group, and from some legislatures that have three or more separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. As of 2015, fewer than half the world's national legislatures are bicameral.

Chamber of Deputies (Mexico) lower house of the parliament of Mexico

The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, the bicameral legislature of Mexico. The other chamber is the Senate. The structure and responsibilities of both chambers of Congress are defined in Articles 50 to 70 of the current constitution.

Constitution of Mexico supreme norm of the Mexican united states.

The Constitution of Mexico, formally the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States is the current constitution of Mexico. It was drafted in Santiago de Querétaro, in the State of Querétaro, by a constitutional convention, during the Mexican Revolution. It was approved by the Constitutional Congress on 5 February 1917. It is the successor to the Constitution of 1857, and earlier Mexican constitutions.

Elections

The Congress of the Union (Congreso de la Unión) has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados) has 500 members, each elected for a three-year term, 300 of whom are elected in single-seat constituencies by plurality, with the remaining 200 members elected by proportional representation in 5 multi-state, 40-seat constituencies. [5] The 200 PR-seats are distributed generally without taking account the 300 plurality-seats (parallel voting), but since 1996 a party cannot get more seats overall than 8% above its result for the PR-seats (a party must win 42% of the votes for the PR-seats to achieve an overall majority).

Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. If n% of the electorate support a particular political party, then roughly n% of seats will be won by that party. The essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the result - not just a plurality, or a bare majority. The most prevalent forms of proportional representation all require the use of multiple-member voting districts, as it is not possible to fill a single seat in a proportional manner. In fact, the implementations of PR that achieve the highest levels of proportionality tend to include districts with large numbers of seats.

Parallel voting describes a mixed electoral system where voters in effect participate in two separate elections for a single chamber using different systems, and where the results in one election have little or no impact on the results of the other.

There are two exceptions to that rule. A party can lose only PR-seats by that rule (not plurality-seats). Also, a party cannot get more than 300 seats overall (even if it has more than 52% of the votes for the PR-seats).

The Chamber of Senators (Cámara de Senadores) has 128 members, elected for a six-year term, 96 of them in three-seat constituencies (corresponding to the nation's 31 states and one Federal District) and 32 by proportional representation on a nationwide basis. [6] In the state constituencies, two seats are awarded to the plurality winner and one to the first runner-up.

Permanent Committee

The "Comisión Permanente del Congreso de la Unión", translated variously as the Permanent Committee or Standing Committee, is a body of 19 deputies and 18 senators that is responsible for tasks relating to the Congress when it is in recess.

Term

It is conventional to refer to each Legislature by the Roman numeral of its term. Thus, the current Congress (whose term lasts from 2018 to 2021) is known as the "LXIV Legislature"; the previous Congress (whose term lasted from 2015 to 2018) was the "LXIII Legislature", and so forth. The I Legislature of Congress was the first Constitutional congress after the 1857 Constitution.

A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government.

LXIV Legislature of the Mexican Congress Legislature of the Mexican Congress, 1 September 2018  -

The LXIV Legislature of the Mexican Congress is the current meeting of the Mexican Congress of the Union that convened on 1 September 2018 and will end on 31 August 2021. It is composed of the 500 federal deputies and 128 senators elected in the Mexican general election, 2018. While the deputies will serve only in the LXIV Legislature, the senators, elected to six-year terms, will also form the Senate in the LXV Legislature, which will convene in 2021.

The LXIII Legislature of the Mexican Congress is made up of senators and deputies that are members of their respective chambers. It convened on September 1, 2015 and concluded on August 31, 2018.

Early in the 20th century, the revolutionary leader Francisco I. Madero popularized the slogan Sufragio Efectivo – no Reelección ("Effective suffrage, no reelection"). In keeping with that long-held principle, and until 2014, the 1917 Constitution stated that "Deputies and Senators could not be reelected for the next immediate term". [7]

Reelection

On February 10, 2014, the Mexican Constitution was amended to allow reelection to the legislative bodies for the first time. Starting with the general election of 2018, Deputies and Senators are allowed to run for reelection. [8] Members of the Chamber of Deputies may serve up to four terms of three years each while members of the Senate may serve two terms of six years each; in total, members of both houses will be allowed to remain in office for a total of 12 years. [9]

Last election

Senate

PartyConstituencyProportionalTotal
seats
+/–
Votes%SeatsVotes%Seats
National Regeneration Movement 661,0681.18221,261,57737.501355New
National Action Party 600,4231.0719,971,80417.59623Decrease2.svg 15
Institutional Revolutionary Party 3,855,9846.8609,013,65815.90613Decrease2.svg 44
Party of the Democratic Revolution 96,3930.1702,984,8615.2728Decrease2.svg 15
Citizens' Movement 570,7741.0122,654,4524.6827Increase2.svg 6
Ecologist Green Party 1,198,0112.1302,528,1754.4627Decrease2.svg 3
Labor Party 51,2600.0902,164,4423.8216Increase2.svg 2
Social Encounter Party 28,8780.0501,320,5592.3308New
New Alliance Party 593,5071.0601,307,0152.3101Steady2.svg 0
MORENA–PT–PES [a] 23,754,42242.2453
PAN–PRD–MC [b] 14,222,04625.2925
PRI–PVEM–PNA [c] 7,145,86912.7113
Independents1,109,1491.971,109,1491.970Steady2.svg 0
Write-ins30,5680.0531,8200.06
Invalid/blank votes2,319,4894.122,344,3574.14
Total56,237,8411009656,691,869100321280
Registered voters/turnout89,994,03962.4989,994,03963.52
Source: INE

a Of the 53 seats won by the MORENA-PT–PES alliance, 40 were taken by MORENA, 8 by the PES, and 5 by the PT

b Of the 25 seats won by the PAN–PRD–MC alliance, 16 were taken by the PAN, 6 by the PRD, and 3 by the MC

c Of the 13 seats won by the PRI–PVEM–PNA alliance, 7 were taken by the PRI, 5 by the PVEM, and 1 by the PNA

Chamber of Deputies

PartyDistrictProportionalTotal
seats
+/–
Votes%SeatsVotes%Seats
National Regeneration Movement 709,8401.27820,972,57337.2584189Increase2.svg 154
National Action Party 697,5951.25510,096,58817.934183Decrease2.svg 25
Institutional Revolutionary Party 4,351,8247.7819,310,52316.543845Decrease2.svg 158
Party of the Democratic Revolution 124,8080.2202,967,9695.271221Decrease2.svg 35
Ecologist Green Party 1,429,8022.5502,695,4054.791116Decrease2.svg 31
Citizens' Movement 268,8760.4802,485,1984.411027Increase2.svg 1
Labor Party 67,4290.1202,211,7533.93461Increase2.svg 55
New Alliance Party 705,4321.2601,391,3762.4702Decrease2.svg 8
Social Encounter Party 54,9060.1001,353,9412.40056Increase2.svg 48
MORENA–PT–PES [a] 23,513,13242.01210
PAN–PRD–MC [b] 14,381,87225.7063
PRI–PVEM–PNA [c] 6,862,37212.2613
Independents539,3470.960539,3470.9600Decrease2.svg 1
Write-ins32,6250.0632,9590.06
Invalid/blank votes2,227,5733.982,242,6153.98
Total55,967,43310030056,300,2471002005000
Registered voters/turnout89,994,03962.2089,994,03963.21
Source: INE

a Of the 210 seats won by the MORENA-PT–PES alliance, 97 were taken by MORENA, 57 by the PT, and 56 by the PES

b Of the 63 seats won by the PAN–PRD–MC alliance, 37 were taken by the PAN, 17 by the MC, and 9 by the PRD

c Of the 13 seats won by the PRI–PVEM–PNA alliance, 6 were taken by the PRI, 5 by the PVEM, and 2 by the PNA

See also

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References

  1. "Manual de Percepciones de los Senadores..." (PDF). Senado de la República. p. 5. Retrieved 19 August 2011.[ dead link ]
  2. "2 Mil 312 Millones Para Sueldos de Senadores y Diputados en 2010". El Siglo de Torreón. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  3. "Poder Legislativo" (PDF). Cámara de Diputados. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  4. "Consejeros del InfoDF ganan más que Ebrard". La Razón. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  5. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-23. Retrieved 2011-08-29.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-23. Retrieved 2011-08-29.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  7. Constitution of 1917, article 50, 59.
  8. "Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos. Artículo 59". Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas de la UNAM (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 14 October 2003. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  9. Becerra, Bertha (20 May 2014). "Habría reelección de diputados y senadores a partir del 2018". La Prensa (in Spanish). Organización Editorial Mexicana. Retrieved 1 April 2015.