Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution

Last updated
Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution
Part of the aftermath of the Iranian Revolution
Date11 February 1979 – December 1983 [1]
Location
Result

Islamic Republican Party victory [1]

Belligerents

Political:

Armed groups:

Political only:

Armed groups:


Separatists:


Flag of Iraq (1963-1991); Flag of Syria (1963-1972).svg  Iraq
Commanders and leaders

Flag of Iran.svg Ruhollah Khomeini
Flag of Iran.svg Morteza Motahari  
Flag of Iran.svg Mohammad Beheshti  
Flag of Iran.svg Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
Flag of Iran.svg Abulhassan Banisadr [lower-alpha 1]
Flag of Iran.svg Mohammad-Ali Rajai  
Flag of Iran.svg Mohammad-Javad Bahonar  
Flag of Iran.svg Ali Khamenei  (WIA)
Flag of Iran.svg Mohammad-Reza Mahdavi Kani
Flag of Iran.svg Mir-Hossein Mousavi

Contents

Flag of Iran.svg Mohsen Rezaee

Flag of Iran.svg Mehdi Bazargan
Flag of Iran.svg Abulhassan Banisadr [lower-alpha 1]
State Flag of Iran (1964).svg Shapour Bakhtiar
Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari   (POW)
Sadegh Ghotbzadeh   Skull and Crossbones.svg
Karim Sanjabi
Dariush Forouhar   (POW)
Kazem Sami
Habibollah Payman
Noureddin Kianouri   (POW)


Akbar Goodarzi  
Flag of the People's Mujahedin of Iran.svg Massoud Rajavi
Flag of the People's Mujahedin of Iran.svg Mousa Khiabani  
Flag of the Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas (Red).svg Ashraf Dehghani
Red flag.svg Mansoor Hekmat


Flag of Partiya Demokrat a Kurdistana Irane.png Rahman Ghasemlou
Flag of Komala.png Foad Soltani  


Flag of Iraq (1963-1991); Flag of Syria (1963-1972).svg Saddam Hussein
Strength

Iranian Armed Forces: Total forces 207,500 (June 1979); 305,000 (peak); 240,000 (final) [1]


Theater forces:
6,000–10,000 [1]
2,000 to 10,000 [1] –15,000 [2] (MEK); 3,000 (Paykar); [2] 5,000 (Fedai factions in total); [1] [2] 10,000 to 25,000 [1] –30,000 [2] (KDPI), 5,000 (Komolah) [2]
Casualties and losses
3,000 servicemen (conservative estimate) [1] 1,000 estimated KIA (MEK); [1] 4,000 estimated KIA (KDPI) [1]
10,000 estimated KIA (total) [1]
not including Iran–Iraq War
  1. 1 2 Abulhassan Banisadr was President of Iran until June 1981, thus a member of the ruling group. After he was deposed by the Islamic Republican Party-dominated parliament, he went exile, fighting against the system.

The consolidation of the Iranian Revolution refers to a turbulent process of Islamic Republic stabilization, following the completion of the revolution. After the Shah of Iran and his regime were overthrown by revolutionaries in February 1979, Iran was in a "revolutionary crisis mode" from this time until 1982 [3] or 1983. [4] Its economy and the apparatus of government collapsed. Military and security forces were in disarray.

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi the last shah of Iran

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, also known as Mohammad Reza Shah, was the last King of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979. Mohammad Reza Shah took the title Shahanshah on 26 October 1967. He was the second and last monarch of the House of Pahlavi. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi held several other titles, including that of Aryamehr and Bozorg Arteshtaran ("Commander-in-Chief"). His dream of what he referred to as a "Great Civilisation" in Iran led to a rapid industrial and military modernisation, as well as economic and social reforms.

Iran Islamic Republic in Western Asia

Iran, also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With 82 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Its territory spans 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), making it the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the political and economic center of Iran, and the largest and most populous city in Western Asia with more than 8.8 million residents in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area.

Following the events of the revolution, Marxist guerrillas and federalist parties revolted in some regions comprising Khuzistan, Kurdistan and Gonbad-e Qabus, which resulted in fighting between them and revolutionary forces. These revolts began in April 1979 and lasted for several months to more than a year, depending on the region. Recently published documents show that United States was afraid of those revolts. National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski discussed with his staff about a possible American invasion of Iran by using Turkish bases and territory if the Soviets would decide to repeat the Afghanistan scenario in Iran. [5]

1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran

The 1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran erupted in mid-March 1979, some two months after the completion of the Iranian Revolution. It subsequently became the largest among the nationwide uprisings in Iran against the new state and one of the most intense Kurdish rebellions in modern Iran. Initially, Kurdish movements were trying to align with the new government of Iran, seeking to emphasize their Muslim identity and seek common ground with other Iranians. KDPI even briefly branded itself as non-"separatist" organization, allegedly criticizing those calling for independence, but nevertheless calling for political autonomy. However, relations between some Kurdish organizations and the Iranian government quickly deteriorated, and though Shi'a Kurds and some tribal leaders turned towards the new Shi'a Islamic State, Sunni Kurdish leftists continued the nationalist project in their enclave in Kurdistan Province.

Gonbad-e Kavus County County in Golestan Province, Iran

Gonbad-e Qabus County is a county in Golestan Province in Iran. Formerly called Gorgan or Jorjan, because of the ruins of the historical city called Gorgan, the capital of the Ziyarid dynasty, in its southwest corner. Before that it was called Hyrcania. The capital of the county is Gonbad-e Qabus. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 283,331, in 63,482 families. The county consists of two districts: Dashli Borun District and Central District. The county has two cities: Incheh Borun and Gonbad-e Qabus. Current city is founded by the order of Reza Pahlavi, by German engineers and architectures, based on urban designing standards.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico.

By 1982 or 1983,[ when? ] Khomeini and his supporters had crushed the rival factions and consolidated power. Elements that played a part in both the crisis and its end were the Iran hostage crisis, the invasion of Iran by Saddam Hussein's Iraq, and the presidency of Abolhassan Banisadr. [3] [4]

Ruhollah Khomeini 20th-century Iranian religious leader and politician, founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, also known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian politician and cleric. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution, which saw the overthrow of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and the end of the 2,500 year old Persian monarchy. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. He was succeeded by Ali Khamenei on 4 June 1989.

Iran hostage crisis diplomatic standoff between Iran and the United States, 1979–81

The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic standoff between the United States and Iran. Fifty-two American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979, to January 20, 1981, after a group of Iranian college students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, who supported the Iranian Revolution, took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran.

Iran–Iraq War 1980–1988 war between Iran and Iraq

The Iran–Iraq War began on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and it ended on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire. Iraq wanted to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state, and was worried that the 1979 Iranian Revolution would lead Iraq's Shi'ite majority to rebel against the Ba'athist government. The war also followed a long history of border disputes, and Iraq planned to annex the oil-rich Khuzestan Province and the east bank of the Arvand Rud.

Conflicts amongst revolutionaries

With the fall of the Shah, the glue that unified the various ideological (religious, liberal, secularist, Marxist, and Communist) and class (bazaari merchant, secular middle class, poor) factions of the revolution—opposed to the Shah—was gone. [6] Different interpretations of the broad goals of the revolution (an end to tyranny, more Islamic and less American and Western influence, more social justice and less inequality) and different interests, vied for influence.

Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty, consent of the governed, and equality before the law. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they generally support limited government, individual rights, capitalism, democracy, secularism, gender equality, racial equality, internationalism, freedom of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of religion. Yellow is the political colour most commonly associated with liberalism.

Bazaari is the name given to the merchant class and workers of bazaars, the traditional marketplaces of Iran. Bazaari are involved in "petty trade of a traditional, or nearly traditional, kind, centered on the bazaar and its Islamic culture". They have been described as "the class of people who helped make the 1979 Iranian Revolution".

Some observers believe "what began as an authentic and anti-dictatorial popular revolution based on a broad coalition of all anti-Shah forces was soon transformed into an Islamic fundamentalist power-grab," [7] that significant support came from Khomeini's non-theocratic allies who had thought he intended to be more a spiritual guide than a ruler [8] —Khomeini being in his mid-70s, having never held public office, been out of Iran for more than a decade, and having told questioners things like "the religious dignitaries do not want to rule." [9] [10]

Another view Khomeini had was "overwhelming ideological, political and organizational hegemony," [11] and non-theocratic groups never seriously challenged Khomeini's movement in popular support. [12]

Still another view is that of government supporters (such as Hamid Ansari) who insist that Iranians opposed to the new ruling state were "fifth columnists" led by foreign countries attempting to overthrow the Iranian government. [13]

Khomeini and his loyalists in the revolutionary organizations prevailed, making use of unwanted allies, [14] (such as Mehdi Bazargan's Provisional Revolutionary Government), and eliminating one-by-one with skillful timing both them and their adversaries from Iran's political stage, [15] and implemented Khomeini's velayat- faqih design for an Islamic Republic led by himself as Supreme Leader. [16]

Organizations of the revolution

The most important bodies of the revolution were the Revolutionary Council, the Revolutionary Guards, Revolutionary Tribunals, Islamic Republican Party, and at the local level revolutionary cells turned local committees (komitehs). [17]

While the moderate Bazargan and his government (temporarily) reassured the middle class, it became apparent they did not have power over the "Khomeinist" revolutionary bodies, particularly the Revolutionary Council (the "real power" in the revolutionary state [18] [19] ) and later the Islamic Republican Party. Inevitably the overlapping authority of the Revolutionary Council (which had the power to pass laws) and Bazargan's government was a source of conflict, [20] despite the fact that both had been approved by and/or put in place by Khomeini.

This conflict lasted only a few months, however, as the provisional government fell shortly after American Embassy officials were taken hostage on November 4, 1979. Bazargan's resignation was received by Khomeini without complaint, saying "Mr. Bazargan ... was a little tired and preferred to stay on the sidelines for a while." Khomeini later described his appointment of Bazargan as a "mistake". [21]

The Revolutionary Guard, or Pasdaran-e Enqelab, was established by Khomeini on May 5, 1979, as a counterweight both to the armed groups of the left, and to the Iranian military, which had been part of the Shah's power base. 6,000 persons were initially enlisted and trained, [22] but the guard eventually grew into "a full-scale" military force. [23] It has been described as "without a doubt the strongest institution of the revolution". [24]

Serving under the Pasdaran were/are the Baseej-e Mostaz'afin ("Oppressed Mobilization"), [25] volunteers originally made up of those too old or young [25] to serve in other bodies. Baseej have also been used to attack demonstrators and newspaper offices that they believe to be enemies of the revolution. [26]

Another revolutionary organization was the Islamic Republican Party started by Khomeini lieutenant Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti in February 1979. Made up of bazaari and political clergy, [27] it worked to establish theocratic government by velayat-e faqih in Iran, outmaneuvering opponents and wielding power on the street through the Hezbollah.

The first komiteh or Revolutionary Committees "sprang up everywhere" as autonomous organizations in late 1978. After the monarchy fell, the committees grew in number and power but not discipline. [28] In Tehran alone there were 1,500 committees. Komiteh served as "the eyes and ears" of the new government, and are credited by critics with "many arbitrary arrests, executions and confiscations of property". [29]

Also enforcing the will of the new government were the Hezbollahi (followers of the Party of God), "strong-arm thugs" who attacked demonstrators and offices of newspapers critical of Khomeini. [30]

Non-Khomeini groups

Two major political groups formed after the fall of the shah that clashed with pro-Khomeini groups and were eventually suppressed were the National Democratic Front (NDF) and the Muslim People's Republic Party (MPRP). The first was a somewhat more leftist version of the National Front. The MPRP was a competitor to the Islamic Republican Party that, unlike that body, favored pluralism, opposed summary executions and attacks on peaceful demonstrations and was associated with Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari.

Establishment of Islamic republic government

Referendum of 12 Farvardin

On March 30 and 31 (Farvardin 10, 11) a referendum was held over whether to replace the monarchy with an "Islamic Republic"—a term not defined on the ballot. Supporting the vote and the change were the Islamic Republican Party, Iran Freedom Movement, National Front, Muslim People's Republic Party, and the Tudeh Party. Urging a boycott were the National Democratic Front, Fadayan, and several Kurdish parties. [31] Khomeini called for a massive turnout, and most Iranians supported the change. [31] Following the vote, the government announced that 98.2% had voted in favor, [31] and Khomeini declaring the result a victory of "the oppressed ... over the arrogant." [32]

Writing of the constitution

On June 18, 1979, the Freedom Movement released its draft constitution for the Islamic Republic that it had been working on since Khomeini was in exile. It included a Guardian Council to veto un-Islamic legislation, but had no Guardian Jurist Ruler. [33] Leftists found the draft too conservative and in need of major changes, but Khomeini declared it 'correct'. [10] [34] To approve the new constitution a 73-member Assembly of Experts for Constitution was elected that summer. Critics complained that "vote-rigging, violence against undesirable candidates and the dissemination of false information" was used to "produce an assembly overwhelmingly dominated by clergy loyal to Khomeini." [35]

The Assembly was originally conceived of as a way of expediting the draft constitution so as to prevent leftist alterations. Ironically, Khomeini (and the assembly) now rejected the constitution—its correctness notwithstanding—and Khomeini declared that the new government should be based "100% on Islam." [36]

Between mid-August and mid-November 1979, the Assembly commenced to draw up a new constitution, one leftists found even more objectionable. In addition to President, the Assembly added on a more powerful post of Guardian Jurist Ruler intended for Khomeini, [37] with control of the military and security services, and power to appoint several top government and judicial officials. The power and number of clerics on the Council of Guardians was increased. The Council was given control over elections for President, Parliament, and the "experts" that elected the Supreme Leader, as well as laws passed by the legislature. [38]

The new constitution was approved by referendum on December 2 and 3, 1979. It was supported by the Revolutionary Council and other groups, but opposed by some clerics, including Ayatollah Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari, and by secularists such as the National Front who urged a boycott. Again, over 98% were reported to have voted in favor, but turnout was smaller than for the 11, 12 Farvardin referendum on an Islamic Republic. [39]

Hostage crisis

Helping to pass the constitution, suppress moderates and otherwise radicalize the revolution was the holding of 52 American diplomats hostage for over a year. In late October 1979, the exiled and dying Shah was admitted into the United States for cancer treatment. In Iran there was an immediate outcry and both Khomeini and leftist groups demanding the Shah's return to Iran for trial and execution. On 4 November 1979 youthful Islamists, calling themselves Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, invaded the embassy compound and seized its staff. Revolutionaries were reminded of how 26 years earlier the Shah had fled abroad while the American CIA and British intelligence organized a coup d'état to overthrow his nationalist opponent.

The holding of hostages was very popular and continued for months even after the death of the Shah. As Khomeini explained to his future President Banisadr,

This action has many benefits. ... This has united our people. Our opponents do not dare act against us. We can put the constitution to the people's vote without difficulty, and carry out presidential and parliamentary elections. [40]

With great publicity the students released documents from the American embassy—or "nest of spies"—showing moderate Iranian leaders had met with U.S. officials (similar evidence of high-ranking Islamists having done so did not see the light of day). [41] Among the casualties of the hostage crisis was Prime Minister Bazargan who resigned in November, unable to enforce the government's order to release the hostages. [42] It is from this time that "the term 'liberal' became a pejorative designation for those who questioned the fundamental tendencies of the revolution," according to Hamid Algar, a supporter of Khomeini. [43]

The prestige of Khomeini and the hostage taking was further enhanced when an American attempt to rescue the hostages failed because of a sand storm, widely believed in Iran to be the result of divine intervention. [44] Another long-term effect of the crisis was harm to the Iranian economy, which was, and continues to be, subject to American economic sanctions. [45]

Iran–Iraq War

In September 1980, Iraq, whose government was Sunni Muslim and Arab nationalist, invaded Shia Muslim Iran in an attempt to seize the oil-rich province of Khuzestan and destroy the revolution in its infancy. In the face of this external threat, Iranians rallied behind their new government. The country was "galvanized" [46] and patriotic fervor helped to stop and reverse the Iraqi advance. By early 1982 Iran had regained almost all the territory lost to the invasion.

Like the hostage crisis, the war served as an opportunity for the government to strengthen Islamic revolutionary ardor at the expense of its remaining allies-turned-opponents, such as the MEK. [47] The Revolutionary Guard grew in self-confidence and numbers. The revolutionary committees asserted themselves, enforcing blackouts, curfews, and vehicle searches for subversives. Food and fuel rationing cards were distributed at mosques, "providing the authorities with another means for ensuring political conformity." [48] While enormously costly and destructive, the war "rejuvenate[d] the drive for national unity and Islamic revolution" and "inhibited fractious debate and dispute" in Iran. [49]

Suppression of opposition

In early March, Khomeini announced, "do not use this term, 'democratic.' That is the Western style," giving pro-democracy liberals (and later leftists) a taste of disappointments to come. [50]

In succession the National Democratic Front was banned in August 1979, the provisional government was disempowered in November, the Muslim People's Republic Party banned in January 1980, the People's Mujahedin of Iran guerillas came under attack in February 1980, a purge of universities was begun in March 1980, and leftist Islamist Abolhassan Banisadr was impeached in June 1981.

Explanations for why the opposition was crushed include its lack of unity. According to Asghar Schirazi, the moderates lacked ambition and were not well organised, while the radicals (such as the People's Mujahedin of Iran) were "unrealistic" about the conservatism of the Iranian masses and unprepared to work with moderates to fight against theocracy. Moderate Islamists, such as Banisadr, were "credulous and submissive" towards Khomeini. [51]

Mahmoud Taleghani

In April 1979, Ayatollah Mahmoud Taleghani, a supporter of the left, warned against a 'return to despotism'. Revolutionary Guards responded by arresting two of his sons [52] but thousands of his supporters marched in the streets chanting 'Taleghani, you are the soul of the revolution! Down with the reactionaries!' Khomeini summoned Taleghani to Qom where he was given a severe criticism after which the press was called and told by Khomeini: 'Mr. Taleghani is with us and he is sorry for what happened.' Khomeini pointedly did not refer to him as Ayatollah Taleghani. [53]

Newspaper closings

In mid August, shortly after the election of the constitution-writing Assembly of Experts, several dozen newspapers and magazines opposing Khomeini's idea of Islamic government—theocratic rule by jurists or velayat-e faqih—were shut down [54] [55] under a new press law banning "counter-revolutionary policies and acts." [56] Protests against the press closings were organized by the National Democratic Front (NDF), and tens of thousands massed at the gates of the University of Tehran. [57] Khomeini angrily denounced these protests saying, "we thought we were dealing with human beings. It is evident we are not." [58] He condemned the protesters as

wild animals. We will not tolerate them any more ... After each revolution several thousand of these corrupt elements are executed in public and burnt and the story is over. They are not allowed to publish newspapers. [59]

Hundreds were injured by "rocks, clubs, chains and iron bars" when Hezbollahi attacked the protesters. [60] Before the end of the month a warrant was issued for the arrest of the NDF's leader. [61]

Muslim People's Republican Party

Kazem Shariatmadari Kazem Shariatmadari.jpg
Kazem Shariatmadari

In December the moderate Islamic party Muslim People's Republican Party (MPRP), and its spiritual leader Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari had become a new rallying point for Iranians who wanted democracy not theocracy. [62] In early December riots broke out in Shariatmadari's Azeri home region. Members of the MPRP and Shariatmadari's followers in Tabriz took to the streets and seized the television station, using it to "broadcast demands and grievances." The government reacted quickly, sending Revolutionary Guards to retake the TV station, mediators to defuse complaints and staging a massive pro-Khomeini counter-demonstration in Tabriz. [63] The party was suppressed with many of the aides of the elderly Shariatmadari being put under house arrest, two of whom were later executed. [62]

Islamist left

In January 1980 Abolhassan Banisadr, an adviser to Khomeini, was elected president of Iran. He was opposed by the more radical Islamic Republic party, who controlled the parliament, having won the first parliamentary election of March–May 1980. Banisadr was compelled to accept an IRP-oriented prime minister, Mohammad-Ali Rajai, he declared "incompetent." Both Banisadr and the IRP were supported by Khomeini. [64]

At the same time, erstwhile revolutionary allies of the Khomeinists—the Islamist modernist guerrilla group People's Mujahedin of Iran (or MEK)—were being suppressed by Khomeinists. Khomeini attacked the MEK as elteqati (eclectic), contaminated with Gharbzadegi ("the Western plague"), and as monafeqin (hypocrites) and kafer (unbelievers). [65] In February 1980 concentrated attacks by hezbollahi toughs began on the meeting places, bookstores, newsstands of Mujahideen and other leftists [66] driving the left underground in Iran.

The next month saw the beginning of the "Iranian Cultural Revolution". Universities, a leftist bastion, were closed for two years to purge them of opponents to theocratic rule. A purge of the state bureaucracy began in July. 20,000 teachers and nearly 8,000 military officers deemed too "Westernized" were dismissed. [67]

Khomeini sometimes felt the need to use takfir (declaring someone guilty of apostasy, a capital crime) to deal with his opponents. When leaders of the National Front party called for a demonstration in mid-1981 against a new law on qesas, or traditional Islamic retaliation for a crime, Khomeini threatened its leaders with the death penalty for apostasy "if they did not repent." [68] The leaders of the Freedom Movement of Iran and Banisadr were compelled to make public apologiess on television and radio because they had supported the Front's appeal. [69]

By March 1981, an attempt by Khomeini to forge a reconciliation between Banisadr and IRP leaders had failed [70] and Banisadr became a rallying point "for all doubters and dissidents" of the theocracy, including the MEK. [71] Three months later Khomeini finally sided with the Islamic Republic party against Banisadr who then issued a call for "resistance to dictatorship". Rallies in favor of Banisadr were suppressed by Hezbollahi, and he was impeached by the Majlis.

The MEK retaliated with a campaign of terror against the IRP. On the 28 June 1981, a bombing of the office of the Islamic Republic Party killed around 70 high-ranking officials, cabinet members and members of parliament, including Mohammad Beheshti, the secretary-general of the party and head of the Islamic Party's judicial system. [72] His successor Mohammad Javad Bahonar was in turn assassinated on September 2. [73] These events and other assassinations weakened the Islamic Party [27] but the hoped-for mass uprising and armed struggle against the Khomeiniists was crushed.

Another opposition to the Khomeinist government was violent as well. Communist guerrillas and federalist parties revolted in some regions comprising Khuzistan, Kurdistan and Gonbad-e Qabus which resulted in fighting among them and revolutionary forces. These revolts began in April 1979 and lasted for several months or years depending on the region. In May 1979, the Furqan Group (Guruh-i Furqan) assassinated an important lieutenant of Khomeini, Morteza Motahhari. [74]

See also

References and notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Jeffrey S. Dixon; Meredith Reid Sarkees (2015). "INTRA-STATE WAR #816: Anti-Khomeini Coalition War of 1979 to 1983". A Guide to Intra-state Wars: An Examination of Civil, Regional, and Intercommunal Wars, 1816-2014. SAGE Publications. pp. 384–386. ISBN   978-1-5063-1798-4.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Razoux, Pierre (2015). The Iran-Iraq War. Hrvard University Press. Appendix E: Armed Opposition. ISBN   9780674915718.
  3. 1 2 Encyclopedia of Islam and Muslim World, Thomson Gale, 2004, p. 357 (article by Stockdale, Nancy, L. who uses the phrase "revolutionary crisis mode")
  4. 1 2 Keddie, Modern Iran, (2006), p. 241
  5. Mehmet Akif Okur, "The American Geopolitical Interests and Turkey on the Eve of the September 12, 1980 Coup", CTAD, Vol.11, No.21, p. 210–211
  6. Kepel, Jihad, 2002, p. 112
  7. Zabih, Sepehr, Iran Since the Revolution Johns Hopkins Press, 1982, p. 2
  8. Schirazi, Constitution of Iran, (1997), pp. 93–94
  9. "Democracy? I meant theocracy", by Dr. Jalal Matini, translation & introduction by Farhad Mafie, August 5, 2003, The Iranian.
  10. 1 2 Islamic Clerics, Khomeini Promises Kept, Gems of Islamism.
  11. Azar Tabari, "Mystifications of the Past and Illusions of the Future," in The Iranian Revolution and the Islamic Republic: Proceedings of a Conference, ed. Nikki R. Keddie and Eric Hooglund (Washington, DC: Middle East Institute, 1982) pp. 101–24.
  12. For example, the Islamic Republican Party and allied forces controlled approximately 80% of the seats on the Assembly of Experts of Constitution. (see: Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs (1983) pp. 78–82) An impressive margin even allowing for electoral manipulation.
  13. Ansari, Hamid, Narrative of Awakening: A Look at Imam Khomeini's Ideal, Scientific and Political Biography from Birth to Ascension, Institute for Compilation and Publication of the Works of Imam Khomeini, International Affairs Division, [no publication date, preface dated 1994] translated by Seyed Manoochehr Moosavi, pp. 165–67
  14. Moin, Khomeini (2000), p. 224
  15. Moin, Khomeini (2000), p. 203.
  16. Schirazi, Constitution of Iran, (1997), pp. 24–32.
  17. Keddie, Modern Iran (2003), pp. 241–42.
  18. Kepel, Jihad, (2001), p.
  19. Arjomand, Turban for the Crown, (1988) p. 135
  20. Keddie, Modern Iran (2003) p. 245
  21. Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p. 222
  22. Bakhash, Shaul, The Reign of the Ayatollahs, Basic Books, 1984, p. 63
  23. Mackey, Iranians (1996), p. 371
  24. Schirazi, Constitution of Iran, (1997) p. 151
  25. 1 2 Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij - Mobilisation Resistance Force
  26. Keddie, Modern Iran, (2003) p. 275
  27. 1 2 Moin, Khomeini (2000), pp. 210–11
  28. Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984), p. 56
  29. Moin, Khomeini (2000) p. 211
  30. Schirazi, Constitution of Iran, (1987)p. 153
  31. 1 2 3 Bakhash, Shaul, Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984) p. 73
  32. 12 Farvardin
  33. Moin, Khomeini, 2000, p. 217.
  34. Schirazi, The Constitution of Iran, 1997, p. 22–23.
  35. Moin, Khomeini, (2001), p. 218
  36. Bakhash, Shaul, The Reign of the Ayatollahs, Basic Books, 1984 pp. 74–82
  37. Iranian Government Constitution, English Text Archived November 23, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  38. Articles 99 and 108 of the Constitution
  39. History of Iran: Iran after the victory of 1979's Revolution
  40. Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p. 228
  41. Moin, Khomeini, (2000), pp. 248–49
  42. Keddie, Modern Iran (2003), p. 249
  43. Imam Khomeini: A Short Biography
  44. Bowden, Mark, Guests of the Ayatollah, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2006, p. 487
  45. Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984), p. 236
  46. Efraim Karsh, The Iran–Iraq War, 1980–1988, Osprey Publishing (2002), p.72
  47. Keddie, Modern Iran, (2006), p. 241, 251
  48. Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs, 1984, pp. 128–29
  49. Dilip Hiro, The Longest War, p.255
  50. Bakhash, Shaul, The Reign of the Ayatollahs, p. 73.
  51. Schirazi, Asghar, The Constitution of Iran: Politics and the state in the Islamic Republic, London; New York: I.B. Tauris, 1997, pp. 293–94
  52. Time magazine obituary
  53. Mackay, Iranians, (1998), p. 291
  54. Schirazi, Constitution of Iran (1997) p. 51.
  55. Moin, Khomeini, 2000, pp. 219–20.
  56. Kayhan, 20.8.78–21.8.78, quoted in Schirazi, Asghar, The Constitution of Iran, Tauris, 1997, p. 51, also New York Times, August 8, 1979
  57. Mackay, Iranians, (1998), p. 292
  58. Moin, Khomeini, 2000, p. 219.
  59. Moin, Khomeini, (2001), p. 219
  60. Moin, Khomeini, (2001), pp. 219–20
  61. Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs (1984) p. 89.
  62. 1 2 Moin, Khomeini, 2000, p. 232.
  63. Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984) pp. 89–90
  64. Moin, Khomeini, 2001, pp. 234–35
  65. Moin, Khomeini, 2001, p. 234, 239
  66. Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984) p. 123.
  67. Arjomand, Said Amir, Turban for the Crown: The Islamic Revolution in Iran, Oxford University Press, 1988 p. 144.
  68. Schirazi, Asghar, The Constitution of Iran, Tauris 1997, p. 127.
  69. The Constitution of Iran: Politics and the State in the Islamic Republic by Asghar Schirazi, London; New York: I.B. Tauris, 1997, p.127
  70. Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984) p. 153
  71. Moin Khomeini, 2001, p. 238
  72. Moin, Khomeini (2000), pp. 241–42.
  73. Iran Backgrounder, HRW.
  74. The Political Thought of Ayatullah Murtaza Mutahhari By Mahmood T. Davari

Bibliography

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