Louis-Constant Prévost (4 June 1787 – 14 August 1856) was a French geologist.
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes the Earth and other terrestrial planets, as well as the processes that shape them. Geologists usually study geology, although backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biology, and other sciences are also useful. Field work is an important component of geology, although many subdisciplines incorporate laboratory work.
Prévost was born in Paris to Louis Prévost, a tax farmer, receiver of the rentes of Paris. He was educated there at the Central Schools, where, inspired by the lectures of Georges Cuvier, his particular mentor Alexandre Brongniart, and André Marie Constant Duméril, he determined to devote himself to natural science. He took his degree in Letters and Sciences in 1811, and for a time pursued the study of medicine and anatomy.
Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier, known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology". Cuvier was a major figure in natural sciences research in the early 19th century and was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils.
Alexandre Brongniart was a French chemist, mineralogist, and zoologist, who collaborated with Georges Cuvier on a study of the geology of the region around Paris.
André Marie Constant Duméril was a French zoologist. He was professor of anatomy at the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle from 1801 to 1812, when he became professor of herpetology and ichthyology. His son Auguste Duméril was also a zoologist.
Mainly through the influence of Brongniart he turned his attention to geology. During the years 1816-1819 he took advantage of the necessity of accompanying his associate Philippe de Girard, who was seeking out a site for establishing a textile mill near Vienna, by making a special study of the Viennese Basin, where he pointed out for the first time the presence of Tertiary strata like those of the Paris Basin, but which included a series of later date. His next work (1821) was an essay on the geology of parts of Normandy, with special reference to the "Secondary"—or Mesozoic — strata, which he compared with those of southern England; in this he had the collaboration of Charles Lyell.
Geology is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also include the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.
Tertiary is a widely used, but obsolete term for the geologic period from 66 million to 2.6 million years ago. The period began with the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs in the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, at the start of the Cenozoic Era, and extended to the beginning of the Quaternary glaciation at the end of the Pliocene Epoch. The time span covered by the Tertiary has no exact equivalent in the current geologic time system, but it is essentially the merged Paleogene and Neogene periods, which are informally called the Lower Tertiary and the Upper Tertiary, respectively.
The Paris Basin is one of the major geological regions of France having developed since the Triassic on a basement formed by the Variscan orogeny. The sedimentary basin is a large sag in the craton, bordered by the Armorican Massif to the west, the Ardennes-Brabant axis to the north, the Massif des Vosges to the east, and the Massif Central to the south.
From 1821-1829 he was professor of geology at the Athenaeum at Paris,and he took a leading part with Ami Boue, Gérard Paul Deshayes and Jules Desnoyers in the founding of the Société géologique de France (1830). In 1831 he became assistant professor and afterwards honorary professor of geology to the faculty of sciences of the Sorbonne. He was on hand with an artist to witness the undersea volcano that produced Ferdinandea (now Graham Bank) off the south coast of Sicily that July; he named it Île Julia, for its July appearance, and reported in the Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France In 1848 he was elected to his late mentor Brogniart's seat in the Académie des sciences
Gérard Paul Deshayes was a French geologist and conchologist.
Jules Pierre François Stanislaus Desnoyers was a French geologist and archaeologist.
The Société géologique de France (SGF) is a French learned society founded on 17 March 1830. As of 2006, it counts 1,200 members.
Having studied the volcanoes of Italy and Auvergne, he opposed the views of Christian Leopold von Buch regarding craters of elevation, maintaining that the cones were due to the material successively erupted. Like Lyell he advocated a study of the slow and incessant forces in action at present, in order to illustrate the past, the principle in geology called uniformitarianism, discounting catastrophic events. One of his more important memoirs was De la Chronologie des terrains et du synchronisme des formations (1845), in which he expounded the principle of the synchronicity of successive stages of igneous and sedimentary deposition across wide terrains. His most general titles were Documents pour l'histoire des terrains tertiaires (Paris, 1827) and his Traité de géographie physique co-authored with E. Bassano (Paris, 1836).
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a European country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and surrounded by several islands. Italy is located in Southern Europe, and it is sometimes considered as part of Western Europe. The country covers a total area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and shares land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in the Tunisian Sea (Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the fourth-most populous member state of the European Union.
Christian Leopold von Buch was a German geologist and paleontologist born in Stolpe an der Oder and is remembered as one of the most important contributors to geology in the first half of the nineteenth century. His scientific interest was devoted to a broad spectrum of geological topics: volcanism, petrology, fossils, stratigraphy and mountain formation. His most remembered accomplishment is the scientific definition of the Jurassic system.
Alcide Charles Victor Marie Dessalines d'Orbigny was a French naturalist who made major contributions in many areas, including zoology, palaeontology, geology, archaeology and anthropology.
Graham Island is a submerged volcanic island in the Mediterranean Sea. It was discovered when it last appeared on 1 August 1831 by Humphrey Fleming Senhouse, the captain of the first rate Royal Navy ship of the line St Vincent and named after Sir James Graham, the First Lord of the Admiralty. It was claimed by the United Kingdom. It forms part of the underwater volcano Empedocles, 30 km (19 mi) south of Sicily, and which is one of a number of submarine volcanoes known as the Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia. Seamount eruptions have raised it above sea level several times before erosion submerged it again.
Léon Louis Vaillant was a French zoologist. He is most famous for his work in the areas of herpetology, malacology, and ichthyology.
Charles Joseph Sainte-Claire Deville was a geologist and meteorologist.
Gustave Émile Haug was a French geologist and paleontologist known for his contribution to the geosyncline theory.
Jules-Auguste Gosselet was a French geologist born in Cambrai, France.
Paul Lemoine was a French geologist born in Paris. He was the son of chemist Georges Lemoine (1841-1922) and husband of phycologist Marie Lemoine (1887–1984).
Jules Haime was a French geologist, paleontologist and zoologist known for his research of coral.
Gustave Frédéric Dollfus was a French geologist and malacologist. He was the father of parasitologist Robert-Philippe Dollfus (1887–1976).
Maurice Armand Chaper was a French geologist and mining engineer.
Georges de Tribolet was a Swiss geologist. He was the older brother of geologist and paleontologist, Maurice de Tribolet (1852–1929).
Henri Coquand was a French geologist and paleontologist.
Claude Alexandre Albert Falsan was a French geologist and glaciologist.
Charles-François Fontannes, name sometimes given as Francisque Fontannes was a French paleontologist and stratigrapher.
Louis Édouard Gourdan de Fromentel was a French physician and paleontologist known for his study of fossil coral polyps and sponges.
Philippe Thomas was a French veterinarian and amateur geologist who discovered large deposits of phosphates in Tunisia. Despite the huge economic importance of his discovery, he received little recognition during his life. Monuments to Thomas in Tunisia were destroyed after the country gained independence.
Alphonse Péron was a French soldier and amateur naturalist. He used his spare time to pursue his interest in paleontology, and authored or coauthored several important works on the geology and paleontology of France and Algeria.
The public domain consists of all the creative work to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have expired, been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable.
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition (1910–11), is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopaedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries.