Constantius II

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Constantius II
Augustus
Constance II Colosseo Rome Italy.jpg
Bust of Constantius II
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Reign324 (13 November) – 337 (22 May): Caesar under his father, Constantine I
337 – 350: co-Augustus (ruled Asian provinces & Egypt) with Constantine II and Constans
Predecessor Constantine I
Co-emperorsConstantine II (Western Emperor, 337–340)
Constans (Western Emperor, 337–350)
Reign350361 (3 November): Sole Augustus of the Roman Empire
Successor Julian
Co-emperorJulian (Western Emperor, 360–361)
Born7 August 317
Sirmium, Pannonia Inferior (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia)
Died3 November 361(361-11-03) (aged 44)
Mopsuestia, Cilicia
Wives
Issue Flavia Maxima Constantia, born posthumously (later married Gratian)
Full name
Flavius Julius Constantius
Regnal name
  • Flavius Julius Constantius Caesar (as Caesar)
  • Imperator Caesar Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus (as Emperor)
Dynasty Constantinian
Father Constantine I
Mother Fausta
Religion Arian Christianity

Constantius II (Latin : Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus; [1] [2] Greek : Κωνστάντιος; 7 August 317 – 3 November 361) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. His reign saw constant warfare on the borders against the Sasanian Empire and Germanic peoples, while internally the Roman Empire went through repeated civil wars and usurpations, culminating in Constantius' overthrow as emperor by his cousin Julian. His religious policies inflamed domestic conflicts that would continue after his death.

Greek language language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Sasanian Empire last Persian empire before the rise of Islam

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire, was the last kingdom of the Persian Empire before the rise of Islam. Named after the House of Sasan, it ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire succeeded the Parthian Empire and was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire for a period of more than 400 years.

Germanic peoples peoples who are, or are related to, native speakers of a Germanic language

The Germanic peoples are an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group of Northern European origin identified by their use of the Germanic languages. Their history stretches from the 2nd millennium BCE up to the present day.

Contents

The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, Constantius was made Caesar by his father in 324. He led the Roman army in war against the Sasanian Empire in 336. A year later, Constantine I died, and Constantius became Augustus with his brothers Constantine II and Constans. He promptly oversaw the massacre of eight of his relatives, consolidating his hold on power. The brothers divided the empire among themselves, with Constantius receiving the eastern provinces. In 340, his brothers Constantine and Constans clashed over the western provinces of the empire. The resulting conflict left Constantine dead and Constans as ruler of the west. The war against the Sasanians continued, with Constantius losing a major battle at Singara in 344. In 350, Constans was overthrown and assassinated in 350 by the usurper Magnentius.

Fausta Roman Empress, daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximianus

Flavia Maxima Fausta (289–326) was a Roman Empress, daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximianus. To seal the alliance between them for control of the Tetrarchy, in 307 Maximianus married her to Constantine I, who set aside his wife Minervina in her favour. Constantine and Fausta had been betrothed since 293.

Caesar (title) cognomen, later an imperial title of Roman empire

Caesar is a title of imperial character. It derives from the cognomen of Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator. The change from being a familial name to a title adopted by the Roman Emperors can be dated to about AD 68/69, the so-called "Year of the Four Emperors".

Late Roman army

In modern scholarship, the "late" period of the Roman army begins with the accession of the Emperor Diocletian in AD 284, and ends in 476 with the deposition of Romulus Augustulus, being roughly coterminous with the Dominate. During the period 395–476, the army of the Roman Empire's western half progressively disintegrated, while its counterpart in the East, known as the East Roman army remained largely intact in size and structure until the reign of Justinian I.

Unwilling to accept Magnentius as co-ruler, Constantius waged a civil war against the usurper, defeating him at the battles of Mursa Major in 351 and Mons Seleucus in 353. Magnentius committed suicide after the latter battle, leaving Constantius as sole ruler of the empire. In 351, Constantius elevated his cousin Constantius Gallus to the subordinate rank of Caesar to rule in the east, but had him executed three years later after receiving scathing reports of his violent and corrupt nature. Shortly thereafter, in 355, Constantius promoted his last surviving cousin, Gallus' younger half-brother Julian, to the rank of Caesar.

The Roman civil war of 350–351 AD was a war fought between the Roman emperor Constantius II and the usurper Magnentius.

The Battle of Mursa Major was fought in AD 351 between the eastern Roman armies led by Constantius II and the western forces supporting the usurper Magnentius.

The Battle of Mons Seleucus was fought in 353 between the forces of the legitimate Roman emperor Constantius II and the forces of the usurper Magnentius. Constantius' forces were victorious, and Magnentius later committed suicide.

As emperor, Constantius promoted Arian Christianity, persecuted pagans by banning sacrifices and closing pagan temples and issued laws discriminating against Jews. His military campaigns against Germanic tribes were successful: he defeated the Alamanni in 354 and campaigned across the Danube against the Quadi and Sarmatians in 357. The war against the Sasanians, which had been in a lull since 350, erupted with renewed intensity in 359 and Constantius traveled to the east in 360 to restore stability after the loss of several border fortresses to the Sasanians. However, Julian claimed the rank of Augustus in 360, leading to war between the two after Constantius' attempts to convince Julian to back down failed. No battle was fought, as Constantius became ill and died of fever on 3 November 361 in Mopsuestia, naming Julian as his rightful successor before his death.

Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God. Arian teachings were first attributed to Arius, a Christian presbyter in Alexandria of Egypt. The teachings of Arius and his supporters were opposed to the theological views held by Homoousian Christians, regarding the nature of the Trinity and the nature of Christ. The Arian concept of Christ is based on the belief that the Son of God did not always exist but was begotten within time by God the Father.

The anti-paganism policy of Constantius II lasted from 337 till 361. It was marked by laws and edicts that punished pagan practices. Laws dating from the 350s prescribed the death penalty for those who performed or attended pagan sacrifices, and for the worshipping of idols; temples were shut down, and the Altar of Victory was removed from the Senate meeting house. There were also frequent episodes of ordinary Christians destroying, pillaging, desecrating, vandalizing many of the ancient pagan temples, tombs and monuments. Paganism was still popular among the population at the time. The emperor's policies were passively resisted of many governors and magistrates. Herbermann contends that the anti-paganism legislation had an unfavourable influence on the Middle Ages and become the basis of the Inquisition.

Paganism non-Abrahamic religion, or modern religious movement such as nature worship

Paganism, is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for people in the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism. This was either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population, or because they were not milites Christi. Alternate terms in Christian texts for the same group were hellene, gentile, and heathen. Ritual sacrifice was an integral part of ancient Graeco-Roman religion and was regarded as an indication of whether a person was pagan or Christian.

Early life

Roman Imperial Follis Caesar Constantius II 325.jpg
Caesar Constantius II on an early follis of Heraclea 325
Bust of Prince Constantius II in blue glass, Romisch-Germanisches Museum, Cologne (8115676712).jpg
Bust of Constantius II while he was a prince, Romano-Germanic Museum, Cologne
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Division of the Roman Empire among the Caesars appointed by Constantine I: from west to east, the territories of Constantine II, Constans I, Dalmatius and Constantius II. After the death of Constantine I (May 337), this was the formal division of the Empire, until Dalmatius was killed and his territory divided between Constans and Constantius.

Constantius was born in 317 at Sirmium, Pannonia. He was the third son of Constantine the Great, and second by his second wife Fausta, the daughter of Maximian. Constantius was made Caesar by his father on 13 November 324. [3] In 336, religious unrest in Armenia and tense relations between Constantine and king Shapur II caused war to break out between Rome and Sassanid Persia. [4] Though he made initial preparations for the war, Constantine fell ill and sent Constantius east to take command of the eastern frontier. [4] [5] Before Constantius arrived, the Persian general Narses, who was possibly the king's brother, overran Mesopotamia and captured Amida. Constantius promptly attacked Narses, and after suffering minor setbacks defeated and killed Narses at the Battle of Narasara. [6] Constantius captured Amida and initiated a major refortification of the city, enhancing the city's circuit walls and constructing large towers. He also built a new stronghold in the hinterland nearby, naming it Antinopolis. [7]

Sirmium Roman and Byzantine city

Sirmium was a city in the Roman province of Pannonia. First mentioned in the 4th century BC and originally inhabited by Illyrians and Celts, it was conquered by the Romans in the 1st century BC and subsequently became the capital of the Roman province of Pannonia Inferior. In 294 AD, Sirmium was proclaimed one of four capitals of the Roman Empire. It was also the capital of the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum and of Pannonia Secunda. Sirmium was located on the Sava river, on the site of modern Sremska Mitrovica in northern Serbia. The site is protected as an Archaeological Site of Exceptional Importance. The modern region of Syrmia (Srem) was named after the city.

Pannonia ancient province of the Roman Empire

Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. Pannonia was located over the territory of the present-day western Hungary, eastern Austria, northern Croatia, north-western Serbia, northern Slovenia, western Slovakia and northern Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Constantine the Great Roman emperor

Constantine the Great, also known as Constantine I, was a Roman Emperor who ruled between 306 and 337 AD. Born on the territory now known as Niš, he was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman Army officer. His mother was Empress Helena. His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under Emperors Diocletian and Galerius. In 305, Constantius was raised to the rank of Augustus, senior western emperor, and Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia (Britain). Constantine was acclaimed as emperor by the army at Eboracum after his father's death in 306 AD. He emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against Emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324 AD.

Augustus in the East

Constantius II.jpg
Bust of Constantius II, Capitoline Museums
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Gold solidus of Constantius II, celebrating the 15th year of his reign
Double Centenionalis Magnentius-XR-s4017.jpg
Bronze coin of Magnentius
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Gold solidus of Constantius Gallus. A paternal cousin of Constantius, he was made Caesar by Constantius in 350 and was married to the Emperor's sister, Constantina. However, his mismanagement of the eastern provinces led to his downfall and death in 354.

In early 337, Constantius hurried to Constantinople after receiving news that his father was near death. [8] After Constantine died, Constantius buried him with lavish ceremony in the Church of the Holy Apostles. [9] Soon after his father's death Constantius supposedly ordered a massacre of his relatives descended from the second marriage of his paternal grandfather Constantius Chlorus, though the details are unclear. [10] [11] Eutropius, writing between 350 and 370, states that Constantius merely sanctioned “the act, rather than commanding it”. [12] The massacre killed two of Constantius' uncles and six of his cousins, [13] including Hannibalianus and Dalmatius, rulers of Pontus and Moesia respectively. The massacre left Constantius, his older brother Constantine II, his younger brother Constans, and three cousins Gallus, Julian and Nepotianus as the only surviving male relatives of Constantine the Great.

Constantinople capital city of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, the Latin and the Ottoman Empire

Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman Empire (330–395), of the Byzantine Empire, and also of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire (1204–1261), until finally falling to the Ottoman Empire (1453–1923). It was reinaugurated in 324 from ancient Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was named, and dedicated on 11 May 330. The city was located in what is now the European side and the core of modern Istanbul.

Church of the Holy Apostles church in Istanbul

The Church of the Holy Apostles, also known as the Imperial Polyándreion, was a Greek Eastern Orthodox church in Constantinople, capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. The first structure dates to the 4th century, though future emperors would add to and improve on the space. It was second in size and importance only to the Hagia Sophia among the great churches of the capital. When Constantinople fell to the Ottomans in 1453, the Holy Apostles briefly became the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarch of the Greek Orthodox Church. Three years later the edifice, which was in a dilapidated state, was abandoned by the Patriarch, and in 1461 it was demolished by the Ottomans to make way for the Fatih Mosque.

Constantius Chlorus Roman emperor

Constantius I, commonly known as Constantius Chlorus, was a Caesar from 293 to 305 and a Roman Emperor from 305 to 306. He was the father of Constantine the Great and founder of the Constantinian dynasty.

Soon after, Constantius met his brothers in Pannonia at Sirmium to formalize the partition of the empire. [14] Constantius received the eastern provinces, including Constantinople, Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Cyrenaica; Constantine received Britannia, Gaul, Hispania, and Mauretania; and Constans, initially under the supervision of Constantine II, received Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Pannonia, Macedonia, and Achaea. [15]

Constantius then hurried east to Antioch to resume the war with Persia. [16] While Constantius was away from the eastern frontier in early 337, King Shapur II assembled a large army, which included war elephants, and launched an attack on Roman territory, laying waste to Mesopotamia [17] and putting the city of Nisibis under siege. [18] Despite initial success, Shapur lifted his siege after his army missed an opportunity to exploit a collapsed wall. [16] When Constantius learned of Shapur's withdrawal from Roman territory, he prepared his army for a counter-attack.

Constantius repeatedly defended the eastern border against invasions by the aggressive Sassanid Empire under Shapur. These conflicts were mainly limited to Sassanid sieges of the major fortresses of Roman Mesopotamia, including Nisibis (Nusaybin), Singara, and Amida (Diyarbakir). Although Shapur seems to have been victorious in most of these confrontations, the Sassanids were able to achieve little. [19] [20] However, the Romans won a decisive victory at the Battle of Narasara, killing Shapur's brother, Narses. [19] [21] Ultimately, Constantius was able to push back the invasion, and Shapur failed to make any significant gains. [20]

Meanwhile, Constantine II desired to retain control of Constans' realm, leading the brothers into open conflict. Constantine was killed in 340 near Aquileia during an ambush. [12] As a result, Constans took control of his deceased brother's realms and became sole ruler of the Western two-thirds of the empire. This division lasted until 350, when Constans was assassinated by forces loyal to the usurper Magnentius. [12] [22]

War against Magnentius

As the only surviving son of Constantine the Great, Constantius felt that the position of emperor was his alone, [23] and he determined to march west to fight the usurper, Magnentius. However, feeling that the east still required some sort of imperial presence, he elevated his cousin Constantius Gallus to Caesar of the eastern provinces. As an extra measure to ensure the loyalty of his cousin, he married the elder of his two sisters, Constantina, to him. [23]

Before facing Magnentius, Constantius first came to terms with Vetranio, a loyal general in Illyricum who had recently been acclaimed emperor by his soldiers. Vetranio immediately sent letters to Constantius pledging his loyalty, which Constantius may have accepted simply in order to stop Magnentius from gaining more support. These events may have been spurred by the action of Constantina, who had since traveled east to marry Gallus. Constantius subsequently sent Vetranio the imperial diadem and acknowledged the general‘s new position as Augustus . However, when Constantius arrived, Vetranio willingly resigned his position and accepted Constantius’ offer of a comfortable retirement in Bithynia. [24]

In 351, Constantius clashed with Magnentius in Pannonia with a large army. The ensuing Battle of Mursa Major was one of the largest and bloodiest battles ever between two Roman armies. [25] [26] [27] [28] The result was a victory for Constantius, but a costly one. Magnentius survived the battle and, determined to fight on, withdrew into northern Italy. Rather than pursuing his opponent, however, Constantius turned his attention to securing the Danubian border, where he spent the early months of 352 campaigning against the Sarmatians along the middle Danube. After achieving his aims, Constantius advanced on Magnentius in Italy. This action led the cities of Italy to switch their allegiance to him and eject the usurper's garrisons. Again, Magnentius withdrew, this time to southern Gaul. [29]

In 353, Constantius and Magnentius met for the final time at the Battle of Mons Seleucus in southern Gaul, and again Constantius emerged the victor. [29] Magnentius, realizing the futility of continuing his position, committed suicide on 10 August 353. [30]

Sole ruler of the empire

Constantius spent much of the rest of 353 and early 354 on campaign against the Alamanni on the Danube frontier. The campaign was successful and raiding by the Alamanni ceased temporarily. In the meantime, Constantius had been receiving disturbing reports regarding the actions of his cousin Gallus. [31] Possibly as a result of these reports, Constantius concluded a peace with the Alamanni and traveled to Mediolanum (Milan). [32]

In Mediolanum, Constantius first summoned Ursicinus, Gallus’ magister equitum, for reasons that remain unclear. [33] Constantius then summoned Gallus and Constantina. [34] Although Gallus and Constantina complied with the order at first, when Constantina died in Bithynia, [34] Gallus began to hesitate. However, after some convincing by one of Constantius’ agents, [35] Gallus continued his journey west, passing through Constantinople and Thrace to Poetovio (Ptuj) in Pannonia. [36] [37]

In Poetovio, Gallus was arrested by the soldiers of Constantius under the command of Barbatio. [38] Gallus was then moved to Pola and interrogated. Gallus claimed that it was Constantina who was to blame for all the trouble while he was in charge of the eastern provinces. [39] This angered Constantius so greatly that he immediately ordered Gallus' execution. [40] He soon changed his mind, however, and recanted the order. [41] [42] Unfortunately for Gallus, this second order was delayed by Eusebius, one of Constantius' eunuchs, and Gallus was executed. [37]

Religious issues

Constantius II depicted in the Chronography of 354 dispensing largesse (a Renaissance copy of a Carolingian copy) 07 constantius2Chrono354.png
Constantius II depicted in the Chronography of 354 dispensing largesse (a Renaissance copy of a Carolingian copy)

Paganism

In spite of some of the edicts issued by Constantius, he never made any attempt to disband the various Roman priestly colleges or the Vestal Virgins, he never acted against the various pagan schools, and, at times, he actually made some effort to protect paganism. In fact, he even ordered the election of a priest for Africa. [43] Also, he remained pontifex maximus and was deified by the Roman Senate after his death. His relative moderation toward paganism is reflected by the fact that it was over twenty years after his death, during the reign of Gratian, that any pagan senator protested his treatment of their religion. [44]

Christianity

Although often considered an Arian, [45] Constantius ultimately preferred a third, compromise version that lay somewhere in between Arianism and the Nicene Creed, retrospectively called Semi-Arianism. [46] [47] During his reign he attempted to mold the Christian church to follow this compromise position, convening several Christian councils. The most notable of these were the Council of Rimini and its twin at Seleucia, which met in 359 and 360 respectively. "Unfortunately for his memory the theologians whose advice he took were ultimately discredited and the malcontents whom he pressed to conform emerged victorious," writes the historian A.H.M. Jones. "The great councils of 359–60 are therefore not reckoned ecumenical in the tradition of the church, and Constantius II is not remembered as a restorer of unity, but as a heretic who arbitrarily imposed his will on the church." [48]

Christian-related edicts issued by Constantius (by himself or with others) included:

  • Exemption from compulsory public service for the clergy [49]
  • Exemption from compulsory public service for the sons of clergy [50]
  • Tax exemptions for clergy and their servants, [51] and later for their family [52]
  • Clergy and the issue of private property [53]
  • Bishops exempted from being tried in secular courts [54]
  • Christian prostitutes only able to be bought by Christians [55]

Judaism

This section of a belt contains two gold medallions. The larger coin depicts the triumphant emperor in his chariot. The Walters Art Museum. Byzantine - Belt Section with Medallions of Constantius II and Faustina - Walters 57527 - Back.jpg
This section of a belt contains two gold medallions. The larger coin depicts the triumphant emperor in his chariot. The Walters Art Museum.

Judaism faced some severe restrictions under Constantius, who seems to have followed an anti-Jewish policy in line with that of his father. [57] Early in his reign, Constantius issued a double edict in concert with his brothers limiting the ownership of slaves by Jewish people [58] and banning marriages between Jews and Christian women. [58] A later edict issued by Constantius after becoming sole emperor decreed that a person who was proven to have converted from Christianity to Judaism would have all of his property confiscated by the state. [59] However, Constantius' actions in this regard may not have been so much to do with Jewish religion as with Jewish business—apparently, privately owned Jewish businesses were often in competition with state-owned businesses. As a result, Constantius may have sought to provide an advantage to state-owned businesses by limiting the skilled workers and slaves available to Jewish businesses. [57]

Jew-related edicts issued by Constantius (by himself or with others) included:

  • Weaving women who moved from working for the government to working for Jews must be restored to the government [58]
  • Jews may not marry Christian women [58]
  • Jews may not attempt to convert Christian women [58]
  • Any non-Jewish slave bought by a Jew will be confiscated by the state [58]
  • If a Jew attempts to circumcise a non-Jewish slave, the slave will be freed and the Jew shall face capital punishment [58]
  • Any Christian slaves owned by a Jew will be taken away and freed [58]
  • A person who is proven to have converted from Christianity to Judaism shall have their property confiscated by the state [59]

More usurpers and Julian

Bust of Constantius II in the University of Pennsylvania's Museum of Archaeology Bust of Constantius II (Mary Harrsch).jpg
Bust of Constantius II in the University of Pennsylvania's Museum of Archaeology

On 11 August 355, the magister militum Claudius Silvanus revolted in Gaul. Silvanus had surrendered to Constantius after the Battle of Mursa Major. Constantius had made him magister militum in 353 with the purpose of blocking the German threats, a feat that Silvanus achieved by bribing the German tribes with the money he had collected. A plot organized by members of Constantius' court led the emperor to recall Silvanus. After Silvanus revolted, he received a letter from Constantius recalling him to Milan, but which made no reference to the revolt. Ursicinus, who was meant to replace Silvanus, bribed some troops, and Silvanus was killed.

Constantius realised that too many threats still faced the Empire, however, and he could not possibly handle all of them by himself. So on 6 November 355, [60] he elevated his last remaining male relative, Julian, to the rank of Caesar. [61] A few days later, Julian was married to Helena, the last surviving sister of Constantius. [62] Constantius soon sent Julian off to Gaul. [62]

Constantius spent the next few years overseeing affairs in the western part of the empire primarily from his base at Mediolanum. In 357 he visited Rome for the only time in his life. The same year, he forced Sarmatian and Quadi invaders out of Pannonia and Moesia Inferior, then led a successful counter-attack across the Danube. [63]

In the winter of 357–58, Constantius received ambassadors from Shapur II who demanded that Rome restore the lands surrendered by Narseh. [64] [65] Despite rejecting these terms, [66] [67] Constantius tried to avert war with the Sassanid Empire by sending two embassies to Shapur II. [68] [69] [70] Shapur II nevertheless launched another invasion of Roman Mesopotamia. In 360, when news reached Constantius that Shapur II had destroyed Singara, [71] and taken Kiphas (Hasankeyf), Amida, [72] and Ad Tigris (Cizre), [73] he decided to travel east to face the re-emergent threat.

Usurpation of Julian and crises in the east

Missorium of Kerch depicting Constantius II on horseback with a spear. He is preceded by victory and accompanied by a guardsman. Missorium Kerch.jpg
Missorium of Kerch depicting Constantius II on horseback with a spear. He is preceded by victory and accompanied by a guardsman.

In the meantime, Julian had won some victories against the Alamanni, who had once again invaded Roman Gaul. However, when Constantius requested reinforcements from Julian's army for the eastern campaign, the Gallic legions revolted and proclaimed Julian Augustus. [74] [75] [76] [77]

On account of the immediate Sassanid threat, Constantius was unable to directly respond to his cousin's usurpation, other than by sending missives in which he tried to convince Julian to resign the title of Augustus and be satisfied with that of Caesar. By 361, Constantius saw no alternative but to face the usurper with force, and yet the threat of the Sassanids remained. Constantius had already spent part of early 361 unsuccessfully attempting to re-take the fortress of Ad Tigris. [78] After a time he had withdrawn to Antioch to regroup and prepare for a confrontation with Shapur II. [79] The campaigns of the previous year had inflicted heavy losses on the Sassanids, however, and they did not attempt another round of campaigns that year. This temporary respite in hostilities allowed Constantius to turn his full attention to facing Julian. [80]

Death

Constantius immediately gathered his forces and set off west. However, by the time he reached Mopsuestia in Cilicia, it was clear that he was fatally ill and would not survive to face Julian. Apparently, realising his death was near, Constantius had himself baptised by Euzoius, the Semi-Arian bishop of Antioch, and then declared that Julian was his rightful successor. [80] Constantius II died of fever on 3 November 361. [81]

Marriages and children

Constantius II was married three times:

First to a daughter of his half-uncle Julius Constantius, whose name is unknown. She was a full-sister of Gallus and a half-sister of Julian. She died c. 352/3. [82]

Second, to Eusebia, a woman of Macedonian origin, originally from the city of Thessaloniki, whom Constantius married before his defeat of Magnentius in 353. She died in 360. [83]

Third and lastly, in 360, to Faustina, who gave birth to Constantius' only child, a posthumous daughter named Flavia Maxima Constantia, who later married Emperor Gratian. [84]

Reputation

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A nummus of Constantius II

Constantius II is a particularly difficult figure to judge properly due to the hostility of most sources toward him. A. H. M. Jones writes that Constantius "appears in the pages of Ammianus as a conscientious emperor but a vain and stupid man, an easy prey to flatterers. He was timid and suspicious, and interested persons could easily play on his fears for their own advantage." [85] However, Kent and M. and A. Hirmer suggest that Constantius "has suffered at the hands of unsympathetic authors, ecclesiastical and civil alike. To orthodox churchmen he was a bigoted supporter of the Arian heresy, to Julian the Apostate and the many who have subsequently taken his part he was a murderer, a tyrant and inept as a ruler". They go on to add, "Most contemporaries seem in fact to have held him in high esteem, and he certainly inspired loyalty in a way his brother could not". [86]

Ancestry

Ancestors of Constantius II
8. Eutropius [87]
4. Constantius Chlorus [88]
9. Claudia (?) [89]
2. Constantine I
5. Helena [90]
1.Constantius II
6. Maximian [91]
3. Fausta
7. Eutropia [91]

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Justina was the second wife of the Roman Emperor Valentinian I and the mother of Valentinian II, Galla, Grata and Justa.

Siege of Amida

The Siege of Amida took place when the Sassanians under Shapur II besieged the Roman city of Amida in 359 CE.

Constantina, and later known as Saint Constance, was the eldest daughter of Roman emperor Constantine the Great and his second wife Fausta, daughter of Emperor Maximian. Constantina received the title of Augusta by her father, and is venerated as a saint, having developed a medieval legend wildly at variance with what is known of her actual character. In English she is also known as Saint Constance.

Ursicinus was a Roman senior military officer, holding the rank of "master of cavalry" in the later Roman Empire c. 349–359. He was a citizen of Antioch and was well connected in the Eastern part of the Roman Empire.

Battle of Samarra battle

The Battle of Samarra took place in June 363, after the invasion of Sassanid Persia by the Roman Emperor Julian. A major skirmish, the fighting was indecisive but Julian was mortally wounded in the battle. The Romans, stranded deep in Persian territory and suffering from a lack of supplies, were forced to accept terms for peace.

Barbatio was a Roman general of the infantry under the command of Constantius II. Previously he was a commander of the household troops under Gallus Caesar, but he arrested Gallus under the instruction of Constantius, thereby ensuring his promotion on the death of Claudius Silvanus. In 359, both he and his wife Assyria were arrested and beheaded for treason against Constantius, possibly as part of a plot by Arbitio, a senior cavalry commander, and another exponent of the forms of scheming and political intrigue that became such a part of the later Roman Empire.

Helena (wife of Julian) Roman empress

Helena was a Roman Empress by marriage to Julian, Roman Emperor in 360–363. She was briefly his Empress consort when Julian was proclaimed Augustus by his troops in 360. She died prior to the resolution of his conflict with Constantius II.

Apodemius was an officer of the Roman Empire, a courtier of Emperor Constantius II, involved in the deaths of Constantius Gallus and Claudius Silvanus.

Pentadius was an officer of the Roman Empire.

Eusebius was a high-ranking officer of the Roman Empire, holding the position of praepositus sacri cubiculi for all the rule of Emperor Constantius II (337-361).

Florentius was a Roman praetorian prefect under the Caesar Julian and later a consul, before falling from grace when Julian became emperor.

Itineraries of the Roman emperors, 337–361

This article chronicles the attested movements of the fourth-century Roman emperors Constantine II, Constantius II, Constans, Gallus, and Julian the Apostate from 337 to 361 AD. It does not cover the imperial usurpers of the period, including Magnentius, Vetranio, Claudius Silvanus, and Poemenius. The chronology is principally derived from Timothy Barnes' Athanasius and Constantius. Substantial additions and further sources are based on recent research that seeks to go beyond Barnes' own chronology and slightly modifying his at a few places.

References

  1. In Classical Latin, Constantius' name would be inscribed as FLAVIVS IVLIVS CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS.
  2. CIL 06, 40776 = AE 1934, 00158 = AE 1950, 00174 = AE 1951, 00102 = AE 1982, 00011
  3. DiMaio Jr., M. & Frakes, R. 'DIR-Constantius II' from De Imperatoribus Romanis
  4. 1 2 Dodgeon, M.H. and Lieu, N.C. The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars, AD 226–363. p152-153
  5. Julian, Orationes I, 13B
  6. Festus, breviarum 27, p. 67, 2–3
  7. Ammianus Marcellinus XVIII, 9, 1
  8. Chronicon Paschale p.533, 5–17
  9. Julian, or. I, 18D-19A (14.16–22, pp. 31–2, Bidez)
  10. X. Lucien-Brun, "Constance II et le massacre des princes," Bulletin de l'Association Guillaume Budé ser. 4 (1973): 585–602; Joe W. Leedom, "Constantius II: Three Revisions," Byzantion 48 (1978): 132–145, and Michael DiMaio and Duane Arnold, "Per Vim, Per Caedem, Per Bellum: A Study of Murder and Ecclesiastical Politics in the Year 337 A.D," Byzantion, 62(1992), 158ff. Cited in DiMaio and Frakes.
  11. Zosimus, New History II.57-8
  12. 1 2 3 Eutropius, Historiae Romanae Breviarium X.9
  13. Julian, epistula ad Athenienses 270C (3.5–8, p. 215, Bidez)
  14. Odahl, C.M., Constantine and the Christian Empire (2004), p. 275
  15. Zosimus, New History II.57
  16. 1 2 Theodoret, Historia Ecclesiastica II, 30, 1–14, GCS
  17. Jerome, Chronicon, s. a. 338 p. 234, 17–18
  18. Theodoret, Historia religiosa I, 11–12, edd. Canivet and Leroy-Molinghen, pp. 184–8
  19. 1 2 Festus, Brevarium XXVII
  20. 1 2 Dignas, B. & Winter, E., Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity (2007), p. 89
  21. Theophanes, Chronicle A.M. 5815
  22. Zosimus New History II.58-9
  23. 1 2 Zosimus, New History II.60
  24. Zosimus, New History II.59
  25. Zonaras, Extracts of History XIII.8.5–13
  26. Julian the Apostate, The Caesars XLII.9–10
  27. Zosimus, New History II.46.2
  28. Eutropius, Roman History X.12
  29. 1 2 Potter, D.S., The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180–395 (2004), p. 474
  30. Eutropius, Historiae Romanae Breviarium X.12
  31. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae 14.1.10
  32. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XIV.10.16
  33. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XIV.11.3–5
  34. 1 2 Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XIV.11.6
  35. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XIV.11.11–12
  36. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XIV.11.19
  37. 1 2 Banchich, T.M., 'DIR-Gallus' from De Imperatoribus Romanis
  38. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XIV.11.20
  39. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XIV.11.22
  40. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XIV.11.23
  41. Zonaras, Extracts of History XIII.9.20
  42. Libanius, Orations XVIII.152
  43. Vasiliev, A.A, History of the Byzantine Empire 324–1453 (1958), p. 68
  44. Salzman, M.R., The Making of a Christian Aristocracy: Social and Religious Change in the Western Roman Empire (2002), p. 182
  45. Jones, A.H.M, The Later Roman Empire, 284–602: a Social, Economic and Administrative Survey (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1986), p. 118
  46. Pelikan, J.J., The Christian Tradition (1989), pp. 209–10
  47. Gaddis, M., There is No Crime for Those who Have Christ (2005), p. 92
  48. Jones, A.H.M, The Later Roman Empire, 284–602: a Social, Economic and Administrative Survey (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1986), p. 118.
  49. Codex Theodosianus 16.2.9
  50. Codex Theodosianus 16.2.11
  51. Codex Theodosianus 16.2.8
  52. Codex Theodosianus 16.2.14
  53. Codex Theodosianus 16.2.15, 12.1.49 & 8.4.7
  54. Codex Theodosianus 16.2.12
  55. Codex Theodosianus 15.8.1
  56. "Belt Section with Medallions of Constantius II and Faustina". The Walters Art Museum.
  57. 1 2 Schäfer, P., The History of the Jews in the Greco-Roman World (2003), pp. 180–1
  58. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Codex Theodosianus 16.9.2
  59. 1 2 Codex Theodosianus 16.8.7
  60. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XV.8.17
  61. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XV.8.5–16
  62. 1 2 Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XV.8.18
  63. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XVI.12
  64. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XVII.5.3–8
  65. Zonaras, Extracts of History XII.9.25-7
  66. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XVII.5.9–14
  67. Zonaras, Extracts of History XII.9.28-9
  68. Libanius, Epistle 331
  69. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XVII.14.1–3 & XVIII.6.17-8
  70. Eunapius, Lives of the Sophists VI. 5.1–10
  71. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XX.6
  72. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XIX
  73. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XX.7.1–16
  74. Julian the Apostate, Letter To The Senate And People of Athens, X.12–17
  75. Libanius, Orations XII.58 & XVIII.90-1
  76. Eutropius, Historiae Romanae Breviarium X.15.1
  77. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XX.4.1–2
  78. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XX.11.6–25
  79. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXI.7.7 & 13.1–5
  80. 1 2 Vagi, D.L. & Coquand, T., Coinage and History of the Roman Empire (2001), p. 508
  81. The manuscript of Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae 21.15.2 reads tertium nonarum Octobrium, which is the equivalent of 5 October. The latest editor of the Res Gestae accepts Otto Seeck's emendation tertium nonarum Novembrium which is the equivalent of 3 November. T.D. Barnes (Classical Philology, 88 [1993], p. 64f) provides indirect evidence showing 3 November is a better fit.
  82. Banchich, Thomas M. "Gallus Caesar (15 March 351 - 354 A.D.)". De Imperatoribus Romanis. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  83. Juneau, J. (December 1999). "Piety and Politics: Eusebia and Constantius at Court". The Classical Quarterly. New Series. Cambridge University Press. 49 (2): 641–644. doi:10.1093/cq/49.2.641-a. JSTOR   639898.
  84. Marcellinus, Ammianus (1940). The Roman History of Ammianus Marcellinus. Loeb Classical Library. Vol. 2, Book 21, chapter 15. Translated by Rolfe, J. C. Harvard University Press. Retrieved 11 April 2011.
  85. Jones, A. H. M., Later Roman Empire, p. 116.
  86. Kent, J.P.C., Hirmer, M. & Hirmer, A. Roman Coins (1978), p. 54
  87. Historia Augusta , Life of Claudius 13
  88. Odahl, Charles M. (2001). Constantine and the Christian empire. London: Routledge. pp. 40–41. ISBN   978-0-415-17485-5.
  89. Southern, Pat (2001). The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine. Routledge. p. 172.
  90. Drijvers, J.W. Helena Augusta: The Mother of Constantine the Great and the Legend of Her finding the True Cross (Leiden, 1991) 9, 15–17.
  91. 1 2 Barnes, Timothy D. (1982). The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p. 34. ISBN   0-7837-2221-4.

See also

References

Ancient sources

  • Ammianus Marcellinus. Res Gestae.
    • Yonge, Charles Duke, trans. Roman History. London: Bohn, 1862. Online at Tertullian. Accessed 15 August 2009.
    • Rolfe, J.C., trans. History. 3 vols. Loeb ed. London: Heinemann, 1939–52. Online at LacusCurtius. Accessed 15 August 2009.
    • Hamilton, Walter, trans. The Later Roman Empire (A.D. 354–378). Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986. [Abridged edition]
  • Athanasius of Alexandria.
    • Festal Index.
    • Atkinson, M., and Archibald Robertson, trans. Festal Letters. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 4. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Accessed 15 August 2009.
    • Epistula encyclica (Encyclical letter). Summer 339.
    • Atkinson, M., and Archibald Robertson, trans. Encyclical letter. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 4. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent and Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Accessed 15 August 2009.
    • Apologia Contra Arianos (Defense against the Arians). 349.
    • Atkinson, M., and Archibald Robertson, trans. Apologia Contra Arianos. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 4. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 14 August 2009.
    • Apologia ad Constantium (Defense before Constantius). 353.
    • Atkinson, M., and Archibald Robertson, trans. Apologia ad Constantium. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 4. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 14 August 2009.
    • Historia Arianorum (History of the Arians). 357.
    • Atkinson, M., and Archibald Robertson, trans. Historia Arianorum. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 4. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 14 August 2009.
    • De Synodis (On the Councils of Arminium and Seleucia). Autumn 359.
    • Newman, John Henry and Archibald Robertson, trans. De Synodis. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 4. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 15 August 2009.
    • Historia acephala. 368  c. 420.
    • Robertson, Archibald, trans. Historia Acephala. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 4. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent and Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Chronica minora 1, 2.
    • Mommsen, T., ed. Chronica Minora saec. IV, V, VI, VII 1, 2 (in Latin). Monumenta Germaniae Historia, Auctores Antiquissimi 9, 11. Berlin, 1892, 1894. Online at "Bayerische StaatsBibliothek". Archived from the original on 2012-07-08.. Accessed 25 August 2009.
  • Codex Theodosianus.
    • Mommsen, T. and Paul M. Meyer, eds. Theodosiani libri XVI cum Constitutionibus Sirmondianis et Leges novellae ad Theodosianum pertinentes2 (in Latin). Berlin: Weidmann, [1905] 1954. Complied by Nicholas Palmer, revised by Tony Honoré for Oxford Text Archive, 1984. Prepared for online use by R.W.B. Salway, 1999. Preface, books 1–8. Online at University College London and the University of Grenoble. Accessed 25 August 2009.
    • Unknown edition (in Latin). Online at AncientRome.ru. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Codex Justinianus.
    • Scott, Samuel P., trans. The Code of Justinian, in The Civil Law. 17 vols. 1932. Online at the Constitution Society. Accessed 14 August 2009.
  • Ephraem the Syrian. Carmina Nisibena (Songs of Nisibis).
    • Stopford, J.T. Sarsfield, trans. The Nisibene Hymns. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 13. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1890. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 16 August 2009.
    • Bickell, Gustav, trans. S. Ephraemi Syri Carmina Nisibena: additis prolegomenis et supplemento lexicorum Syriacorum (in Latin). Lipetsk: Brockhaus, 1866. Online at Google Books. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Epitome de Caesaribus.
    • Banchich, Thomas M., trans. A Booklet About the Style of Life and the Manners of the Imperatores. Canisius College Translated Texts 1. Buffalo, NY: Canisius College, 2009. Online at De Imperatoribus Romanis. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Eunapius. Lives of the Sophists.
  • Eusebius of Caesarea.
    • Oratio de Laudibus Constantini (Oration in Praise of Constantine, sometimes the Tricennial Oration).
    • Richardson, Ernest Cushing, trans. Oration in Praise of Constantine. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 1. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1890. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 16 August 2009.
    • Vita Constantini (Life of Constantine).
    • Richardson, Ernest Cushing, trans. Life of Constantine. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 1. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1890. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 25 August 2009.
  • Eutropius. Historiae Romanae Breviarium.
    • Watson, John Selby, trans. Abridgment of Roman History. London: George Bell & Sons, 1886. Revised and edited for Tertullian by Roger Pearse, 2003. Online at Tertullian. Accessed 11 June 2010.
  • Festus. Breviarium.
    • Banchich, Thomas M., and Jennifer A. Meka, trans. Breviarium of the Accomplishments of the Roman People. Canisius College Translated Texts 2. Buffalo, NY: Canisius College, 2001. Online at De Imperatoribus Romanis. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Firmicus Maternus. De errore profanarum religionum (On the error of profane religions).
    • Baluzii and Rigaltii, eds. Divi Cæcilii Cypriani, Carthaginensis Episcopi, Opera Omnia; accessit J. Firmici Materni, Viri Clarissimi, De Errore Profanarum Religionum (in Latin). Paris: Gauthier Brothers and the Society of Booksellers, 1836. Online at Google Books. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Hilary of Poitiers. Ad Constantium (To Constantius).
    • Feder, Alfred Leonhard, ed. S. Hilarii episcopi Pictaviensis Tractatus mysteriorum. Collectanea Antiariana Parisina (fragmenta historica) cum appendice (liber I Ad Constantium). Liber ad Constantium imperatorem (Liber II ad Constantium). Hymni. Fragmenta minora. Spuria (in Latin). In the Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, Vol. 65. Vienna: Tempsky, 1916.
  • Itinerarium Alexandri (Itinerary of Alexander).
    • Mai, Angelo, ed. Itinerarium Alexandri ad Constantium Augustum, Constantini M. Filium (in Latin). Regiis Typis, 1818. Online at Google Books. Accessed 15 August 2009.
    • Davies, Iolo, trans. Itinerary of Alexander. 2009. Online at DocStoc [ dead link ]. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Jerome.
    • Chronicon (Chronicle).
    • Pearse, Roger, et al., trans. The Chronicle of St. Jerome, in Early Church Fathers: Additional Texts. Tertullian, 2005. Online at Tertullian. Accessed 14 August 2009.
    • de Viris Illustribus (On Illustrious Men).
    • Richardson, Ernest Cushing, trans. De Viris Illustribus (On Illustrious Men). From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 3. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Julian.
    • Wright, Wilmer Cave, trans. Works of the Emperor Julian. 3 vols. Loeb ed. London: Heinemann, 1913. Online at the Internet Archive: Vol. 1, 2, 3.
  • Libanius. Oratio 59 (Oration 59).
    • M.H. Dodgeon, trans. The Sons of Constantine: Libanius Or. LIX. In From Constantine to Julian: Pagan and Byzantine Views, A Source History, edited by S.N.C. Lieu and Dominic Montserrat, 164–205. London: Routledge, 1996. ISBN   0-415-09336-8
  • Origo Constantini Imperatoris.
    • Rolfe, J.C., trans. Excerpta Valesiana, in vol. 3 of Rolfe's translation of Ammianus Marcellinus' History. Loeb ed. London: Heinemann, 1952. Online at LacusCurtius. Accessed 16 August 2009.
  • Papyri Abinnaeus.
    • The Abinnaeus Archive: Papers of a Roman Officer in the Reign of Constantius II (in Greek). Duke Data Bank of Documentary Papyri. Online at Perseus and the Duke Data Bank [ dead link ]. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Papyri Laurentius.
    • Dai Papiri della Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana (in Greek). Duke Data Bank of Documentary Papyri. Online at Perseus and the Duke Data Bank [ dead link ]. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Philostorgius. Historia Ecclesiastica.
    • Walford, Edward, trans. Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius, Compiled by Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1855. Online at Tertullian. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Socrates. Historia Ecclesiastica (History of the Church).
    • Zenos, A.C., trans. Ecclesiastical History. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 2. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1890. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 14 August 2009.
  • Sozomen. Historia Ecclesiastica (History of the Church).
    • Hartranft, Chester D. Ecclesiastical History. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 2. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1890. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Sulpicius Severus. Sacred History.
    • Roberts, Alexander, trans. Sacred History. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 11. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1894. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 14 August 2009.
  • Theodoret. Historia Ecclesiastica (History of the Church).
    • Jackson, Blomfield, trans. Ecclesiastical History. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 3. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Themistius. Orationes (Orations).
  • Theophanes. Chronicle.
  • Zonaras. Extracts of History.
  • Zosimus. Historia Nova (New History).
    • Unknown trans. The History of Count Zosimus. London: Green and Champlin, 1814. Online at Tertullian. Accessed 15 August 2009. [An unsatisfactory edition.]
    • Unknown trans. Histoire Nouvelle and ΖΩΣΙΜΟΥ ΚΟΜΙΤΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΠΟΦΙΣΚΟΣΥΝΗΓΟΡΟΥ (in French and Greek). Online at the Catholic University of Louvain. Accessed 16 November 2009.

Modern sources

  • Banchich, T.M., 'DIR-Gallus' from De Imperatoribus Romanis
  • Dignas, B. & Winter, E., Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity (Cambridge University Press, 2007)
  • DiMaio, M., and Frakes, R., 'DIR-Constantius II' from De Imperatoribus Romanis "Constantius II,".
  • Gaddis, M., There is No Crime for Those who Have Christ (University of California Press, 2005).„
  • Hunt, Constantius II in the Ecclesiastical Historiansorians, Ph.D. diss. (Fordham University, 2010), AAT 3431914.
  • Jones, A.H.M, The Later Roman Empire, 284–602: a Social, Economic and Administrative Survey (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1986)
  • Kent, J.P.C., Hirmer, M. & Hirmer, A. Roman Coins (Thames and Hudson, 1978)
  • Moser, Muriel. 2018. Emperor and Senators in the Reign of Constantius II. Cambridge University Press.
  • Odahl, C.M., Constantine and the Christian Empire (Routledge, 2004)
  • Pelikan, J.J., The Christian Tradition (University of Chicago, 1989)
  • Potter, D.S., The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180–395 (Routledge, 2004)
  • Salzman, M.R., The Making of a Christian Aristocracy: Social and Religious Change in the Western Roman Empire (Harvard University Press, 2002)
  • Schäfer, P., The History of the Jews in the Greco-Roman World (Routledge, 2003)
  • Vagi, D.L. & Coquand, T., Coinage and History of the Roman Empire (Taylor & Francis, 2001)
  • Vasiliev, A.A., History of the Byzantine Empire 324–1453 (University of Wisconsin Press, 1958)
Constantius II
Born: 7 August 317 Died: 3 November 361
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Constantine I
Roman Emperor
337–361
Served alongside: Constans and Constantine II
Succeeded by
Julian
Political offices
Preceded by
Sextus Anicius Faustus Paulinus,
Julius Julianus
Consul of the Roman Empire
326
with Constantine I
Succeeded by
Lucius Valerius Maximus Basilius,
Flavius Constantius
Preceded by
Ursus,
Polemius
Consul of the Roman Empire
339
with Constans
Succeeded by
Septimius Acindynus,
Lucius Aradius Valerius Proculus
Preceded by
Petronius Probinus,
Antonius Marcellinus
Consul of the Roman Empire
342
with Constans
Succeeded by
Marcus Maecius Memmius Furius Baburius Caecilianus Placidus,
Flavius Romulus
Preceded by
Amantius,
Marcus Nummius Albinus
Consul of the Roman Empire
346
with Constans
Succeeded by
Vulcacius Rufinus,
Flavius Eusebius
Preceded by
Magnentius,
Gaiso
Consul of the Roman Empire
352–354
with Constantius Gallus,
Decentius,
Paulus,
Magnentius
Succeeded by
Arbitio,
Lollianus Mavortius
Preceded by
Arbitio,
Lollianus Mavortius
Consul of the Roman Empire
356–357
with Julian
Succeeded by
Neratius Cerealis,
Censorius Datianus
Preceded by
Flavius Eusebius,
Flavius Hypatius
Consul of the Roman Empire
360
with Julian
Succeeded by
Taurus,
Florentius