This article needs to be updated.(January 2018)
The Political Constitution of the Republic of Honduras (Spanish : Constitución Política de la República de Honduras) was approved on 11 January 1982, published on 20 January 1982,  amended by the National Congress of Honduras 26 times from 1984 to 2005,  and 10 interpretations by Congress were made from 1982 to 2005.   It is Honduras' twelfth constitution since independence in 1838. Previous charters were adopted in 1839, 1848, 1865, 1873, 1880, 1894, 1906, 1924, 1936, 1957 and 1965. 
The Constitution of Honduras gained notoriety because of the 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis that removed President Manuel Zelaya and saw Roberto Micheletti take his place. In 2009 Óscar Arias, then President of Costa Rica, who had been asked by the US State Department to help arbitrate the crisis, termed the Honduran constitution the "worst in the entire world" and an "invitation to coups." 
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2009)
Honduras broke away from the Central American Federation in October 1838 and became an independent sovereign state. However, in the 1840s and 1850s Honduras participated in several conferences Central American Union, which did not work, such as the Confederation of Central America (1842–1845), the covenant of Guatemala (1842), the Diet of Sonsonate (1846) and National Representation in Central America (1849–1852). It later adopted the name of Republic of Honduras.
In 1847 the National Autonomous University of Honduras (public) was founded during the administration of President-elect John Lindo; it taught civil law, philosophy and literature, among others.
In 1860, after his defeat in Nicaragua, Trujillo came to the U.S. (former president of Nicaragua) William Walker influenced by the ambiguous Monroe doctrine ( "America for Americans"). After deviating from his initial goal was the Bay Islands and the Mosquito, which previously belonged to Britain, barricaded himself in the Fortress of San Fernando in Omoa and was shot in Trujillo on 12 September 1860, during the presidential General Jose Santos Guardiola, who was assassinated two years later, before the end of his term.[ clarification needed ]
Marco Aurelio Soto Came to power in 1876 and implemented liberal reforms in the country. These reforms of administrative, political, economic and social development, tried to spin 90 degrees to the disastrous situation lived Honduras. Soto managed to improve lines of communication and others service. Construction of sections of railroad, the telegraph system and launched an education program unprecedented in the country. Despite the progress made during the administration, Honduras again fell back on social instability by failing to have products such as coffee grounds or snuff how to build a stable economy.
During the second half of the nineteenth century Honduras continued to participate in diplomatic efforts to restore political unity of Central America, and conference of The Union (1872) and Guatemala (1876). On 1 November 1898, the Greater Republic changed its name to Central America, but these were dissolved on 30 November and resumed sovereignty Honduras. 
Following several decades of military governments, a constituent assembly prepared a new constitution, agreed on it on 11 January 1982 and published it on 20 January 1982 in the official journal "La Gaceta".  Since then, the National Congress of Honduras made 26 amendments (ratified in 1984, 1986, 1987 (twice), 1988 (twice), 1990, 1991, 1995 (twice), 1996, 1998, 1999 (three times), 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 (four times), 2004 (twice) and 2005 (twice) and 10 interpretations from 1982 to 2005. 
The 13th amendment to the Constitution was voted by Congress on 30 September 1998, to make the President commander in chief of the armed forces.  The amendment was ratified by Congress by a vote of 128-0 on 26 January 1999  and signed by President Flores. This ended 42 years of military autonomy; the military had previously been governed by a military parliament and a commander in chief from the armed forces.
Starting in 2006  and leading to the 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis and removal of Zelaya, debate occurred in Honduran society regarding the creation of a constituent assembly in order to rewrite the constitution, with support from many groups.  President Manuel Zelaya played an important role in the debate and was arrested and exiled to Costa Rica by military officers on 28 June 2009. Whether or not it is constitutionally valid to hold a constituent assembly was a controversial issue, since Article 374 contains entrenched clauses regarding Article 373 and Article 374 itself, and Article 373 as interpreted by Decree 169/1986 defines the method of modifying the constitution:
Article 373.- The reform of this Constitution may be ordered by the National Congress, in regular sessions, with two-thirds of votes of all of its members. The decree brought to the effect on the article or articles to be reformed, must be ratified by the subsequent regular parliamentary session of an equal number of votes, to enter into force.
A wide range of social organisations and some political parties coordinated together as the Frente Nacional de Resistencia contra el Golpe de Estado en Honduras. In response to an international mediation meeting held in San Jose in Costa Rica in relation to the removal of the President, in which Zelaya would accept to take no actions that could lead towards a constituent assembly, the FNGE declared that it "strongly [supports] the continuation of processes for participatory democracy, which will eventually lead to the convocation of the National Constituent Assembly and the prior definition of the criteria and requirements for the women and men who will be its members."   On 28 August, in response to the nearing date of the Honduran general and presidential elections that are planned to be held on 29 November 2009, FNGE declared its concerns regarding the electoral process and again called for a "popular, participatory, inclusive, non-discriminatory and democratic" constituent assembly to be held. 
Following the removal of Zelaya, women's groups in Honduras, in particular Feminists in Resistance, have strongly supported the aim of holding a constituent assembly. Bertha Cáceres of the Civic Council of Popular and Indigenous Organizations of Honduras (COPINH) and the Frente Nacional de Resistencia Contra el Golpe de Estado en Honduras said that a constituent assembly would be important in order to defend women's rights. She stated, "For the first time we would be able to establish a precedent for the emancipation of women, to begin to break these forms of domination. The current constitution never mentions women, not once, so to establish our human rights, our reproductive, sexual, political, social, and economic rights as women would be to really confront this system of domination." 
On 31 August 2009, following the "XVIII National Gathering of Afro-Honduran Youth of the Organization for Ethnic and Community Development (ODECO)," Afro-Honduran youth leaders from several dozen different towns and cities made a declaration, of which some of the aims were the "immediate implementation of the right to plebiscite and referendum" and the convocation of a plebiscite in order to organise a constituent assembly that would write a new constitution. The youth leaders called for the plebiscite to be held on the "last Sunday of November of 2010" and for "clear guarantees for wider and more representative participation among all sectors of the Honduran people". 
The constitutionality of the removal of Zelaya from Honduras on 28 June 2009 was controversial.
Several articles of the 1982 Constitution that were referred to during the crisis include the following.
Article 3 of the Constitution states that nobody has an obligation to obey a government that has taken power through armed force, that acts by such a government are [legally] null, and that people have the right to insurrection in order to defend constitutional government.  The Constitution forbids handing over or expatriating Hondurans to foreign countries.    A Honduran citizen who has held the title of Executive can not be President or Vice President of the Republic, and the person that breaks this regulation or proposes its amendment, as well as those who assist him directly or indirectly, will cease immediately to hold their respective offices, and will be disqualified for ten years from holding any public office. 
Article 373 states, "The reform of the Constitution can be decreed by the National Congress, in ordinary session, by a vote of two thirds the totality of its members, and must specify the article or articles that are to be reformed, and must be ratified by an equal number of votes in the subsequent ordinary legislature."  Article 374 states, "It is not possible to reform, in any case, the preceding article, the present article, the constitutional articles referring to the form of government, to the national territory, to the presidential period, the prohibition to serve again as President of the Republic, the citizen who has performed under any title in consequence of which she/he cannot be President of the Republic in the subsequent period." 
In the crisis, President Manuel Zelaya was removed from the country by military force on the 28th of June after the Supreme Court of Honduras had issued an order (apparently) on June 26 for his detention. The Supreme Court membership had been renewed in January 2009. Afterwards the court published a Special Communication explaining its actions. The validity of the court's ruling has been challenged.[ citation needed ] Some have complained that the court is partisan. Larry Birns, director of the Washington-based Council on Hemispheric Affairs, has described the Honduran Supreme Court as "one of the most corrupt institutions in Latin America."  The national Congress claims to have affirmed the Supreme Court's ruling by a vote of 125 to 3, in a show of hands on the day Zelaya was removed, 28 June 2009.  The Unión Democrática members, however, say they were not there, and some Liberal Party members have since said they did not vote for the motion.[ citation needed ]
President Zelaya disputes  that he was seeking to extend his term in office, arguing that he wanted to conduct a public opinion poll on whether a constitutional convention should be convened to consider various constitutional changes including allowing successive terms in office for the president.
On the annual Central American Independence Day, 15 September 2009, the National Resistance Front Against the Coup d'état in Honduras declared that the National Resistance Front constitutes the organised expression of Hondurans' right under Article 3 of the 1982 Constitution to resist against a government imposed by armed force. 
From 22 September 2009  to 19 October 2009,  five constitutional rights were suspended in the Micheletti de facto government's Decree PCM-M-016-2009: personal liberty (Article 69), freedom of expression (Article 72), freedom of movement (Article 81), habeas corpus (Article 84) and freedom of association.   On 29 September, one day after the decree was used to shut down the television stations Channel 36 and Radio Globo,  the Office of the Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression of the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights (IAHCR) "expressed its most energetic rejection" of PCM-M-016-2009 and asked for the immediate suspension of its enforcement, because according to the IACHR, it "flagrantly [contradicted] the international standards for freedom of expression". 
Politics of Honduras takes place in a framework of a multi-party system presidential representative democratic republic. The President of Honduras is both head of state and head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the National Congress of Honduras. The party system is dominated by the conservative National Party of Honduras and the Liberal Party of Honduras. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
The Armed Forces of Honduras, consists of the Honduran Army, Honduran Navy and Honduran Air Force.
Óscar Arias Sánchez is a Costa Rican activist and Nobel Peace Prize laureate. He was President of Costa Rica from 1986 to 1990 and from 2006 to 2010. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1987 for his efforts to end the Central American crisis. He was also a recipient of the Albert Schweitzer Prize for Humanitarianism and a trustee of Economists for Peace and Security. In 2003, he was elected to the board of directors of the International Criminal Court's Trust Fund for Victims.
The Liberal Party of Honduras is a centrist liberal political party in Honduras that was founded in 1891. It is the oldest extant political party in the country, and one of the two main parties that have until recently dominated Honduran politics. The party is a member of the Liberal International. The PLH is identified with the color red and white, as the flag Francisco Morazán used in most of his military campaigns during time of the Central American Federal Republic.
José Manuel Zelaya Rosales is a Honduran politician who serves as the First Gentleman of Honduras from January 2022. He was President of Honduras from 27 January 2006 until 28 June 2009. He is the eldest son of a wealthy businessman, and inherited his father's nickname "Mel". Before entering politics he was involved in his family's logging and timber businesses.
Roberto Micheletti Baín is a Honduran politician who served as the interim de facto president of Honduras from 28 June 2009 to 27 January 2010 as a result of the 2009 Honduran coup d'état. The Honduran military ousted the President, and the National Congress read a letter of resignation, which was refuted two minutes later by Zelaya in conversation with CNN en Español; days later, the coup-plotters claimed that the Supreme Court had ordered to forcefully detain President Manuel Zelaya because "he was violating the Honduran constitution"; Zelaya was exiled rather than arrested. Micheletti, constitutionally next in line for the presidency, was sworn in as president by the National Congress a few hours after Zelaya was sent into exile by the Honduran military. He was not acknowledged as de jure president by any government or international organization. The 2009 general election took place as planned in November and elected Porfirio Lobo Sosa to succeed Micheletti.
General elections were held in Honduras on 29 November 2009, including presidential, parliamentary and local elections. Voters went to the polls to elect:
The 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis was a political dispute over plans to either rewrite the Constitution of Honduras or write a new one.
International reaction to the 2009 Honduran coup d'état of June 28, 2009, was that the coup was widely repudiated around the globe. The United Nations, every other country in the Western Hemisphere and others, publicly condemned the military-led 2009 Honduran coup d'état and ouster of Honduran President Manuel Zelaya as illegal and most labelled it a coup d'état. The Obama administration, along with all other governments in the hemisphere, branded the action a "coup." Every country in the region, except the United States, withdrew their ambassadors from Honduras. All ambassadors of the European Union were recalled. Venezuela said it would suspend oil shipments, and Honduras's neighbors — El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua - stopped overland trade for 48 hours. The World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank suspended lending to Honduras.
The Supreme Court of Honduras is the Supreme Court and Constitutional Court of Honduras. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority in Honduras.
The 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis was a political confrontation concerning the events that led to, included, and followed the 2009 Honduran coup d'état and the political breakdown associated with it. The coup was repudiated around the globe, but Roberto Micheletti, head of the government installed after the coup, has claimed that the Honduran Supreme Court ordered the detention of Manuel Zelaya, deposed President of Honduras, and that the following succession was constitutionally valid.
The 2009 Honduran coup d'état, part of the 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis, occurred when the Honduran Army on 28 June 2009 followed orders from the Honduran Supreme Court to oust President Manuel Zelaya and send him into exile. Zelaya had attempted to schedule a non-binding poll on holding a referendum on convening a constituent assembly to rewrite the constitution. Zelaya refused to comply with court orders to cease, and the Honduran Supreme Court issued a secret warrant for his arrest dated 26 June. Two days later, Honduran soldiers stormed the president's house in the middle of the night and detained him, forestalling the poll. Instead of bringing him to trial, the army put him on a military aeroplane and flew him to Costa Rica. Later that day, after the reading of a resignation letter of disputed authenticity, the Honduran Congress voted to remove Zelaya from office, and appointed Speaker of Congress Roberto Micheletti, his constitutional successor, to replace him. It was the first coup to occur in the country since 1978.
Serious issues involving human rights in Honduras through the end of 2013 include unlawful and arbitrary killings by police and others, corruption and institutional weakness of the justice system, and harsh and at times life-threatening prison conditions.
The National Popular Resistance Front or National People's Resistance Front, frequently referred to as the National Resistance Front, is a wide coalition of Honduran grassroots organisations and political parties and movements that aims to restore elected President Manuel Zelaya and hold a constituent assembly to draw up a new constitution.
Canal 36 is a television station in Honduras. It was briefly closed down by order of the government of Roberto Micheletti on September 28, 2009 during the 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis, along with Radio Globo, because of its support for deposed President of Honduras Manuel Zelaya, but then was re-opened. It is owned by Esdras Amado Lopez.
Honduras: Constitutional Law Issues is a controversial and disputed legal opinion report commissioned by Congressman Aaron Schock, prepared by Senior Foreign Law Specialist Norma Gutiérrez, and published by the U.S. Law Library of Congress. It features a legal analysis of the 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis with a specific examination of the legality of President Manuel Zelaya's 28 June 2009 removal from office and expatriation.
The Guaymuras dialogue – Tegucigalpa/San José accord is a diplomatic agreement made between two rival political factions in Honduras during the 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis. Representatives from the de facto Micheletti government and deposed President Manuel Zelaya reached the agreement after several weeks of diplomatic dialogue in late 2009.
The cuarta urna or fourth ballot box referendum was a plan by Honduran president Manuel Zelaya to run a non-binding referendum to consult the public regarding the administration of a second, binding referendum to convoke a constitutional assembly. The referendum was planned to run concurrently with the November 2009 presidential, congressional, and mayoral elections. Some Hondurans opposed the plan, including many politicians from the two largest parties. When Zelaya pushed ahead with plans for this referendum on whether to include a fourth ballot box, the Supreme Court issued a warrant for his arrest and the army expelled him from the country in a June 28 coup d'etat, precipitating the 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis.
Unión Cívica Democrática is a network of forty Honduran activist organizations, which took an active part during the 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis, promoting several demonstrations against the former ousted president Manuel Zelaya.
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Honduras began its work on May 4, 2010 and submitted a final report in July 2011. The commission was created due to its inclusion as one of the measures in the “Accord for National Reconciliation and the Strengthening of Democracy in Honduras".
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Constitution of Honduras|