Contrabass clarinet

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Contrabass clarinet
Selmer double bass clarinet+BC contralto 1553.jpg
Contrabass clarinet and contra-alto clarinet
Woodwind instrument
Classification

Wind Woodwind

Single-reed
Developed1808
Playing range
Clar ctbas Bb reel.JPG
Related instruments
Musicians
Benedikt Eppelsheim BBb Contrabass Clarinet.jpg
Benedikt Eppelsheim contrabass clarinet
Contrabass clarinet Besson Bate.jpg
Besson contrabass clarinet, post-1890
Clarinettes octo-contrebasse et contrebasse Leblanc.gif
Size comparison between the contrabass clarinet and the octocontrabass clarinet
Ernst Deuker.jpg
Ernst Ulrich Deuker, a German jazz musician, with a Selmer contrabass clarinet
Anthony Braxton playing a paperclip contrabass clarinet.jpg
Anthony Braxton playing a Leblanc paperclip contrabass clarinet in Rochester, NY. 1976

The contrabass clarinet and contra-alto clarinet are the two largest members of the clarinet family that are in common usage. Modern contrabass clarinets are pitched in B, sounding two octaves lower than the common B soprano clarinet and one octave lower than the B bass clarinet. Some contrabass clarinet models have a range extending down to low (written) E, while others can play down to low D or further to low C. This range, C(3) – E(6), sounds B(0) – D(4). Some early instruments were pitched in C; Arnold Schoenberg's Fünf Orchesterstücke specifies a contrabass clarinet in A, [1] but there is no evidence of such an instrument ever having existed.

Contents

The contrabass clarinet is also sometimes known by the name pedal clarinet, this term referring not to any aspect of the instrument's mechanism but to an analogy between its very low tones and the pedal division of the organ.

Subcontrabass clarinets, lower in pitch than the contrabass, have been built on only an experimental basis.

The E contra-alto clarinet is sometimes referred to as the "E contrabass clarinet".

History

Contrabass

The earliest known contrabass clarinet was the contre-basse guerrière invented in 1808 by a goldsmith named Dumas of Sommières; little else is known of this instrument. The batyphone (also spelled bathyphone, Ger. and Fr. batyphon) was a contrabass clarinet which was the outcome of W. F. Wieprecht's endeavor to obtain a contrabass for the reed instruments. The batyphone was made to a scale twice the size of the clarinet in C, the divisions of the chromatic scale being arranged according to acoustic principles. For convenience in stopping holes too far apart to be covered by the fingers, crank or swivel keys were used. The instrument was constructed of maple-wood, had a clarinet mouthpiece of suitable size connected by means of a cylindrical brass crook with the upper part of the tube and a brass bell. The pitch was two octaves below the clarinet in C, the compass being the same, and thus corresponding to the modern bass tuba. The tone was pleasant and full, but not powerful enough for the contrabass register in a military band. The batyphone had besides one serious disadvantage: it could be played with facility only in its nearly related keys, G and F major. The batyphone was invented and patented in 1839 by F.W. Wieprecht, director general of all the Prussian military bands, and E. Skorra, the court instrument manufacturer of Berlin. In practice the instrument was found to be of little use, and was superseded by the bass tuba.

A batyphone bearing the name of its inventors formed part of the Snoeck collection which was acquired for Berlin's collection of ancient musical instruments at the Hochschule für Musik. [2] Soon after Wieprecht's invention, Adolphe Sax created his clarinette-bourdon in B.

In 1889, Fontaine-Besson began producing a new pedal clarinet (see photograph). This instrument consists of a tube 10 feet (3.0 m) long, in which cylindrical and conical bores are combined. The tube is doubled up twice upon itself. There are 13 keys and 2 rings on the tube, and the fingering is the same as for the B clarinet except for the eight highest semitones. The tone is rich and full except for the lowest notes, which are unavoidably a little rough in quality, but much more sonorous than the corresponding notes on the double bassoon. The upper register resembles the chalumeau register of the B clarinet, being reedy and sweet. [3] None of these instruments saw widespread use, but they provided a basis for contrabass clarinets made beginning in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by several manufacturers, notably those designed by Charles Houvenaghel for Leblanc, which were more successful.

Contra-alto

The contra-alto clarinet is higher-pitched than the contrabass and is pitched in the key of E rather than B. The unhyphenated form "contra alto clarinet" is also sometimes used, as is "contralto clarinet", but the latter is confusing since the instrument's range is much lower than the contralto vocal range; the more correct term "contra-alto" is meant to convey, by analogy with "contrabass", that the instrument plays an octave lower than the alto clarinet. It is also referred to as the E contrabass clarinet. It is the second-largest member of the clarinet family in regular use, larger than the more common bass clarinet but not as large as the B contrabass clarinet. Since it sits between the bass and contrabass in range, the contra-alto clarinet functions as the great bass of the clarinet family.

Like other clarinets, the contra-alto clarinet is a wind instrument that uses a reed to produce sound. The keys of the contra-alto are similar to the keys on smaller clarinets, and are played in the same way. Some contra-alto clarinet models have a range extending down to low (written) E, sounding as the lowest G on the piano (aka G1), while others can play down to low (written) C, sounding E1.

The earliest contra-alto clarinets were developed in the first half of the nineteenth century; these were usually pitched in F and were called contrabasset horns, being an octave lower than the basset horn. Albert (probably E. J. Albert, son of Eugène Albert) built an instrument in F around 1890. [4] In the late 19th and early 20th century contra-alto clarinets in E finally attained some degree of popularity.

The contra-alto clarinet is used mostly in concert bands and clarinet choirs, where it usually, though not always, plays the bass line of a piece of music. While there are few parts written specifically for it, the contra-alto can play the baritone saxophone part and sounds the same pitch; it is also possible to read parts written in the bass clef for instruments pitched in C (such as bassoon or tuba) as if the part were in the treble clef, while adjusting the key signature and any accidentals as necessary by adding three sharps to the music. [5] It is occasionally used in jazz, and a few solo pieces have been written for it. The contra-alto clarinet is also used in a few Broadway pit orchestras, with its parts being written in reed books as a doubler instrument (e.g. with soprano clarinet and bass clarinet.) The contra-alto clarinet can also be used in marching bands where it shares the parts of the sousaphone or baritone saxophone. However, because of its size and weight, many bands choose not to march them in parades.

Subcontrabass

The octo-contra-alto clarinet (also known as octo contra alto, sub contra alto, or octocontralto clarinet) is the second largest member of the clarinet family. The instrument is pitched one octave lower than the E contra-alto clarinet, two octaves lower than the E alto clarinet, and two octaves and a fifth lower than the standard B soprano clarinet (making it an E transposing instrument).

The octocontrabass clarinet (also known as octo-contrabass or subcontrabass clarinet) is the largest, longest, and lowest playing member of the clarinet family. It is pitched an octave below the contrabass clarinet, or three octaves lower than the standard B soprano clarinet. It stood at near 8 foot 2 inches (2.49 m).

The octo-contra instruments were built by the G. Leblanc Corporation. Only one example of each exists, in a museum in La Couture-Boussey, France, where Leblanc was founded.

At least three pieces of music have been written specifically for it by Norwegian composer Terje Lerstad (Trisonata, Op. 28; De Profundis, Op. 139; and Mirrors in Ebony for clarinet choir, Op. 144). There are no known recordings of the pieces. [6] You can see a demonstration of the lowest notes on an Octocontralto clarinet under external links. }}

Manufacturers

France: Buffet Crampon makes a contra-alto clarinet, grenadilla boddy in stretched form, pictured in the info box above.
USA: Conn-Selmer has one model of each of the two clarinets under its brands Henri Selmer Paris and Leblanc.

Germany:

Italy: Ripa Musical Instruments produces a double bass clarinet made of metal in paperclip form.

Performers

Probably the best-known musician who has made significant use of the contrabass clarinet as a solo instrument is Anthony Braxton. Other performers (most of whom use the instrument in the genres of jazz and free improvised music) include James Carter, Brian Landrus, Douglas Ewart, Vinny Golia, Mwata Bowden, Ernst Ulrich Deuker, Paolo Ravaglia, Hamiet Bluiett, Edward "Kidd" Jordan, and Jason Alder. Leroi Moore of the Dave Matthews Band played a contrabass clarinet on the song "So Right" from the 2001 album Everyday and John Linnell of They Might Be Giants utilizes the contra-alto clarinet on their 2013 album Nanobots , as well as subsequent releases by the band.

Compositions

Solo pieces:

Ensemble pieces:

Related Research Articles

Clarinet type of woodwind instrument

The clarinet is a family of woodwind instruments. It has a single-reed mouthpiece, a straight, cylindrical tube with an almost cylindrical bore, and a flared bell. A person who plays a clarinet is called a clarinetist.

Pitch of brass instruments

The pitch of a brass instrument corresponds to the lowest playable resonance frequency of the open instrument. The combined resonances resemble a harmonic series. The fundamental frequency of the harmonic series can be varied by adjusting the length of the tubing using the instrument's valve, slide, key or crook system, while the player's embouchure, lip tension and air flow serve to select a specific harmonic from the available series for playing. The fundamental is actually missing from the resonances and is impractical to play on some brass instruments, but the overtones account for most pitches.

Saxophone type of musical instrument of the woodwind family

The saxophone is a type of single-reed woodwind instrument with a conical body, usually made of brass. As with all single-reed instruments, sound is produced when a reed on a mouthpiece vibrates to produce a sound wave inside the instrument's body. The pitch is controlled by opening and closing holes in the body to change the effective length of the tube. The holes are closed by leather pads attached to keys operated by the player. Saxophones are made in various sizes and are almost always treated as transposing instruments. Saxophone players are called saxophonists.

Trombone Type of brass instrument

The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. As with all brass instruments, sound is produced when the player's vibrating lips (embouchure) cause the air column inside the instrument to vibrate. Unlike most other brass instruments, which have valves that, when pressed, alter the pitch of the instrument, trombones instead have a telescoping slide mechanism that varies the length of the instrument to change the pitch. However, many modern trombone models also have a valve attachment which lowers the pitch of the instrument. Variants such as the valve trombone and superbone have three valves similar to those on the trumpet.

Tuba Low brass instrument

The tuba is the lowest-pitched musical instrument in the brass family. As with all brass instruments, the sound is produced by lip vibration – a buzz – into a mouthpiece. It first appeared in the mid-19th century, making it one of the newer instruments in the modern orchestra and concert band. The tuba largely replaced the ophicleide. Tuba is Latin for "trumpet".

Clef Musical symbol used to indicate the pitch of written notes

A clef is a musical symbol used to indicate which notes are represented by the lines and spaces on a musical stave. When a clef is placed on a staff it assigns a particular pitch to one of the five lines, which in turn gives pitch value to the remaining lines and spaces.

Sarrusophone

The sarrusophones are a family of transposing woodwind musical instruments patented and placed into production by Pierre-Louis Gautrot in 1856. Originally designed as double-reed instruments, sarrusophones were later developed that used single-reed mouthpieces, at least for some of the larger sizes. It was named after the French bandmaster Pierre-Auguste Sarrus (1813–1876), who is credited with the concept of the instrument, though it is not clear whether Sarrus benefited financially from this association. The instrument was intended to serve as a replacement in wind bands for the oboe and bassoon, which, at that time, lacked the carrying power required for outdoor band music.

Contrabassoon

The contrabassoon, also known as the double bassoon, is a larger version of the bassoon, sounding an octave lower. Its technique is similar to its smaller cousin, with a few notable differences.

Bass clarinet Bass member of the clarinet family

The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. Like the more common soprano B clarinet, it is usually pitched in B, but it plays notes an octave below the soprano B clarinet. Bass clarinets in other keys, notably C and A, also exist, but are very rare. Bass clarinets regularly perform in orchestras, wind ensembles/concert bands, occasionally in marching bands, and play an occasional solo role in contemporary music and jazz in particular.

Contrabass refers to several musical instruments of very low pitch—generally one octave below bass register instruments. While the term most commonly refers to the double bass, many other instruments in the contrabass register exist.

Tenor saxophone Type of saxophone

The tenor saxophone is a medium-sized member of the saxophone family, a group of instruments invented by Adolphe Sax in the 1840s. The tenor and the alto are the two most commonly used saxophones. The tenor is pitched in the key of B (while the alto is pitched in the key of E), and written as a transposing instrument in the treble clef, sounding an octave and a major second lower than the written pitch. Modern tenor saxophones which have a high F key have a range from A2 to E5 (concert) and are therefore pitched one octave below the soprano saxophone. People who play the tenor saxophone are known as "tenor saxophonists", "tenor sax players", or "saxophonists".

Baritone saxophone

The baritone saxophone is a member of the saxophone family of instruments, larger than the tenor saxophone, but smaller than the bass. It is the lowest-pitched saxophone in common use - the bass, contrabass and subcontrabass saxophones are relatively uncommon. Like all saxophones, it is a single-reed instrument. It is commonly used in concert bands, chamber music, military bands, big bands, and jazz combos. It can also be found in other ensembles such as rock bands and marching bands. Modern baritone saxophones are pitched in E.

The bass oboe or baritone oboe is a double reed instrument in the woodwind family. It is about twice the size of a regular (soprano) oboe and sounds an octave lower; it has a deep, full tone somewhat akin to that of its higher-pitched cousin, the English horn. The bass oboe is notated in the treble clef, sounding one octave lower than written. Its lowest note is B2 (in scientific pitch notation), one octave and a semitone below middle C, although an extension may be inserted between the lower joint and bell of the instrument in order to produce a low B2. The instrument's bocal or crook first curves away from and then toward the player (unlike the bocal/crook of the English horn and oboe d'amore), looking rather like a flattened metal question mark; another crook design resembles the shape of a bass clarinet neckpiece. The bass oboe uses its own double reed, similar to but larger than that of the English horn.

The alto clarinet is a woodwind instrument of the clarinet family. It is a transposing instrument pitched in the key of E, though instruments in F have been made. In size it lies between the soprano clarinet and the bass clarinet. It bears a greater resemblance to the bass clarinet in that it typically has a straight body, but a curved neck and bell made of metal. All-metal alto clarinets also exist. In appearance it strongly resembles the basset horn, but usually differs in three respects: it is pitched a whole step lower, it lacks an extended lower range, and it has a wider bore than many basset horns.

Contrabass flute

The contrabass flute is one of the rarer members of the flute family. Typically seen in flute ensembles, it is sometimes also used in solo and chamber music situations. Its range is similar to that of the regular concert flute, except that it is pitched two octaves lower; the lowest performable note is two octaves below middle C. Many contrabass flutes in C are also equipped with a low B, Contrabass flutes are only available from select flute makers.

Bass saxophone Wind instrument in B♭

The bass saxophone is one of the largest members of the saxophone family—larger than the more commonly encountered baritone saxophone. The modern bass saxophone is a transposing instrument pitched in B, an octave below the tenor saxophone. The bass saxophone is not a commonly used instrument, but it is heard on some 1920s jazz recordings; in free jazz; in saxophone choirs; and occasionally in concert bands.

Violone

The term violone can refer to several distinct large, bowed musical instruments which belong to either the viol or violin family. The violone is sometimes a fretted instrument, and may have six, five, four, or even only three strings. The violone is also not always a contrabass instrument. In modern parlance, one usually tries to clarify the 'type' of violone by adding a qualifier based on the tuning or on geography, or by using other terms that have a more precise connotation. The term violone may be used correctly to describe many different instruments, yet distinguishing among these types can be difficult, especially for those not familiar with the historical instruments of the viol and violin families and their respective variations in tuning.

Clarinet family

The clarinet family is a musical instrument family including the well-known B clarinet, the bass clarinet, the slightly less familiar E and A clarinets and other clarinets.

There are many different types of trombone. The most frequently encountered trombones today are the tenor and bass, though as with other Renaissance instruments such as the recorder, the trombone has been built in every size from piccolo to contrabass.

The western concert flute family has a wide range of instruments.

References

  1. Arnold Schoenberg, Five Orchestral Pieces (Courier Dover, 1999)
  2. This description of the batyphone is quoted, with minor revisions, from Schlesinger, Kathleen (1911). "Batyphone"  . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica . 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 535. This in turn derived its description mainly from a manuscript treatise on instrumentation by Wieprecht, in 1909 in the possession of Herr Otto Lessmann (Berlin), and reproduced by Capt. C.R. Day, in Descriptive Catalogue of the Musical Instruments of the Royal Military Exhibition, London, 1890 (London, 1891), p. 124.
  3. This description of the Besson pedal clarinet is condensed from Schlesinger (1911) Pedal Clarinet. The date of 1889 is from Rendall.
  4. Schlesinger, Kathleen (1911). "Pedal Clarinet"  . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica . 21 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 36.
  5. McGann, John. "Deep Secrets of Clef Reading and Transposition". John McGann. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
  6. "Contrabass Clarinets". Octocontrabass & Octocontralto Clarinets. Contrabass compendium. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
  7. AMC listing: Karski - the outward impulse
  8. Gustavo Oliveira Alfaix Assis, Em busca do som: A música de Karlheinz Stockhausen nos anos 1950 (São Paulo: Editora UNESP, 2011), 260. ISBN   978-85-393-0207-9.
  9. see liner notes for e. g. Lumpy Gravy, London Symphony Orchestra, The Yellow Shark, Civilization Phaze III
  10. "Of Nature and Humanity (SCM Wind Symphony)". Limelightmagazine.com.au. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  11. "The Pines of Rome - Full Score". www.halleonard.com. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  12. Funk - Chris Dench, Australian Music Centre

Sources