Convention Parliament (1660)

Last updated

The Convention Parliament of England (25 April 1660 – 29 December 1660) followed the Long Parliament that had finally voted for its own dissolution on 16 March that year. [1] Elected as a "free parliament", [2] i.e. with no oath of allegiance to the Commonwealth or to the monarchy, it was predominantly Royalist in its membership. It assembled for the first time on 25 April 1660.

Contents

After the Declaration of Breda had been received, Parliament proclaimed on 8 May that King Charles II had been the lawful monarch since the death of Charles I in January 1649. The Convention Parliament then proceeded to conduct the necessary preparation for the Restoration Settlement. These preparations included the necessary provisions to deal with land and funding such that the new régime could operate.

Reprisals against the establishment which had developed under Oliver Cromwell were constrained under the terms of the Indemnity and Oblivion Act which became law on 29 August 1660. Nonetheless there were prosecutions against those accused of regicide, the direct participation in the trial and execution of Charles I.

The Convention Parliament was dissolved by Charles II on 29 December 1660. The succeeding parliament was elected in May 1661, and was called the Cavalier Parliament. It set about both systematically dismantling of all the legislation and institutions which had been introduced during the Interregnum, and the confirming of the Acts of the Convention Parliament.

Legislation

In legal statutes, the Convention parliament is cited as 12 Charles II (parliamentary session of the "12th regnal year of Charles II"). Among the acts passed by it were:

As all the acts of the Commonwealth parliaments were obliterated from the legal record, the Convention Parliament replicated some of the legislation they wanted to keep (e.g. the Navigation Act of 1651) in new acts.

See also

Related Research Articles

Hardress Waller Parliamentarian commander in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and regicide

Sir Hardress Waller, was an English Protestant who settled in Ireland and fought for Parliament in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. A leading member of the radical element within the New Model Army, he signed the death warrant for the Execution of Charles I in 1649; after the Stuart Restoration in 1660, he was condemned to death as a regicide, a sentence commuted to life imprisonment.

The Indemnity and Oblivion Act 1660 was an Act of the Parliament of England, the long title of which is "An Act of Free and General Pardon, Indemnity, and Oblivion". This act was a general pardon for everyone who had committed crimes during the Civil War and Interregnum with the exception of certain crimes such as murder, piracy, buggery, rape and witchcraft, and people named in the act such as those involved in the regicide of Charles I. It also said that no action was to be taken against those involved at any later time, and that the Interregnum was to be legally forgotten.

John Phelps was a Clerk and Registrar of the Committee for Plundered Ministers and of the High Court which tried Charles I of England for high treason in 1649.

In English law, poundage was an ad valorem customs duty imposed on imports and exports at the rate of 1 shilling for every pound of goods imported or exported.

Crown and Parliament Recognition Act 1689 United Kingdom legislation

The Crown and Parliament Recognition Act 1689 was an Act of the Parliament of England, passed in 1690. It was designed to confirm the succession to the throne of King William III and Queen Mary II of England and to confirm the validity of the laws passed by the Convention Parliament which had been irregularly convened following the Glorious Revolution and the end of James II's reign.

Commissioners of Supply were local administrative bodies in Scotland from 1667 to 1930. Originally established in each sheriffdom to collect tax, they later took on much of the responsibility for the local government of the counties of Scotland. In 1890 they ceded most of their duties to the county councils created by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889. They were finally abolished in 1930.

Adventurers Act 1642 law of England

The Adventurers' Act is an Act of the Parliament of England which specified its aim as "the speedy and effectual reducing of the rebels in His Majesty's Kingdom of Ireland".

The Legal Proceedings During Commonwealth Act 1660 or Act of the Confirmation of Judicial Proceedings was enacted by the English Parliament to legitimise the outcome of judicial proceedings during the English interregnum. It was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1948.

The Custos Brevium was an official in the English court system: in the Court of Common Pleas and Court of King's Bench. The post was abolished by Act of Parliament in 1830.

Parliament Act 1660 United Kingdom legislation

The Parliament Act 1660 was an Act of the Convention Parliament of England of 1660. The Act declared the Long Parliament to be dissolved, and the Lords and Commons then sitting to be the two Houses of Parliament, notwithstanding that they had not been convened by the King.

Valentine Walton was an English politician, a member of the Parliamentarian faction in the English Civil War, and one of the regicides of King Charles I of England.

Restoration (Ireland)

The Restoration of the monarchy began in 1660. The Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1649–60) resulted from the Wars of the Three Kingdoms but collapsed in 1659. Politicians such as General Monck tried to ensure a peaceful transition of government from the "Commonwealth" republic back to monarchy. From 1 May 1660 the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under King Charles II. The term Restoration may apply both to the actual event by which the monarchy was restored, and to the period immediately before and after the event.

Humphrey Orme was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1654 and from 1660 to 1671.

John Penrose was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1646 to 1648.

The Commissioners for loyal and indigent officers were a body formed by a 1662 Act of the Parliament of England to provide relief to impoverished Royalist officers who had served in the English Civil War.

Land Tax (England) A land value tax (1689 to 1963)

The Land Tax was a land value tax levied in England from 1692 to 1963, though such taxes predate the best-known 1692 Act. Taxes on land date back to the Norman Conquest and beyond, and the Land Tax introduced in 1689 was a natural successor to taxation acts in 1671 and 1689, but the 1692 act "has been regarded as a turning point in the history of English revenue collection. It was from this Act that contemporaries and historians alike date what has come to be known as the eighteenth century Land Tax". The land tax elements of the 1671, 1689 and 1692 Acts were limited to one year but the 1798 Act made the tax perpetual.

References

  1. Pepys' Diary Entry for 16 March 1660 Entry for 26 April 1660
  2. History of England, Thomas Babington Macaulay pp 109-110
  3. "An Act for removing and preventing all Questions and Disputes concerning the Assembling and Sitting of this present Parliament", originally compiled by John Raithby
  4. "Charles II, 1660: A Subsidy granted to the King of Tonnage and Poundage and other summes of Money payable upon Merchandize Exported and Imported.", originally compiled by John Raithby
  5. "An Act for the speedy provision of money for disbanding and paying off the forces of this Kingdome both by Land and Sea.", originally compiled by John Raithby
  6. [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/statutes-realm/vol5/pp226-234 "An Act of Free and Generall Pardon Indempnity and Oblivion", originally compiled by John Raithby
  7. "An Act for Confirmation of Judiciall Proceedings", originally compiled by John Raithby
  8. "An Act for the Encourageing and increasing of Shipping and Navigation", originally compiled by John Raithby
  9. "An Act takeing away the Court of Wards and Liveries and Tenures in Capite and by Knights Service and Purveyance, and for setling a Revenue upon his Majesty in Lieu thereof", originally compiled by John Raithby
  10. "An Act for prohibiting the Exportation of Wooll Woolfells Fullers Earth or any kinde of Scouring Earth", originally compiled by John Raithby
  11. "An Act for Prohibiting the Planting Setting or Sowing of Tobaccho in England and Ireland", originally compiled by John Raithby