This article needs additional citations for verification . (August 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Convention of Scutari(Modern Turkish: İşkodra Barışı) was a treaty signed between the Ottoman Empire and the Principality of Montenegro on 31 August 1862.
The principality of Montenegro was a vassal of Ottoman Empire. During the first half of the 19th century the Ottoman dominance was weakened and Nikola I, the prince of Montenegro, felt free to support a rebellion in the neighbouring Ottoman province of Herzegovina.[ citation needed ] Ottoman general Ömer Pasha, who was in charge of suppressing the rebellion, defeated the rebels and marched towards Cetinje (then the capital of Montenegro) .
The treaty was signed in Scutari in Ottoman Empire (present-day Shkodër, Albania) after Montenegro sued for peace. The terms were[ citation needed ]:
Montenegro became independent by the Treaty of Berlin signed after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.
The Balkan Wars consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913. Four Balkan states defeated the Ottoman Empire in the First Balkan War. In the Second Balkan War, Bulgaria fought against all four original combatants of the first war along with facing a surprise attack from Romania from the north. The conflicts ended catastrophically for the Ottoman Empire, which lost the bulk of its territory in Europe. Austria-Hungary, although not a combatant, became relatively weaker as a much enlarged Serbia pushed for union of the South Slavic peoples. The war set the stage for the Balkan crisis of 1914 and thus served as a "prelude to the First World War".
The Treaty of Berlin was signed on 13 July 1878. In the aftermath of the Russian victory against the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, the major powers restructured the map of the Balkan region. They reversed some of the extreme gains claimed by Russia in the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano, but the Ottomans lost their major holdings in Europe. It was one of three major peace agreements in the period after the 1815 Congress of Vienna. It was the final act of the Congress of Berlin and included Great Britain and Ireland, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Germany's Otto von Bismarck was the chairman and dominant personality.
The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed on 26 January 1699 in Sremski Karlovci, in modern-day Serbia, concluding the Great Turkish War of 1683–1697 in which the Ottoman Empire had been defeated at the Battle of Zenta by the Holy League. It marks the end of Ottoman control in much of Central Europe, with their first major territorial losses after centuries of expansion, and established the Habsburg Monarchy as the dominant power in the region.
The Bay of Kotor, also known as the Boka, is the winding bay of the Adriatic Sea in southwestern Montenegro and the region of Montenegro concentrated around the bay.
The Herzegovina uprising was an uprising led by ethnic Serbs against the Ottoman Empire, firstly and predominantly in Herzegovina, from where it spread into Bosnia and Raška. It broke out in the summer of 1875, and lasted in some regions up to the beginning of 1878. It was followed by the Bulgarian Uprising of 1876, and coincided with Serbian-Turkish wars (1876–1878), all of those events being part of the Great Eastern Crisis (1875–1878).
The Congress of Berlin was a meeting of the representatives of the era's six great powers in Europe, the Ottoman Empire and four Balkan states. It aimed at determining the territories of the states in the Balkan Peninsula after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 and came to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Berlin, which replaced the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano, which had been signed three months earlier between Russia and the Ottoman Empire.
The 1878 Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed at San Stefano, then a village west of Constantinople,(nowadays İstanbul) on 3 March [O.S. 19 February] 1878 by Count Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev and Aleksandr Nelidov on behalf of the Russian Empire and Foreign Minister Saffet Pasha and Ambassador to Germany Sadullah Bey on behalf of the Ottoman Empire. The treaty ended the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–78.
Montenegrins, are a South Slavic ethnic group native to Montenegro.
The Ottoman wars in Europe were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and various European states dating from the Late Middle Ages up through the early 20th century. The earliest conflicts began during the Byzantine–Ottoman wars, waged in Anatolia in the late 13th century before entering Europe in the mid 14th century, followed by the Bulgarian–Ottoman wars and the Serbian–Ottoman wars waged beginning in the mid 14th century. Much of this period was characterized by Ottoman expansion into the Balkans. The Ottoman Empire made further inroads into Central Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries, culminating in the peak of Ottoman territorial claims in Europe.
In diplomatic history, the "Eastern Question" refers to the strategic competition and political considerations of the European Great Powers in light of the political and economic instability in the Ottoman Empire from the late 18th to early 20th centuries. Characterized as the "sick man of Europe", the relative weakening of the empire's military strength in the second half of the eighteenth century threatened to undermine the fragile balance of power system largely shaped by the Concert of Europe. The Eastern Question encompassed myriad interrelated elements: Ottoman military defeats, Ottoman institutional insolvency, the ongoing Ottoman political and economic modernization programme, the rise of ethno-religious nationalism in its provinces, and Great Power rivalries.
The Kingdom of Serbia was a country located in the Balkans which was created when the ruler of the Principality of Serbia, Milan I was proclaimed king in 1882.
The rise of the Western notion of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire eventually caused the breakdown of the Ottoman millet concept. An understanding of the concept of the nationhood prevalent in the Ottoman Empire, which was different from the current one as it was centered on religion, was a key factor in the decline of the Ottoman Empire.
The territory of what is now the Republic of Serbia was part of the Ottoman Empire throughout the Early Modern period, especially Central Serbia, unlike Vojvodina which has passed to Habsburg rule starting from the end of the 17th century . Ottoman culture significantly influenced the region, in architecture, cuisine, language, and dress, especially in arts, and Islam.
The Principality of Montenegro was a former realm in Southeastern Europe that existed from 13 March 1852 to 28 August 1910. It was then proclaimed a kingdom by Nikola I, who then became king.
The Sanjak of Montenegro was a province (sanjak) of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkan Peninsula roughly corresponding to modern Montenegro. It was created in 1514 from the borders of the former Zeta, ruled by the Crnojevići, which had earlier been organized into the Sanjak of Scutari in 1499.
The Montenegrin–Ottoman War, also known in Montenegro as the Great War, was fought between the Principality of Montenegro and the Ottoman Empire between 1876 and 1878. The war ended with Montenegrin victory. Six major and 27 smaller battles were fought, among which was the crucial Battle of Vučji Do.
The Siege of Scutari took place from October 28, 1912 to April 23, 1913, when the army of Kingdom of Montenegro defeated the forces of the Ottoman Empire and invaded Shkodër.
This is the territorial evolution of the Ottoman Empire during a timespan of seven centuries.
The Montenegrin–Ottoman War (1861–62) was a war between the Principality of Montenegro and the Ottoman Empire that took place between 1861 and 1862. The war ended and Montenegro had to acknowledge Ottoman suzerainty.
The Montenegrin–Ottoman War (1852–53) broke out after Ottoman retaliation for the Montenegrin secret aid to Herzegovinian rebels.