Corneliu Vadim Tudor

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Corneliu Vadim Tudor
Corneliu Vadim Tudor - Declaratii la BEC.png
Member of the European Parliament
for Romania
In office
14 July 2009 1 July 2014
Personal details
Born
Corneliu Tudor

(1949-11-28)28 November 1949
Bucharest, Romania
Died14 September 2015(2015-09-14) (aged 65)
Bucharest, Romania
NationalityRomanian
Political party Greater Romania Party
ProfessionWriter, Poet, Journalist, Politician
Website Official website

Corneliu Vadim Tudor (Romanian pronunciation:  [korˈnelju vaˈdim ˈtudor] ; 28 November 1949 – 14 September 2015) was the leader of the Greater Romania Party (Partidul România Mare), poet, writer, journalist and a Member of the European Parliament. He was a Romanian Senator from 1992 to 2008. He was born and died in Bucharest. [1]

Greater Romania Party political party

The Greater Romania Party is a Romanian nationalist political party. Founded in May 1991 by Eugen Barbu and Corneliu Vadim Tudor, it was led by the latter from that point until his death in September 2015. The party is sometimes referred to in English as the Great Romania Party.

Member of the European Parliament person who has been elected to the European Parliament

A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.

Bucharest Capital of Romania

Bucharest is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre. It is located in the southeast of the country, at 44°25′57″N26°06′14″E, on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than 60 km (37.3 mi) north of the Danube River and the Bulgarian border.

Contents

As a political figure, he was known for having held strong nationalist [2] views, which were reflected in his rhetoric and his denunciation of political opponents (a tactic which the judgements in several civil lawsuits handed down against him deemed to be slanderous)[ citation needed ]. He was most commonly referred to as "Vadim", which was a name he selected for himself but not a family name (and not shared with his brother, former Army officer Marcu Tudor). [3]

Nationalism is an ideology and movement characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining the nation's sovereignty (self-governance) over its homeland. Nationalism holds that each nation should govern itself, free from outside interference (self-determination), that a nation is a natural and ideal basis for a polity, and that the nation is the only rightful source of political power. It further aims to build and maintain a single national identity—based on shared social characteristics such as culture, language, religion, politics, and belief in a shared singular history—and to promote national unity or solidarity. Nationalism, therefore, seeks to preserve and foster a nation's traditional culture, and cultural revivals have been associated with nationalist movements. It also encourages pride in national achievements, and is closely linked to patriotism. Nationalism is often combined with other ideologies, such as conservatism or socialism for example.

Biography

Tudor was born in Bucharest on 28 November 1949 into a working-class family, his father being a tailor. [4] In his youth, being an admirer of the French film director Roger Vadim, he chose the pseudonym Vadim as his middle name.[ citation needed ]

Roger Vadim Film director, screenwriter, producer

Roger Vadim was a French screenwriter, film director and producer, as well as an author, artist and occasional actor. His best-known works are visually lavish films with erotic qualities, such as And God Created Woman (1956), Barbarella (1968), and Pretty Maids All in a Row (1971).

In 1971, he received a degree in sociology from the Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Bucharest, and in 1975, he studied at the School for Reserve Officers in Bucharest. [5] With the help of his mentor, Herder Prize winner Eugen Barbu, he obtained a scholarship and studied in Vienna from 1978-79. [6] During the communist era, he worked as a journalist, editor, and poet: in the early 1970s, he was one of the editors at România Liberă , and after 1975 was an editor at the Romanian official press agency, Agerpress. He served as senator from 1992–2008. For the first time since 1990, after the election of 30 November 2008, he and his party were no longer present in either of the Romanian legislative chambers. On 25 September 2001, Tudor renounced his parliamentary immunity from prosecution. [7]

University of Bucharest University of Bucharest, Romania

The University of Bucharest, commonly known after its abbreviation UB in Romania, is a public university founded in 1864 by decree of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza to convert the former Saint Sava Academy into the current University of Bucharest, making it the second oldest modern university in Romania. It is one of the five members of the Universitaria Consortium.

The Herder Prize, named after the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder, was a prestigious international prize awarded every year to scholars and artists from Central and Southeast Europe whose life and work have contributed to the cultural understanding of European countries and their peaceful interrelations. Established in 1963, the first prizes were awarded in 1964.

Eugen Barbu Romanian writer

Eugen Barbu was a Romanian modern novelist, short story writer, journalist, and correspondent member of the Romanian Academy. The latter position was vehemently criticized by those who contended that he plagiarized in his novel Incognito and for the anti-Semitic campaigns he initiated in the newspapers Săptămâna and România Mare which he founded and led. He also founded, alongside his disciple Corneliu Vadim Tudor, the ultra-nationalist Greater Romania Party (PRM).

In December 2004, Nobel Peace Prize laureate Elie Wiesel returned the Steaua României medal, one of the country's highest honors, after President Ion Iliescu awarded Tudor the same honor in the last days of his presidency. Wiesel said he was returning the honor because he could not "accept being placed on the same level" as Tudor and fellow party member (and honor recipient) Gheorghe Buzatu. [8] 15 Radio Free Europe journalists, Timişoara mayor Gheorghe Ciuhandu, songwriter Alexandru Andrieş, and historian Randolph Braham all returned their Steaua României medals as well due to the awards given Tudor and Buzatu. [9] According to the conservative newspaper Ziua, Tudor's Steaua României appointment was revoked by Romanian president Traian Băsescu in May 2007. [10] Tudor consequently announced that he would sue Traian Băsescu for abuse of power. [11]

Nobel Peace Prize One of five Nobel Prizes established by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature. Since March 1901, it has been awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".

Elie Wiesel Romanian-born Jewish Holocaust survivor, writer, professor, activist, and thinker.

Eliezer Wiesel was a Romanian-born American writer, professor, political activist, Nobel Laureate, and Holocaust survivor. He authored 57 books, written mostly in French and English, including Night, a work based on his experiences as a Jewish prisoner in the Auschwitz and Buchenwald concentration camps.

Ion Iliescu Romanian politician

Ion Iliescu is a Romanian politician who served as President of Romania from 1989 until 1996, and from 2000 until 2004. From 1996 to 2000 and from 2004 until his retirement in 2008, Iliescu was a senator for the Social Democratic Party (PSD), of which he was honorary president.

As a poet he made his debut in May 1965 at the national radio station with a poem read in the George Călinescu literary circle. He published several volumes of prose and poetry: Poezii (Poems; 1977), Epistole vieneze (1979), Poeme de dragoste, ură și speranță (Poems of Love, Hatred and Hope; 1981), Idealuri (Ideals; 1983), Saturnalii (Saturnalia, 1983), Istorie și civilizatie (History and Civilization; 1983), Mândria de a fi români (The Pride of Being Romanian; 1985), Miracole (Miracles; 1986 anthology), Jurnal de vacanță (Holiday Journal, 1996), Poems (translated in seven languages, published in Torino, Italy, 1998), Europa Creștină (Christian Europe), and Artificii (Artifices; 2010). [12]

Personal life

Tudor was married and had two children. He died of a heart attack on 14 September 2015 in his native Bucharest. [13] [14]

Ideology

In June 1990, Tudor and Eugen Barbu founded the nationalist weekly magazine România Mare (Greater Romania) – begun as a magazine favorable to the policies of the government.[ citation needed ] Later evidence affirmed that the release of the "Greater Romania" was helped by the left-wing administration in Bucharest. [15]

In 1991, they founded the Greater Romania Party, the platform of which Time magazine described as "a crude mixture of anti-Semitism, [16] racism and nostalgia for the good old days of communism". Some statements and articles by Tudor and his colleagues can be described[ citation needed ] as ultra-nationalist, anti-Hungarian, anti-Roma, and homophobic. [17] [18] [19] [20]

Besides Moldova, Tudor claims that Greater Romania must include Southern Bessarabia, the territory of Hertsa and Northern Bukovina which belong to Ukraine after the fall of the USSR, but were a part of historical Romania until the Russian annexation in 1812, and again between 1918–40. România Mare has been sued for libel with stunning frequency, often for Tudor's own writings (which he usually—if not always—signs under the pseudonym Alcibiade ). Between 1993 and 1996, his party supported the leftist governmental coalition (the "Red Quadrilateral").[ citation needed ]

Tudor's and his party's change from national communism to ultranationalism took place after 1996. In 1999, Dan Corneliu Hudici, a former reporter at România Mare, claimed there was a "secret blacklist" of dozens of politicians (including then-president Emil Constantinescu), journalists, and businessmen to be arrested if Tudor's party came to power. This allegation only served to increase his popularity: in the first round of the Romanian presidential elections on 26 November 2000, Tudor finished second with 28% of the vote. Four years earlier, he had come in fifth. However, nearly all other parties backed Ion Iliescu in the 11 December runoff, and Tudor only picked up five additional percentage points, while Iliescu surged from 36% to 67%.[ citation needed ]

Tudor supported Romania's entry into the European Union and sustained its presence in NATO. In 2003, Tudor claimed to have changed his views on Jews, and the Holocaust. [21] In a letter dated 1 February 2004, he retracted certain earlier statements he had made as inappropriately anti-Semitic; further, he wrote: "I know that I was wrong to have denied the Holocaust in Romania, which happened between 1941 and 1944 under Antonescu's regime." Many publicly questioned the sincerity and motivations of this change, viewing it simply as a political ploy. [22]

Ahead of the 2000 presidential election, Tudor, who finished in second place, made reintroduction of capital punishment a major plank of his campaign. [23]

On 18 October 2012, while speaking on the talk show Romania la Raport, Tudor said that "in Romania there was never a Holocaust ... I will deny it till I die because I love my people." [24]

He fired an advisor (who happened to be Jewish; and a member of the Romanian Chamber of Deputies) Nati Meir. Tudor claimed it was due to allegations of bribery, but Meir claimed it was due to antisemitism. It turned out that the Romanian press discovered that Meir had been convicted in Israel of banking fraud, and was thus incompatible with the office of member of the Chamber of Deputies.[ citation needed ]

On 15 November 2006, Meir was brought to trial by the Romanian authorities for tax evasion, fraud and swindling, being accused of illegalities concerning work permits for Israel. Tudor styled himself The Tribune , a title that originates in Ancient Rome, but has an ever more combative meaning in Romanian history: tribuni stood for certain activists in the self-defence of Romanian communities in Transylvania against the Revolutionary government in Hungary (see The Revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas).[ citation needed ]

Awards

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References

  1. Alison Mutler (14 September 2015). "Corneliu Vadim Tudor, ultranationalist Romanian poet and politician, dies at 65". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
  2. "Romania's far-right contender". BBC. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  3. Deputy Marcu Tudor's webpage, cdep.ro; accessed 17 September 2015. ‹See Tfd› (in Romanian)
  4. "Far-Right MPs Join Forces in EU Parliament: A Small Thorn in The EU's Side". Spiegel. 23 January 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  5. "Corneliu Vadim Tudor implineste 61 de ani" (in Romanian). Ziare. 26 June 2003. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  6. "Corneliu Vadim Tudor" (in German). Munzinger. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  7. "RFE/RL Newsline". HRI. 9 January 2001. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  8. WorldPress.org, Controversial Moves by Romanian President Before Exit, 23 December 2004.
  9. see the Ion Iliescu article
  10. "Vadim Tudor dez-onorat". Archived from the original on 2 July 2007. Retrieved 27 May 2007.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link). ziua.ro, 28 May 2007. ‹See Tfd› (in Romanian)
  11. "Vadim il da in judecata pe Basescu pentru retragerea decoratiei". Ziare. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  12. "Corneliu Vadim Tudor, Romania's most influential politician, dies at age 65" . Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  13. Livia Ispas (14 September 2015). "Corneliu Vadim Tudor a murit". Mediax.
  14. Corneliu Vadim Tudor: Court poet to Nicolae Ceausescu who became an extreme nationalist figure after the fall of communism in Romania, independent.co.uk; accessed 17 September 2015.
  15. Petre Berteanu, Romanian nationalism and political communication: Greater Romania Party (Partidul Romania Mare), a case-study, In: Jaroslav Hroch, David Hollan, George F. McLean, National, Cultural, and Ethnic Identities: Harmony Beyond Conflict, CRVP, 1998, p. 170
  16. Daniela Humoreanu, "His Blood Upon Your Children", bu.edu; accessed 11 January 2007.
  17. LGBTQ News & Calendar for the Bay Area, Sfbaytimes.com; retrieved 30 December 2013.
  18. Romanian Equality Watchdog Rules Anti-Romani Speech by Romanian Politician is Discriminatory, ERRC.org; retrieved 30 December 2013.
  19. FRONTLINE/WORLD: Reporter's Notebook: House of Tudor, PBS.org; retrieved 30 December 2013.
  20. The Primitive Discrimination. Bu.edu; retrieved 30 December 2013.
  21. "Romania: The Continuing Secret Police Cover Up". Spiegel. 24 November 2004. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  22. Vadim sees the light, Haaretz, 7 April 2004.
  23. ‹See Tfd› (in Romanian) Cristian Delcea, "Pedeapsa cu moartea, o problemă care a divizat România" ("Capital Punishment, a Problem That Has Divided Romania"), Adevărul , 25 July 2014.
  24. "Corneliu Vadim Tudor: "În România n-a existat Holocaust"" (in Romanian). S.C. PRESS MEDIA ELECTRONIC SRL. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
  25. "Vadim Tudor rămâne cu Steaua României" (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 29 September 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  26. "Vremea noua – Liderul presei vasluiene". vremeanoua.ro (in Romanian). Retrieved 27 September 2015.