Corona theorem

Last updated

In mathematics, the corona theorem is a result about the spectrum of the bounded holomorphic functions on the open unit disc, conjectured by Kakutani (1941) and proved by LennartCarleson  ( 1962 ).

The commutative Banach algebra and Hardy space H consists of the bounded holomorphic functions on the open unit disc D. Its spectrum S (the closed maximal ideals) contains D as an open subspace because for each z in D there is a maximal ideal consisting of functions f with

f(z) = 0.

The subspace D cannot make up the entire spectrum S, essentially because the spectrum is a compact space and D is not. The complement of the closure of D in S was called the corona by Newman (1959), and the corona theorem states that the corona is empty, or in other words the open unit disc D is dense in the spectrum. A more elementary formulation is that elements f1,...,fn generate the unit ideal of H if and only if there is some δ>0 such that

everywhere in the unit ball.

Newman showed that the corona theorem can be reduced to an interpolation problem, which was then proved by Carleson.

In 1979 Thomas Wolff gave a simplified (but unpublished) proof of the corona theorem, described in ( Koosis 1980 ) and ( Gamelin 1980 ).

Cole later showed that this result cannot be extended to all open Riemann surfaces ( Gamelin 1978 ).

As a by-product, of Carleson's work, the Carleson measure was invented which itself is a very useful tool in modern function theory. It remains an open question whether there are versions of the corona theorem for every planar domain or for higher-dimensional domains.

Note that if one assumes the continuity up to the boundary in Corona's theorem, then the conclusion follows easily from the theory of commutative Banach algebra ( Rudin 1991 ).

See also

Related Research Articles

In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space is a complete normed vector space. Thus, a Banach space is a vector space with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors and is complete in the sense that a Cauchy sequence of vectors always converges to a well defined limit that is within the space.

In mathematics, especially functional analysis, a Banach algebra, named after Stefan Banach, is an associative algebra A over the real or complex numbers that at the same time is also a Banach space, that is, a normed space that is complete in the metric induced by the norm. The norm is required to satisfy

Compact space Topological notions of all points being "close"

In mathematics, more specifically in general topology, compactness is a property that generalizes the notion of a subset of Euclidean space being closed and bounded. Examples include a closed interval, a rectangle, or a finite set of points. This notion is defined for more general topological spaces than Euclidean space in various ways.

Functional analysis Branch of mathematical analysis

Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense. The historical roots of functional analysis lie in the study of spaces of functions and the formulation of properties of transformations of functions such as the Fourier transform as transformations defining continuous, unitary etc. operators between function spaces. This point of view turned out to be particularly useful for the study of differential and integral equations.

In commutative algebra the prime spectrum of a ring like R is the set of all prime ideals of R which is usually denoted by , in algebraic geometry it is simultaneously a topological space equipped with the sheaf of rings .

In complex analysis, the Hardy spacesHp are certain spaces of holomorphic functions on the unit disk or upper half plane. They were introduced by Frigyes Riesz, who named them after G. H. Hardy, because of the paper. In real analysis Hardy spaces are certain spaces of distributions on the real line, which are boundary values of the holomorphic functions of the complex Hardy spaces, and are related to the Lp spaces of functional analysis. For 1 ≤ p ≤ ∞ these real Hardy spaces Hp are certain subsets of Lp, while for p < 1 the Lp spaces have some undesirable properties, and the Hardy spaces are much better behaved.

In mathematics, the Gelfand representation in functional analysis has two related meanings:

In functional analysis, a branch of mathematics, a compact operator is a linear operator , where are normed vector spaces, with the property that maps bounded subsets of to relatively compact subsets of . Such an operator is necessarily a bounded operator, and so continuous. Some authors require that are Banach, but the definition can be extended to more general spaces.

In mathematics, a number of fixed-point theorems in infinite-dimensional spaces generalise the Brouwer fixed-point theorem. They have applications, for example, to the proof of existence theorems for partial differential equations.

In mathematics, the spectrum of a C*-algebra or dual of a C*-algebraA, denoted Â, is the set of unitary equivalence classes of irreducible *-representations of A. A *-representation π of A on a Hilbert space H is irreducible if, and only if, there is no closed subspace K different from H and {0} which is invariant under all operators π(x) with xA. We implicitly assume that irreducible representation means non-null irreducible representation, thus excluding trivial representations on one-dimensional spaces. As explained below, the spectrum  is also naturally a topological space; this is similar to the notion of the spectrum of a ring.

In functional analysis and related areas of mathematics, a Montel space, named after Paul Montel, is any topological vector space (TVS) in which an analog of Montel's theorem holds. Specifically, a Montel space is a barrelled topological vector space in which every closed and bounded subset is compact.

In mathematics, holomorphic functional calculus is functional calculus with holomorphic functions. That is to say, given a holomorphic function f of a complex argument z and an operator T, the aim is to construct an operator, f(T), which naturally extends the function f from complex argument to operator argument. More precisely, the functional calculus defines a continuous algebra homomorphism from the holomorphic functions on a neighbourhood of the spectrum of T to the bounded operators.

In mathematical analysis, Wiener's tauberian theorem is any of several related results proved by Norbert Wiener in 1932. They provide a necessary and sufficient condition under which any function in L1 or L2 can be approximated by linear combinations of translations of a given function.

In mathematics, a rigid analytic space is an analogue of a complex analytic space over a nonarchimedean field. Such spaces were introduced by John Tate in 1962, as an outgrowth of his work on uniformizing p-adic elliptic curves with bad reduction using the multiplicative group. In contrast to the classical theory of p-adic analytic manifolds, rigid analytic spaces admit meaningful notions of analytic continuation and connectedness.

In mathematics, the Banach–Stone theorem is a classical result in the theory of continuous functions on topological spaces, named after the mathematicians Stefan Banach and Marshall Stone.

In functional analysis, the open mapping theorem, also known as the Banach–Schauder theorem, is a fundamental result which states that if a continuous linear operator between Banach spaces is surjective then it is an open map.

In mathematical analysis, and especially functional analysis, a fundamental role is played by the space of continuous functions on a compact Hausdorff space with values in the real or complex numbers. This space, denoted by , is a vector space with respect to the pointwise addition of functions and scalar multiplication by constants. It is, moreover, a normed space with norm defined by

Hilbert space Generalization of Euclidean space allowing infinite dimensions

In mathematics, a Hilbert space generalizes the notion of Euclidean space. It extends the methods of vector algebra and calculus from the two-dimensional Euclidean plane and three-dimensional space to spaces with any finite or infinite number of dimensions. A Hilbert space is a vector space equipped with an inner product operation, which allows lengths and angles to be defined. Furthermore, Hilbert spaces are complete, which means that there are enough limits in the space to allow the techniques of calculus to be used.

In mathematics, Jordan operator algebras are real or complex Jordan algebras with the compatible structure of a Banach space. When the coefficients are real numbers, the algebras are called Jordan Banach algebras. The theory has been extensively developed only for the subclass of JB algebras. The axioms for these algebras were devised by Alfsen, Schultz & Størmer (1978). Those that can be realised concretely as subalgebras of self-adjoint operators on a real or complex Hilbert space with the operator Jordan product and the operator norm are called JC algebras. The axioms for complex Jordan operator algebras, first suggested by Irving Kaplansky in 1976, require an involution and are called JB* algebras or Jordan C* algebras. By analogy with the abstract characterisation of von Neumann algebras as C* algebras for which the underlying Banach space is the dual of another, there is a corresponding definition of JBW algebras. Those that can be realised using ultraweakly closed Jordan algebras of self-adjoint operators with the operator Jordan product are called JW algebras. The JBW algebras with trivial center, so-called JBW factors, are classified in terms of von Neumann factors: apart from the exceptional 27 dimensional Albert algebra and the spin factors, all other JBW factors are isomorphic either to the self-adjoint part of a von Neumann factor or to its fixed point algebra under a period two *-anti-automorphism. Jordan operator algebras have been applied in quantum mechanics and in complex geometry, where Koecher's description of bounded symmetric domains using Jordan algebras has been extended to infinite dimensions.

This is a glossary for the terminology in a mathematical field of functional analysis.