|Missa brevis in C major|
|Mass by W. A. Mozart|
|Composed||1779 Salzburg :|
|Vocal||SATB choir and soloists|
The Krönungsmesse (German for Coronation Mass) (Mass No. 15 in C major, K. 317; sometimes Mass No. 16), composed in 1779, is one of the most popular of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's 17 extant settings of the Ordinary of the Mass. It can be classified as either a Missa brevis (short Mass) or a Missa solemnis (fuller Mass) because although it includes all the sections of the Ordinary, it is relatively short.
The mass in C major was completed on March 23, 1779 in Salzburg. Mozart had just returned to the city after 18 months of fruitless job hunting in Paris and Mannheim, and his father Leopold promptly got him a job as court organist and composer at Salzburg Cathedral. The mass was almost certainly premiered there on Easter Sunday, 4 April 1779. The first documented performance was at the coronation of Francis II as Holy Roman Emperor in 1792.
In the early twentieth century, Johann Evangelist Engl, the archivist of the Salzburg Mozarteum, expressed the view that this mass was composed for and took its name from a remembrance celebration for the crowning of the image of the Virgin at Maria Plain outside Salzburg. This theory has been discounted.
The mass appears to have acquired the nickname Krönungsmesse (Coronation Mass) at the Imperial court in Vienna in the early nineteenth century,after becoming the preferred music for royal and imperial coronations as well as services of thanksgiving. The nickname was included in the first edition of the Köchel catalogue of Mozart's works in 1862.
Musical allusions to this mass appear in the slow movement of the Symphony No. 98 and the Harmoniemesse of Mozart's contemporary, Joseph Haydn.
The mass was performed in a liturgical context in St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican on 29 June 1985, with Pope John Paul II officiating and Herbert von Karajan conducting the Coro della Cappella Musicale Pontificia (the Sistine Chapel Choir), the Wiener Singverein, and the Vienna Philharmonic.
The Kyrie, Gloria and Credo all begin with an engaging rhythm. The soloists contrast with the larger forces of the choir, often as a quartet. Of note in this regard are the central Adagio section of the Credo at "Et incarnatus est", and the surprise of the Benedictus after the chorus has already declaimed the "Hosanna". These musical breaks mimic what is occurring in the mass at these points. Rubrics require the congregation to change from a standing position to a kneeling position at the 'incarnatus' out of respect for the Incarnation of Christ: hence the musical break. Similarly, only the first verse of the 'Sanctus' is sung before the Consecration; the 'Benedictus' verse was sung afterward, according to the rubrics of the Mass. This rubrical division often results in the verses appearing in music as two separate movements, although they are thematically joined. In the Credo, Mozart introduces the trombones for the Crucifixus and using a chromatic fourth in the bass.The soprano solo of the Agnus Dei exhibits melodic similarities to and may foreshadow "Dove sono", an aria of the Countess from Le nozze di Figaro .
The work is scored for SATB soloists and chorus, 2 violins, "Bassi", 2 oboes, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, 3 trombones (which reinforce the alto, tenor and bass choral parts) and organ. In most modern performances several players are used for some of the orchestral parts. Notable is the lack of violas, typical of music written for Salzburg, and the vague name "basses" for the stave shared by organ, bassoon (specified only in the Credo), cello and double bass. Among the original parts is one for "violone", a slippery term sometimes implying a 16' bass but also used for the 8' bass violin.
The solo vocal parts would originally have been sung by members of the choir, and are notated on the same staves as the choral parts in Mozart's autograph score.
The horn parts appear on separate sheets at the end of the autograph score and it is unclear whether they were a later addition by Mozart, although they were composed by him before the end of 1779. The horn parts became separated from the main score, and were omitted from the 1802 edition by Breitkopf & Härtel. The horn parts are sometimes considered as optional.
The Missa solemnis in D major, Op. 123, is a Solemn Mass composed by Ludwig van Beethoven from 1819 to 1823. It was first performed on 7 April 1824 in Saint Petersburg, Russia, under the auspices of Beethoven's patron Prince Nikolai Galitzin; an incomplete performance was given in Vienna on 7 May 1824, when the Kyrie, Credo, and Agnus Dei were conducted by the composer. It is generally considered one of the composer's supreme achievements and, along with Bach's Mass in B minor, one of the most significant Mass settings of the common practice period.
Great Mass in C minor, K. 427/417a, is the common name of the musical setting of the mass by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and considered one of his greatest works. He composed it in Vienna in 1782 and 1783 after his marriage when he moved to Vienna from Salzburg. This large-scale work, a missa solemnis, is scored for two soprano soloists, a tenor and a bass, double chorus and large orchestra. It remained unfinished, missing large portions of the Credo and the complete Agnus Dei.
The Harmoniemesse in B-flat major by Joseph Haydn, Hob. XXII:14, Novello 6, was written in 1802. It was Haydn's last major work. It is because of the prominence of the winds in this mass and "the German terminology for a kind of wind ensemble, Harmonie," that this mass setting is called "Harmoniemesse" or "Wind Band Mass". Besides flute, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns in B-flat, 2 trumpets in B-flat, the mass also calls for choir, timpani, strings, and organ, the latter supplying figured bass for most of the duration.
The Missa brevis No. 9 in B-flat major by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, K. 275/272b, was probably written before September 1777 for Salzburg. The mass is scored for SATB soloists, SATB choir, violin I, violin II, 3 trombones, string bass, and organ.
The Missa brevis in G major, K. 140, K3 Anh. 235d, K6 Anh. C 1.12, was probably composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart shortly after returning to Salzburg, in March 1773, from his third trip to Italy.
Michael Haydn's Missa Hispanica or Missa a due cori, Klafsky I:17, MH 422, was presumably written for Spain, but there is no evidence of its ever having been performed there during Haydn's lifetime. The mass is scored for 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns in low C, F and G, 2 trumpets in C, timpani, strings, basso continuo, SATB soloists, and two mixed choirs.
The Sparrow Mass is a mass in C major K. 220/196b, Mass No. 9, Missa brevis No. 5, composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1775 or 1776 in Salzburg. The mass is sometimes termed a missa brevis et solemnis, because it is short in a simple structure as a missa brevis, but festively scored like a missa solemnis with brass and timpani in addition to four soloists, strings and organ. It was possibly first performed on 7 April 1776 in a mass for Easter at the Salzburg Cathedral. The nickname is derived from violin figures in the Hosanna which resemble bird chirping.
The Missa solemnis in C major by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, K. 337, was written in 1780 for Salzburg. It was Mozart's last complete mass. The mass is scored for soloists, choir, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, strings and organ, the latter supplying figured bass for most of the duration.
The St. Francis Mass is the shorter name for the Missa sub titulo Sancti Francisci Seraphici composed by Michael Haydn. He completed it on 16 August 1803, apparently at the request of Empress Maria Theresa for a name day celebration.
The Mass in B minor is Johann Sebastian Bach's only setting of the complete Latin text of the Ordinarium missae. Towards the end of his life, mainly in 1748 and 1749, he finished composing new sections and compiling it into a complex, unified structure.
The Missa brevis No. 8 in C major, K. 259, is a mass composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1776. It is scored for SATB soloists, SATB choir, violin I and II, 2 oboes, 2 clarini, 3 trombones colla parte, timpani and basso continuo.
The Missa in honorem Sanctissimae Trinitatis in C major, K. 167, is a mass composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in June 1773. It is scored for SATB choir, violin I and II, 2 oboes, 2 clarini, 2 trumpets, timpani and basso continuo.
The Credo Mass in C major, K. 257, is a mass composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1776. It is scored for SATB soloists, SATB choir, violin I and II, 2 oboes, 2 clarini, 3 trombones colla parte and basso continuo.
The Missa solemnis in C major, K. 66, is a mass composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1769. It is scored for SATB soloists and choir, violins I and II, viola, 2 oboes, 2 horns, 2 clarini, 2 trumpets and basso continuo.
The Missa brevis in D major, K. 194/186h, is a mass composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and completed on 8 August 1774. It is scored for SATB soloists, SATB choir, violin I and II, 3 trombones colla parte, and basso continuo.
The Missa longa in C major, K. 262/246a, is a mass composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in May 1776. Other sources claim it was composed in May 1775. It is scored for SATB soloists, SATB choir, violin I and II, 2 oboes, 2 horns, 2 clarini, 3 trombones colla parte, timpani and basso continuo.
The Missa brevis in D minor, K. 65/61a, is a mass composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and completed on 14 January 1769. It is scored for SATB soloists and choir, violin I and II, 3 trombones colla parte, and basso continuo.
Mass No. 4 in C major, D 452, is a mass composed by Franz Schubert in 1816. It was originally scored for soprano, alto, tenor and bass soloists, SATB choir, violin I and II, and basso continuo. It is classified as a missa solemnis.
The Missa Votiva is a mass composed by the Czech Baroque composer Jan Dismas Zelenka in 1739, Dresden. The Missa Votiva is about seventy minutes long, and its twenty parts range from forty-five seconds to over seven minutes in length.
The Windhaager Messe, WAB 25, is a missa brevis composed by Anton Bruckner in 1842.