Corpus Christi, Texas

Last updated
Corpus Christi, Texas
City of Corpus Christi
CorpusChristiTX Night.jpg
Downtown skyline
Flag of Corpus Christi, Texas.svg
Flag
Nickname(s): 
Sparkling City by the Sea
Nueces CorpusChristi.svg
Location within Nueces County
Relief map of Texas.png
Red pog.svg
Corpus Christi
Location within Texas
Usa edcp relief location map.png
Red pog.svg
Corpus Christi
Location within United States
Coordinates: 27°44′34″N97°24′7″W / 27.74278°N 97.40194°W / 27.74278; -97.40194 Coordinates: 27°44′34″N97°24′7″W / 27.74278°N 97.40194°W / 27.74278; -97.40194
CountryFlag of the United States.svg  United States
State Flag of Texas.svg  Texas
Counties Nueces, Kleberg, San Patricio, Aransas [1]
Named for Body of Christ
Government
  Type Council–manager government
   City council Mayor Joe McComb (R)
Michael Hunter
Paulette Guajardo
Rudy Garza, Jr.
Everett Roy
Ben Molina
Roland Barrera
Greg Smith
Gil Hernandez
   City manager Peter Zanoni
Area
   City 503.6 sq mi (1,304 km2)
  Land174.6 sq mi (452 km2)
  Water329.0 sq mi (852 km2)
Elevation
7 ft (2 m)
Population
 (2010)
   City 305,215
  Estimate 
(2017) [2]
325,605
  RankUS: 58th
  Density1,830/sq mi (710/km2)
   Metro
442,600 (114th U.S.)
   CSA
516,793 (87th)
Time zone UTC−6 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP Codes
78401–78402, 78404–78418
Area code(s) 361
FIPS code 48-17000 [3]
GNIS feature ID1333380 [4]
Website www.cctexas.com

Corpus Christi ( /ˌkɔːrpəsˈkrɪsti/ ), colloquially Corpus (Latin: Body of Christ), is a coastal city in the South Texas region of the U.S. state of Texas. The county seat of Nueces County, [5] it also extends into Aransas, Kleberg, and San Patricio counties. It is 130 miles southeast of San Antonio. Its political boundaries encompass Nueces Bay and Corpus Christi Bay. Its zoned boundaries include small land parcels or water inlets of three neighboring counties.

Gulf Coast of the United States Coastline in the United States

The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline along the Southern United States where they meet the Gulf of Mexico. The coastal states that have a shoreline on the Gulf of Mexico are Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, and these are known as the Gulf States.

South Texas region of the U.S. state of Texas

South Texas is a region of the U.S. state of Texas that lies roughly south of—and sometimes including—San Antonio. The southern and western boundary is the Rio Grande, and to the east it is the Gulf of Mexico. The population of this region is about 4.96 million according to the 2017 census estimates. The southern portion of this region is often referred to as the Rio Grande Valley. The eastern portion along the Gulf of Mexico is also referred to as the Coastal Bend.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

Contents

The city's population was estimated to be 320,434 in 2014, making it the eighth-most populous city in Texas. The Corpus Christi metropolitan area had an estimated population of 442,600. [1] It is also the hub of the six-county Corpus Christi-Kingsville-Alice Combined Statistical Area, with a 2013 estimated population of 516,793. The Port of Corpus Christi is the fifth-largest in the United States. The region is served by the Corpus Christi International Airport.

Corpus Christi metropolitan area

The Corpus Christi Metropolitan Statistical Area is a metropolitan area in South Texas that covers three counties—Aransas, Nueces, and San Patricio. As of the 2000 census, the MSA had a population of 413,280.

Port of Corpus Christi is the fourth-largest port in the United States in total tonnage. Port Corpus Christi is located on Corpus Christi Bay in the western Gulf of Mexico, with a straight 45-foot-deep (14 m) channel. The port is located close to downtown Corpus Christi in Nueces County, Texas, but the port is not part of the city or the county. Port Corpus Christi operates without receiving any city, county, or state tax dollars. It is governed by an unpaid board of seven citizens, three of whom are appointed by the Nueces County Commissioners Court, one by the San Patricio County Commissioners Court, and three by the Corpus Christi City Council. Port Corpus Christi handles over 6,000 vessels and over 80 million tons of cargo annually. Environmental initiatives are handled through the port's Environmental Management System (EMS). To fight crime and terrorism, public safety at Port Corpus Christi is handled by the Port Corpus Christi Police Department and its state-of-the-art security center.

Corpus Christi International Airport airport in Texas, United States of America

Corpus Christi International Airport is six miles west of Corpus Christi, in Nueces County, Texas. It opened in 1960, replacing Cliff Maus airport at 27.767°N 97.44°W, where the Lozano Golf Center is now.

The city's name means Body of Christ in Latin. The name was given to the settlement and surrounding bay by Spanish explorer Alonso Álvarez de Pineda in 1519, as he discovered the lush semitropical bay on the Catholic feast day of Corpus Christi.[ citation needed ] The nickname of the city is "Sparkling City by the Sea", particularly featured in tourist literature. [6]

Eucharist Christian rite

The Eucharist is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches, and as an ordinance in others. According to the New Testament, the rite was instituted by Jesus Christ during the Last Supper; giving his disciples bread and wine during the Passover meal, Jesus commanded his followers to "do this in memory of me" while referring to the bread as "my body" and the cup of wine as "the new covenant in my blood". Through the Eucharistic celebration Christians remember both Christ's sacrifice of himself on the cross and his commission of the apostles at the Last Supper.

Alonso Álvarez de Pineda Spanish explorer and cartographer

Alonso Álvarez de Pineda was a Spanish Conquistador and cartographer who was first documented in Texas history. In 1519 he led several expeditions to map the western coastlines of the Gulf of Mexico, from the Yucatán Peninsula to the Pánuco River, just north of Veracruz. Ponce de León had previously mapped parts of Florida, which he believed to be an island. Antón de Alaminos' exploration eliminated the western areas as being the site of the passage, leaving the land between the Pánuco River and Florida to be mapped.

Corpus Christi (feast) Catholic feast day, public holiday in some countries

The Feast of Corpus Christi is a Catholic liturgical solemnity celebrating the real presence of the body and blood of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, in the elements of the Eucharist—known as transubstantiation. Two months earlier, the Eucharist is observed on Maundy Thursday in a sombre atmosphere leading to Good Friday. The liturgy on that day also commemorates Christ's washing of the disciples' feet, the institution of the priesthood and the agony in the Garden of Gethsemane. The feast of Corpus Christi was established to create a feast focused solely on the Holy Eucharist emphasizing the joy of the Eucharist being the body and blood of Jesus Christ.

History

Map of Corpus Christi in 1887 Old map-Corpus Christi-1887.jpg
Map of Corpus Christi in 1887

Karankawans inhabited the Corpus Christi region in pre-Columbian times. [7]

Karankawa people

The Karankawa were Native American people concentrated in southern Texas along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. They consisted of several independent seasonal nomadic groups who shared the same language and much of the same culture. The tribe included the groups called the Cujanes, Cocos, Guapites (Coapites), and Copanes. Some of the village names survived to modern day and are the Ebahamo, Emet, Kouyam, Meracouman, Quara, Quinet, and the Toyal villages.

Spaniard Alonso Alvarez de Pineda traveled in 1519 to this bay on the day of the religious “Feast of Corpus Christi,” thus naming the semi-tropical bay Corpus Christi.[ citation needed ]

Cabeza de Vaca may have passed through Corpus Christi in the 1500s, but the first European to study the Nueces River and Corpus Christi Bay was Joaquín de Orobio y Basterra in 1747. A few years later, José de Escandón organized a colony of about 50 families to settle the head of the bay, though this was short-lived. [7]

In 1839, the first known permanent settlement of Corpus Christi was established by Colonel Henry Lawrence Kinney and William P. Aubrey as Kinney's Trading Post, or Kinney's Ranch. It was a small trading post that sold supplies to a Mexican revolutionary army camped about 25 mi (40 km) west. [8] In July 1845, U.S. troops commanded by General Zachary Taylor set up camp there in preparation for war with Mexico, where they remained until March 1846. About a year later, the settlement was named Corpus Christi and was incorporated on September 9, 1852. [9]

The Battle of Corpus Christi was fought between August 12 and August 18, 1862, during the American Civil War. United States Navy forces blockading Texas fought a small land and sea engagement with Confederate forces in and around Corpus Christi Bay and bombarded the city. Union forces defeated Confederate States Navy ships operating in the area, but were repulsed when they landed on the coast. [10]

Damaged restaurant after Hurricane Allen Hamlet Del Mar.jpg
Damaged restaurant after Hurricane Allen

The Port of Corpus Christi was opened in 1926, and the Corpus Christi Naval Air Station was commissioned in 1941. [8]

The 1919 Storm devastated the city, killing hundreds on September 14. Only three structures survived the storm on North Beach. [11] To protect the city, the seawall was built. The city also suffered damage from Hurricane Celia in 1970 and Hurricane Allen in 1980, but little damage from Hurricane Ike in 2008. The city was affected in 2017 by Hurricane Harvey.

Civil rights

Geology

Corpus Christi is situated on fluvial deposits that are of HolocenePleistocene age. Although no solidified rock occurs naturally at the surface, [14] the Deweyville Formation of sand, silt, clay, and gravel, is locally indurated with calcium carbonate (caliche) deposits. In 2017, Hurricane Harvey's storm surge eroded down to shale bedrock at a depth of approximately 40' in Packery Channel, an artificial pass cut between North Padre and Mustang Islands. This feature has become a gathering place for game fish, and can be identified from the surface by its whirlpool-like current. The large, shallow bay makes Corpus Christi an ideal feeding place for birds, and this is one reason why Corpus Christi is known as the "Bird Capital" of North America. Consequently, the San Diego Audubon Society has designated Corpus Christi as "America's birdiest place." [15]

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, Corpus Christi has a total area of 460.2 square miles (1,192.0 km2), of which 154.6 mi2 (400.5 km2, 33.60%) are land and 305.6 mi2 (791.5 km2, 66.40%) are covered by water. Drinking water for the city is supplied by three reservoirs, Lake Corpus Christi, the Choke Canyon Reservoir, and Lake Texana. Through an effective regional partnership with the Nueces River Authority and the Port of Corpus Christi Authority, a 101 mi (163 km) pipeline was built which transports water from Lake Texana to the city's O.N. Stevens Water Treatment Plant. It was named the Mary Rhodes Pipeline, after the late mayor. Phase two of the pipeline is underway to draw water from the Colorado River. [16] All reservoirs are outside the city limits, but Lake Corpus Christi and Choke Canyon Reservoir are managed directly by the public utility of the City of Corpus Christi. To support future water needs, plans are being completed to build a desalinization plant. [17]

Annexation

Since its founding, the city has annexed nearby lands and waters for growth and development purposes. The original area encompassed several city blocks in present-day downtown Corpus Christi with the majority of city expansion occurring in the 20th century. [18]

Neighborhoods

Aerial view of Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi AerialCorpusChristi.jpg
Aerial view of Texas A&M University–Corpus Christi

Suburbs

Climate

The city has a humid subtropical climate, with hot, very humid summers and very short, mild winters. In November through February, the weather is the coolest. A noticeable warming trend occurs in March through April. The warmest part of the year is June through September, with August being the peak of summer. October in the city is very warm, but not as hot as the summer. Corpus Christi is very windy, with wind speeds often reaching to 25 miles per hour (40 km/h; 11 m/s) with gusts reaching more than 35 miles per hour (56 km/h; 16 m/s). The city’s record high temperature is 109 °F (42.8 °C), on September 5, 2000, and the hottest month August 2012 with an average of 88.3 °F (31.3 °C). Average night-time winter lows in January, the coldest month, are a little less than 50 °F (10.0 °C) and its record low is 11 °F (−11.7 °C) on February 12, 1899, and the coldest maximum 26 °F (−3.3 °C) on five occasions, the most recent being on January 30, 1951. [nb 1] Winter and early spring are generally dry, and average monthly precipitation is highest in September, when the threat from hurricanes and other tropical weather systems is greatest. The coolest month on record has been February 1905, with a mean of 45.6 °F (7.6 °C). In December 2004, the city experienced snowfall on Christmas Eve, the city’s largest recorded snowstorm at 4.4 inches (11.18 cm). The snow melted the day after Christmas. Because of the uniqueness of the event, three separate books document the event, Snow, More Snow, and More Snow for Kids, all with the theme of the South Texas Christmas miracle. [19] The city experienced light snowfall a second time, on December 8, 2017, nearly 13 years later.

Between 1981 and 2010, Corpus Christi averaged 31.73 inches or 80.6 centimetres of rainfall; however, long periods with very little rainfall are normal, and hurricanes can frequently produce daily falls of over 4 inches or 10.2 centimetres. The wettest day on record is July 2, 2007, with 9.86 inches or 25.0 centimetres, while the wettest month on record is September 1967, with 20.33 inches or 51.6 centimetres, including four days with over 3 inches or 7.6 centimetres. Eight months with not even a trace of rainfall have happened, of which the most recent was May 1998, and 21 with merely a trace. The longest spell without measurable rainfall in Corpus Christi has been 55 days from June 23 to August 17 (inclusive) of 1895, and from June 1 to July 25 of 1915, while easily the driest calendar year has been 1917, with a mere 5.38 inches or 13.7 centimetres. The two wettest calendar years have been 1888 with 48.16 inches or 122.3 centimetres and 1991 with 48.07 inches or 122.1 centimetres, although from August 1967 to July 1968, 59.09 inches or 150.1 centimetres fell, and for the 12 months ending January 1918, only 5.22 inches or 13.3 centimetres.

Hurricanes rarely hit the city, and have been destructive, such as the 1919 Florida Keys hurricane and Hurricane Harvey in 2017. [20]

Climate data for Corpus Christi, Texas (Corpus Christi Int'l), 1981–2010 normals
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)91
(33)
97
(36)
102
(39)
102
(39)
103
(39)
107
(42)
105
(41)
107
(42)
109
(43)
101
(38)
98
(37)
91
(33)
109
(43)
Average high °F (°C)66.9
(19.4)
70.4
(21.3)
75.9
(24.4)
81.7
(27.6)
86.6
(30.3)
90.9
(32.7)
93.1
(33.9)
94.4
(34.7)
90.1
(32.3)
84.4
(29.1)
76.0
(24.4)
68.4
(20.2)
81.6
(27.6)
Daily mean °F (°C)57.1
(13.9)
60.5
(15.8)
66.1
(18.9)
72.4
(22.4)
78.3
(25.7)
82.4
(28.0)
83.9
(28.8)
84.7
(29.3)
81.1
(27.3)
74.5
(23.6)
66.1
(18.9)
58.5
(14.7)
72.1
(22.3)
Average low °F (°C)47.2
(8.4)
50.5
(10.3)
56.3
(13.5)
63.0
(17.2)
70.0
(21.1)
73.9
(23.3)
74.8
(23.8)
75.0
(23.9)
72.0
(22.2)
64.8
(18.2)
56.2
(13.4)
48.6
(9.2)
62.7
(17.1)
Record low °F (°C)14
(−10)
11
(−12)
24
(−4)
33
(1)
45
(7)
56
(13)
64
(18)
64
(18)
52
(11)
28
(−2)
27
(−3)
13
(−11)
11
(−12)
Average rainfall inches (mm)1.54
(39)
1.92
(49)
1.89
(48)
1.84
(47)
3.07
(78)
3.36
(85)
2.79
(71)
2.92
(74)
4.97
(126)
3.64
(92)
1.97
(50)
1.82
(46)
31.73
(805)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 in)7.16.55.35.36.06.85.76.58.86.36.06.476.7
Average relative humidity (%)77.476.274.276.578.977.574.574.576.274.975.976.076.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 140.2155.7198.1208.4234.1290.4328.1299.7244.2231.9170.4135.12,636.3
Percent possible sunshine 43505354567077746665534259
Source: NOAA (extremes 1887–present, relative humidity and sun 1961–1990) [21] [22]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1860 175
1870 2,1401,122.9%
1880 3,25752.2%
1890 4,38734.7%
1900 4,7037.2%
1910 8,22274.8%
1920 10,52228.0%
1930 27,741163.6%
1940 57,301106.6%
1950 108,28789.0%
1960 167,69054.9%
1970 204,52522.0%
1980 231,99913.4%
1990 257,45311.0%
2000 277,4547.8%
2010 305,21510.0%
Est. 2017325,605 [2] 6.7%
U.S. Decennial Census [23]

2010 Census data

Map of racial distribution in Corpus Christi, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow) Race and ethnicity 2010- Corpus Christi (5559868633).png
Map of racial distribution in Corpus Christi, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)

At the 2010 Census, 305,215 people resided in Corpus Christi, a 10.0% increase since 2000. [24]

In 2012, Corpus Christi was ranked as the second-least literate city in the U.S. in a study by Central Connecticut State University. [25]

According to the 2010 Census, 80.9% of Corpus Christi's population was White; 4.3% was African American; 1.8% Asian; 0.1% Pacific Islander; 10.4% of some other race; and 2.5% of two or more races. About 62.23% of Corpus Christi's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin, of any race, [24] and 33.3% of the population was non-Hispanic White, down from 56% in 1970. [26]

2000 Census data

At the census [3] of 2000, 277,454 people, 98,791 households, and 70,437 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,794.2 people per square mile (692.7/km2). The 107,831 housing units averaged 697.3 per square mile (269.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 71.62% White, 4.67% African American, 0.64% Native American, 1.28% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 18.58% from other races, and 3.13% from two or more races. Hispanics of any race were 54.33% of the population.

Of the 98,791 households, 36.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.9% were married couples living together, 15.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.7% were not families. About 23.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.27.

In the city, the population was distributed as 28.1% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, and 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males.

The median income for a family was $41,672. Males had a median income of $31,863 versus $22,616 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,419. About 14.1% of families and 17.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.9% of those under age 18 and 15.5% of those ages 65 or over.

Economy

The majority of the population is employed in the services, wholesale and retail trades, and government sectors. Corpus Christi has an unemployment rate of 5.6% as of November 2016. [27]

The Port of Corpus Christi, which is the fifth-largest U.S. port [28] and deepest inshore port on the Gulf of Mexico, handles mostly oil and agricultural products. Much of the local economy is driven by tourism and the oil and petrochemicals industry. In 2005, the port was ranked as the 47th-largest in the world by cargo tonnage.

Corpus Christi is home to Naval Air Station Corpus Christi providing 6,200 civilian jobs to the local economy, making it the single largest employer in the city. Corpus Christi Army Depot, located on NAS Corpus Christi, is the largest helicopter repair facility in the world. [9] Additionally located on NAS Corpus Christi is the United States Coast Guard Sector/Air Station Corpus Christi.

Corpus Christi is the original home of the headquarters of Whataburger, a fast-food restaurant operator and franchiser with 650 stores in 10 states and Mexico; however, the company relocated its headquarters to San Antonio in 2009. Other large employers include CHRISTUS Spohn Health System at 5,400 local employees, the Corpus Christi Independent School District with 5,178, H-E-B at 5,000, and Bay Ltd. at 2,100. [29] Other companies based in Corpus Christi include Stripes Convenience Stores and AEP Texas. [30] [31]

Corpus Christi became the first major city to offer citywide free wi-fi in April 2005 [32] to allow remote meter reading after a meter reader was attacked by a dog. In 2007, the network was purchased by Earthlink for $5.5 million, and stopped being a free service on May 31, 2007. [33]

Culture

Various sections of Corpus Christi maintain distinct senses of identity and community from the city proper, especially the Calallen and Flour Bluff areas. Clarkwood and Annaville have less prominent senses of identity, but the distinction remains. These areas are sometimes mistakenly believed to be separate municipalities.[ citation needed ]

The city has many demographic groups, ethnicities, and subcultures, each giving it a distinct flavor - the defense bases and the people who work there, the large Hispanic community, the oil-related professionals and workers, the cowboy culture, and the surfers.

Attractions

The city is home to a number of popular destinations for both tourists and residents. The official visitor and tourism information organization is the Corpus Christi Convention and Visitors Bureau. Some of the most visited attractions are located on North Beach, where the Texas State Aquarium and the USS Lexington Museum on the Bay are located. [34]

USS Lexington floating museum USS Lexington Corpus.JPG
USS Lexington floating museum

USS Lexington was also part of the set for the 2000 film Pearl Harbor . Corpus Christi's museum district is located near USS Lexington. Some attractions located in the museum district are the Museum of Asian Cultures, the Corpus Christi Museum of Science and History, the South Texas Institute for the Arts, and the Harbor Playhouse Theatre, one of the oldest continually operating community theatres in Texas. Heritage Park is also in the museum district, where a number of older restored houses can be found. The downtown area, of which the museum district is a part, is home to skyscrapers such as One Shoreline Plaza, company offices, various shops, a popular center of marinas, and Mirador de la Flor. Downtown also is home of the Texas Surf Museum, which explores the history of surfing and focuses on surf culture along Texas' 367-mile (591 km) coast, as well as K Space Contemporary, a nonprofit art organization promoting and presenting local, regional, and national contemporary art.

Texas State Aquarium Texas State Aquarium Corpus Christi.JPG
Texas State Aquarium

The Corpus Christi Botanical Gardens and Nature Center, also located in the city, hosts gardening programs from time to time. On Oso Bay near the Pharaoh Valley subdivision is the Hans and Pat Suter Wildlife Refuge, known for seabird-watching. The nearby Pharaohs golf course also serves as a haven for coastal and migratory birds.

Directly east of Corpus Christi are Padre Island and Mustang Island, home to various municipal, state, and national parks, most notably the Padre Island National Seashore. The city is also near King Ranch, one of the world's largest ranches, upon which the movie Giant was based.

The city also celebrates the annual Buccaneer Days Carnival, which is typically held downtown.

South Padre Island Drive is the city's main retail corridor, with two shopping malls, La Palmera (formerly Padre Staples Mall), and Sunrise Mall. Also, a number of other large shopping centers, small strip centers, and restaurants can be found throughout the city.

Corpus Christi also is the home of Midget Ocean Racing Fleet, which promotes sailing in the Coastal Bend. The Wednesday night races held by the fleet are the longest-running weekly races in the United States.

Films made in Corpus Christi

YearTitleLead actor(s)
1979 Tilt Brooke Shields, Charles Durning
1985 The Legend of Billie Jean Christian Slater, Helen Slater
1985 Target Gene Hackman, Matt Dillon
1991 Knight Rider 2000 David Hasselhoff, Edward Mulhare
1997 Selena Jennifer Lopez
2001 Pearl Harbor Ben Affleck, Josh Hartnett
2005 The King Gael Garcia Bernal
2009 The Open Road Justin Timberlake, Jeff Bridges

Sports

Whataburger Field, home of the Corpus Christi Hooks Whataburger Field's Field.jpg
Whataburger Field, home of the Corpus Christi Hooks

Corpus Christi has professional sports to offer residents and visitors. The city is home to the Corpus Christi IceRays of the North American Hockey League and the Corpus Christi Hooks are the AA minor-league baseball club for the Houston Astros, which play in the Texas League.

Year round NCAA Division I collegiate athletics may be found at Texas A&M-Corpus Christi as the Islanders compete in 14 men’s and women’s sports as a member of the Southland Conference.

Sailing races are held weekly off downtown's T-heads every Wednesday, where spectators watch vessels competing at sunset. Additionally, Corpus Christi is also home to the Corpus Christi Rugby Football Club, which is a member of the Texas Rugby Union, an affiliate of the Western Rugby Union and of the United States Rugby Football Union.

ClubSportLeagueVenueEstablishedChampionships
Corpus Christi Hooks Baseball Texas League Whataburger Field 1968 (Relocated in 2005)1 (2006)
Corpus Christi IceRays Ice hockey NAHL American Bank Center 1998 (Became junior in 2010)0
Corpus Christi Crabs Rugby TRU Dewey's1973N/A

Parks and recreation

The city's location beside Corpus Christi Bay, the Gulf of Mexico, and Laguna Madre provides opportunities for water sports and nature tourism. Waterfowl hunting is available in the region for duck, geese, coot, and teal. White-winged dove and mourning dove are also hunted on private leases. The brushland inland from Corpus Christi is also ideal for hunting feral hogs and white-tailed deer.

Fishing

Fishing is a popular recreational activity in Corpus Christi, including fishing from various piers around Corpus Christi Bay, wade fishing in Oso Bay, and fishing from the Gulf of Mexico at Packery Channel or at Bob Hall Pier.

Wind sports

The city has one of the highest average wind speeds of coastal cities in North America. [35] Combined with the Bay Front area along Ocean Drive, making the city an important destination for wind sports such as kite boarding, wind surfing, kite flying, and sailing. In 1990, Corpus Christi hosted the Windsurfing World Championships. In 2018, Corpus Christi hosted the 2018 Youth Sailing World Championships.

Other

The Corpus Christi Skate Park opened on February 17, 2007. It is located in Cole Park on the shoreline of the Corpus Christi Bay near downtown. The 12,000-square-foot (1,100 m2) concrete park includes a skating bowl and a street course with stairs, railings, and flat surfaces.

Being a coastal city, Corpus Christi is a good spot for seabird watching. Popular spots include Blucher Park in downtown, the Hans and Pat Suter Wildlife Refuge along Oso Bay, Hazel Bazemore County Park along the Nueces River in Calallen, and the South Texas Botanic Garden and Nature Center along the Oso Creek. [36]

Government

Municipal government

In 1852, the City of Corpus Christi was incorporated. Texas' 31st Legislature chartered the city as a political and corporate municipal entity in 1909. By ordinance, the city possesses power to "fix, alter and extend its boundaries." [37]

Corpus Christi is under a council-manager municipal government. The elected city council is the primary authority in municipal matters such as enacting local legislation, determining policies, and appointing the city manager. Together, the city council and city manager execute laws and administer the municipal government. [37] Organized by governmental sectors of city council, city management, city secretary, and several city departments, Corpus Christi is seated in Nueces County. The city council currently consists of these elected members:

Peter Zanoni, former deputy city manager of San Antonio, was appointed City Manager in May 2019. Zanoni works alongside Assistant City Managers Mark Van Vleck and Samuel "Keith" Selman. The city's Intergovernmental Relations Director is Tammy Embrey. Rebecca L. Huerta serves as the city secretary.

Former City Manager Margie C. Rose was appointed in 2016 and served as the first African-American city manager in Corpus Christi. Rose resigned in 2018. [39] Selman served as interim city manager in 2018 following Rose's resignation and until the appointment of Zanoni.

The Corpus Christi City Charter was adopted by public referendum in 1987, with amendments to the entire charter conducted January 19, 1991, and April 3, 1993. Further revisions to the charter were conducted on November 2, 2004, November 7, 2006, and November 8, 2016. [40] The charter consists of 10 articles and 41 sections regarding stipulations of home rule government, city council and city manager procedures, administration, planning, boards and commissions, etc. The Code of Ordinances of Corpus Christi was codified through Ordinance No. 028493, and adopted Feb. 23, 2010. [41]

From 2012 to 2016, Nelda Martinez was mayor of Corpus Christi, the first Hispanic woman to the hold the office. [42]

On January 19, 2017, Corpus Christi Mayor Dan McQueen resigned from office after 37 days, an outgrowth of a comment by McQueen claiming that the city council members were only high school graduates and he was an engineer. [43] He does not have an engineering degree and some college graduates are on the city council. [43]

State and federal representation

The Texas 13th Court of Appeals is located in the Nueces County Courthouse in Corpus Christi. [44]

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Corpus Christi Parole Office in Corpus Christi. [45]

The United States Postal Service operates the Corpus Christi Post Office, the city's main post office, [46] and several station post offices.

Education

Colleges and universities

Corpus Christi is home to several institutions of higher learning: Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, Del Mar College, Saint Leo University-Corpus Christi and numerous vocational schools, including Southern Careers Institute, South Texas Vo-Tech, Career Centers of Texas-Corpus Christi, and Vogue Cosmetology School. The city is also home to Stark College & Seminary (formerly known as the South Texas School of Christian Studies) located on Ward Island alongside Texas A&M-Corpus Christi. The school serves as an extension campus on the graduate level for Logsdon Seminary of Hardin-Simmons, though Logsdon is in the process of terminating this relationship.

Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi is a component of the Texas A&M University System. It was formerly known as Corpus Christi State University, Texas A&I University at Corpus Christi, and the University of Corpus Christi.

Saint Leo University-Corpus Christi Education Center is located at Corpus Christi's Naval Air Station.

Del Mar College is a local community college begun in the 1940s at a location behind Wynn Seale Jr. High School. The main campus began with the administration building, which was constructed after World War II on Del Mar. The college grew to encompass a good portion of a residential addition called Southmoreland built from the Bohemian farm lands in the late 1930s. Del Mar now includes a west campus located in the area of Corpus Christi that once was Cliff Maus Airport.

Southern Careers Institute offers career training at two Corpus Christi locations, primarily in the medical, business, and cosmetology fields.

In 2015, WalletHub ranked Corpus Christi near the bottom, 138 out of 150 cities in America, for its low educational level and low income opportunities. [47] To improve literacy levels in the city, a multiyear effort has been made to promote reading through annual literacy festivals. Started by First Lady Laura Bush and the Texas Book Festival, a series of book festivals is held each spring.

Schools

Six school districts provide primary and secondary education for area residents: Corpus Christi Independent School District, Calallen ISD, Flour Bluff ISD, Tuloso-Midway ISD, West Oso ISD, and London ISD. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Corpus Christi provides the primary and secondary education for Catholic schools. Several Open Enrollment Charter Schools are in Corpus Christi. These public schools are: Accelerated Learning Center, Cesar E Chavez Academy, Corpus Christi College Preparatory HS, Corpus Christi Montessori School, Dr ML Garza-Gonzalez Charter School, GCCLR Institute of Technology, Premier HS of Corpus Christi, Richard Milburn Academy, School of Science and Technology, Seashore Learning Center, and Seashore Middle Academy.

Corpus Christi Independent School District

High Schools

Middle Schools

  • Marvin P. Baker Middle School
  • Tom Browne Middle School
  • Cullen Place Middle School
  • Claude Cunningham Middle School
  • Robert Driscoll Middle School
  • Elliott Grant Middle School
  • Carl O. Hamlin Middle School
  • R. Haas Middle School
  • Harold Kaffie Middle School
  • Martin Middle School
  • South Park Middle School
  • Wynn Seale Academy of Fine Arts Magnet Middle School

Elementary Schools

  • Allen Elementary School
  • Barnes Elementary School
  • Berlanga Elementary School
  • Calk Elementary School
  • Club Estates Elementary School
  • Crockett Elementary School
  • Dawson Elementary School
  • Early Childhood Development Center
  • Evans Elementary School
  • Fannin Elementary School
  • Galvan Elementary School
  • Garcia Elementary School
  • Gibson Elementary School
  • Hicks Elementary School
  • Houston Elementary School
  • Jones Elementary School
  • Kolda Elementary School
  • Kostoryz Elementary School
  • Los Encinos SES Elementary School
  • Meadowbrook Elementary School
  • Menger Elementary School
  • Metropolitan Elementary School of Design
  • Mireles Elementary School
  • Montclair Elementary School
  • Moore Elementary School
  • Oak Park Elementary School
  • Sanders Elementary School
  • Schanen Estates Elementary School
  • Shaw Elementary School
  • Smith Elementary School
  • Travis Elementary School
  • Webb Elementary School
  • Wilson Elementary School
  • Windsor Park Elementary School
  • Woodlawn Elementary School
  • Yeager Elementary School
  • Zavala Elementary School

Alternative

  • Student Learning and Guidance Center
  • Mary Grett School

Flour Bluff Independent School District

  • Flour Bluff High School grades 9–12
  • Flour Bluff Jr. High School grades 7–8
  • Flour Bluff Intermediate School grades 5–6
  • Flour Bluff Elementary School grades 3–4
  • Flour Bluff Primary School grades 1–2
  • Early Childhood Center prekindergarten and kindergarten
  • Head Start ages 1–4

West Oso Independent School District

  • West Oso High School grades 9–12
  • West Oso Junior High School grades 6–8
  • West Oso Elementary grades 2–5
  • West Oso John F. Kennedy Elementary prekindergarten to grade 1

Tuloso-Midway Independent School District

  • Tuloso-Midway High School
  • Tuloso-Midway Middle School
  • Tuloso-Midway Intermediate School
  • Tuloso-Midway Primary School
  • Tuloso-Midway Academic Career Center

Calallen Independent School District

  • Calallen High School
  • Calallen Middle School
  • Magee Intermediate School prekindergarten and grades4–5
  • East Primary School kindergarten - grade 3
  • Wood River Primary School kindergarten- grade 3

London Independent School District

  • London High School
  • London Middle School
  • London Elementary School

Private/Charter/Other

  • John Paul II High School
  • St. James Episcopal (primary, K-8)
  • Corpus Christi Montessori School (grades 1–8)
  • Incarnate Word Academy (K-12)
  • Annapolis Christian Academy (K-12)
  • Yorktown Christian Academy (K-12)

Libraries

Libraries in the city include: [48]

TexShare card holders also have limited borrowing privileges at these area libraries: [49]

Transportation

Corpus Christi is served by Corpus Christi International Airport and Interstate 37. Interstate 69E/U.S. Highway 77 connects the city to Brownsville and Victoria. Texas State Highway 44 is a main thoroughfare that connects Corpus Christi to Laredo and the western part of South Texas by way of Interstate 69W/U.S. Highway 59, Interstate 35, and U.S. Highway 83. The inner-city public transportation is provided by Corpus Christi Regional Transportation Authority with its 28 bus routes. Corpus Christi once had a streetcar system functioning from 1910 to 1931 and a railway station (passenger service ended in 1965). Despite the convenience of a large harbor, the city does not have a passenger port. Plans to bring a cruise service are pending.

The city of Corpus Christi has a lower than average percentage of households without a car. In 2015, 8.5% of Corpus Christi households lacked a car, and decreased slightly to 7.9% in 2016. The national average was 8.7% in 2016. Corpus Christi averaged 1.77 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8. [50]

The city is accessed by two major bridges, the Harbor Bridge (US 181) and the John F. Kennedy Causeway (PR 22). Both bridges are maintained by the Texas Department of Transportation.

Freight service from San Antonio to Corpus Christi is provided by the Union Pacific Railroad, but the original line, both freight and passenger, was the San Antonio, Uvalde and Gulf Railroad, which operated to Corpus Christi from 1913 to 1956. [51] Then the SAU&G, or "The Sausage", as it was commonly called, was merged into the Missouri Pacific Railroad. It was subsequently procured by the Union Pacific. [52]

Major highways

Notable people

Sister cities

Corpus Christi keeps a thriving and active relationship with these sister cities: [53]

See also

Related Research Articles

San Patricio County, Texas County in the United States

San Patricio County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 64,804. Its county seat is Sinton.

Port Lavaca, Texas City in Texas, United States

Port Lavaca is a city in Calhoun County, located in the U.S. state of Texas. The population was 12,248 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Calhoun County and part of the Victoria, Texas Metropolitan Statistical Area. Port Lavaca is 130 miles (210 km) southwest of Houston.

Alice, Texas City in Texas, United States

Alice is a city in and the county seat of Jim Wells County, Texas, United States, in the South Texas region of the state. The population was 19,104 at the 2010 census. Alice was established in 1888. First it was called "Bandana", then "Kleberg", and finally "Alice" after Alice Gertrudis King Kleberg, the daughter of Richard King, who established the King Ranch.

Kingsville, Texas City in Texas, United States

Kingsville is a city in and the county seat of Kleberg County in the southern region of the U.S. state of Texas. Located on the U.S. Route 77 corridor between Corpus Christi and Harlingen, Kingsville is the principal city of the Kingsville Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is part of the larger Corpus Christi-Kingsville Combined Statistical Area. The population was 26,213 at the 2010 census, and in 2016 the U.S. Census Bureau estimated the population at 26,071.

The Texas Coastal Bend, or just the Coastal Bend, is a geographical region in the US state of Texas. The name refers to the area being a curve along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The largest city of the Coastal Bend is Corpus Christi. It includes part of Laguna Madre and North Padre Island, as well as Mustang Island.

Corpus Christi Bay

Corpus Christi Bay is a scenic semi-tropical bay on the Texas coast found in San Patricio and Nueces counties, next to the major city of Corpus Christi. It is separated from the Gulf of Mexico by Mustang Island, and is fed by the Nueces River and Oso Creek from its western and southern extensions, Nueces Bay and Oso Bay. The bay is located approximately 136 miles (219 km) south of San Antonio, and 179 miles (288 km) southwest of Houston.

Calallen Independent School District is a school district located in northwest Corpus Christi, Texas (USA) in northern Nueces County. The district has approximately 4,000 students and operates three elementary schools, a middle school, and a high school.

Del Mar College (DMC) is a community college in Corpus Christi, Texas, founded in 1935. DMC encompasses two primary campuses and one campus annex with combined physical assets of more than $99 million.

West Oso Independent School District is a public school district in Nueces County, Texas (USA). Over 1,900 students are enrolled in West Oso schools.

Robstown Early College High School is an AAAA secondary school located in the Corpus Christi suburb-city of Robstown, Texas. The school handles grades 9 through 12. RECHS primarily serves the city, yet it enrolls students from nearby school districts such as Banquete, Calallen, Tuloso-Midway, and the census-designated community of North San Pedro. Robstown Early College High School has neighborhood and Advanced Placement programs. The school has gained fame for its mascot, the "Cottonpicker". The Robstown Early College High School marching band is known to be one of the rivals of the HM King High School Brahma marching band. The band is also known as "The Big Red Band From Pickerland." The band has won numerous awards for excellence and has also been awarded "Sweepstakes" status. Robstown Early College High School's student body is primarily Hispanic.

Texas State Highway 361 highway in Texas

State Highway 361 or SH 361 is a state highway in San Patricio and Nueces counties that runs from Gregory in southern Texas, near Corpus Christi, east and south to Padre Island on the Gulf of Mexico coast.

Texas State Highway 286 highway in Texas

State Highway 286 or SH 286 is a Texas state highway running from downtown Corpus Christi south to Chapman Ranch. The route was designated on its current route in 1939. Before 1939, this route was known as SH 96, and was proposed to be extended to the southwest to Riviera. It is also locally known as the "Crosstown Expressway"

Texas State Highway 358 highway in Texas

State Highway 358 or SH 358 is a Texas state highway that runs along the southern edge of Corpus Christi. The access road for Highway 358 is known as SPID. The official division is FM 665.

Nueces Bay

Nueces Bay is a northwestern extension of Corpus Christi Bay in the San Patricio and Nueces counties of Texas. The bay is fed by the Nueces River, forming a natural estuary, which renders it ecologically and economically vital to the surrounding area. It serves as a habitat for the propagation of fish and shellfish, which sustain diverse species of birds and other wildlife. The bay is threatened by pollution from the heavy industry on its southern shore, which prevents oyster farming. Petrochemical production and oil are important to the surrounding economies of the major settlements of Corpus Christi and Portland, found on the eastern shore and connected by the Nueces Bay Causeway at the bay's confluence with Corpus Christi Bay.

Flour Bluff is a specified area of the city of Corpus Christi, Texas. It is located on Encinal peninsula bordered by Corpus Christi Bay on the north, Oso Bay on the west, the Laguna Madre on the east and the King Ranch to the south. South Padre Island Drive crosses Flour Bluff, dividing it into an upper part, commonly known as North Bluff,, and a lower part, commonly known as South Bluff. The area is mostly made up of suburban development, with a population consisting mostly of lower-middle income families, with local and national businesses such as Walmart, H-E-B grocery stores, etc.

Annaville is a neighborhood in Corpus Christi, Texas. It was a town established by Leo and Anna Stewart in 1940, before being annexed by Corpus Christi in the mid-1960s. Annaville borders the Calallen district of Corpus Christi.

History of Corpus Christi, Texas aspect of history

Corpus Christi is a coastal city in the South Texas region of the U.S. state of Texas. The county seat of Nueces County, it also extends into Aransas, Kleberg, and San Patricio counties. The population was 277,454 at the 2000 census; in 2006 the U.S. Census Bureau estimated the city's population at 285,175, making it the eighth-largest city in the state. It is the principal city of the three-county Corpus Christi Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the larger Corpus Christi-Kingsville Combined Statistical Area. The translation from Latin of the city's name is Body of Christ, given to the settlement by the Spanish, in honor of the Blessed Sacrament (Eucharist). The city has been nicknamed The Sparkling City by the Sea, or "Corpitos" particularly in literature promoting tourism.

Oso Creek (Texas)

Oso Creek, is a creek in the U.S. state of Texas. It runs just south of Corpus Christi.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Corpus Christi, Texas, USA.

References

  1. 1 2 "US Census change list". Census.gov. 2009-01-07. Archived from the original on 2010-08-06. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
  2. 1 2 "Corpus Christi city, Texas". QuickFacts. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. Retrieved May 26, 2018.
  3. 1 2 "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  4. "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  5. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  6. "How Many of These Texas City Nicknames Do You Know?". Texas Standard. Retrieved 2017-03-28.
  7. 1 2 Long, Christopher Long (June 12, 2010). "Corpus Christi, TX". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved May 26, 2018.
  8. 1 2 "Corpus Christi, History, Historical, Interesting". Downtowncorpuschristi.com. Archived from the original on March 18, 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
  9. 1 2 "Official web site for City of Corpus Christi, Texas". Cctexas.com. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
  10. https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/qec03
  11. "MURPHY GIVENS: Storm of the century swept across North Beach".
  12. Carrigan, William D; Webb, Clive (20 February 2015). "When Americans Lynched Mexicans". The New York Times.
  13. "CISNEROS V. CORPUS CHRISTI ISD". Texas State Historical Association. 12 June 2010. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
  14. texascoastgeology.com
  15. http://archive.caller.com/sports/outdoors/add-hawkiest-to-our-birdiest-city-distinction-3cdce570-14ca-09b1-e053-0100007f5b74-394306171.html
  16. "Mary Rhodes Pipeline Phase 2 Project Fact Sheet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-29. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
  17. "CORPUS CHRISTI MOVING NEARER CONSTRUCTION OF DESALINATION PLANT". Archived from the original on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  18. "City Annexation Map" (PDF). City of Corpus Christi. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
  19. "Snow: The South Texas Christmas Miracle 2004".
  20. "Hurricane Harvey makes landfall in Texas". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  21. "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved 2012-02-20.
  22. "WMO Climate Normals for Corpus Christi/INTL, TX 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved December 19, 2016.
  23. "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  24. 1 2 "factfinder.census.gov". United States Census. United States Census Bureau.
  25. http://www.caller.com/news/corpus-christi-ranks-next-last-among-us-most-liter
  26. "Texas - Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved April 30, 2012.
  27. "Corpus Christi, TX Economy at a Glance". Bls.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-07.
  28. http://aapa.files.cms-plus.com/Statistics/2008%20U%2ES%2E%20PORT%20RANKINGS%20BY%20CARGO%20TONNAGE.pdf
  29. "City of Corpus Christi CAFR" (PDF).
  30. Susser Holdings – About Us Archived 2011-12-28 at the Wayback Machine
  31. AEP Texas – Facts, Figures & Bios
  32. "Corpus Christi Texas Extends Free Wi-Fi". Archived from the original on 2015-06-04. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  33. "EarthLink Dedicates Wi-Fi Network In Corpus Christi". Informationweek.com. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
  34. "Corpus Christi CVB Vacation Information". Visitcorpuschristitx.org. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
  35. Wind Average Data: University of Utah: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-12-09. Retrieved 2007-01-10.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  36. "birding hot spots" . Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  37. 1 2 Citgo Online GrayBook Archived 2011-01-16 at the Wayback Machine , Corpus Christi.
  38. "." City Government Website for the city of Corpus Christi, Texas. Retrieved on Dec 9, 2015.
  39. " Archived 2013-02-06 at the Wayback Machine ." City Government Website for the city of Corpus Christi, Texas. Retrieved on Jun 1, 2013.
  40. "Corpus Christi City Charter." City Charter, Official Website of Corpus Christi Retrieved on March 29, 2010.
  41. "Municipal Code [ permanent dead link ]." Code of Ordinances of Corpus Christi Retrieved on March 29, 2010.
  42. Woolbright, Matt. Mayor Nelda Martinez bids farewell to City Council dais, Corpus Christi Caller Times, November 15, 2016.
  43. 1 2 Bogan, Ray. Corpus Christi mayor resigns after just 37 days, FOX News, January 19, 2017.
  44. "Contact Information Archived 2010-01-25 at the Wayback Machine ." Thirteenth Eleventh Court of Appeals. Retrieved on March 10, 2010.
  45. "Parole Division Region IV Archived 2011-09-04 at the Wayback Machine ." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 21, 2010.
  46. "Post Office Location – CORPUS CHRISTI Archived 2010-06-21 at the Wayback Machine ." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 21, 2010.
  47. "2015's Most and Least Educated Cities". WalletHub. Retrieved 2016-04-03.
  48. Corpus Christi Public Libraries
  49. TexShare Card Program – Patron Information Page Archived 2009-07-05 at the Wayback Machine . Accessed 7 April 2009.
  50. "Car Ownership in U.S. Cities Data and Map". Governing. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  51. "Nancy Beck Young, "San Antonio, Uvalde and Gulf Railroad Company"". Texas State Historical Association on-line. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
  52. "Hugh Hemphill, "San Antonio Uvalde and Gulf Railroad"". txtransportationmuseum.org. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
  53. "Sister Cities". Sister Cities Committee Of Corpus Christi. Archived from the original on 28 June 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014.

Notes

  1. The other cases of a 26 °F (−3.3 °C) maximum have been December 20, 1924, February 12, 1899, January 25, 1897, and January 16, 1888.

Further reading