|Corruption by country|
Corruption is rare in the Netherlands in all major areas—judiciary, police, business, politics—as the country is considered as one of the least corrupt within the European Union. In the 2017 edition of Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index, the Netherlands ranked the 8th least corrupt country worldwide.
The National Integrity System Assessment 2012, published by Transparency International Netherlands, reports that the country has established strong pillars—an independent judiciary, effective anti-corruption mechanisms and a culture of trust—that all combine to create a society where corruption is not considered a serious problem. The government has dedicated large efforts towards keeping corruption within the country at low levels, yet limitations are perceived in some areas. The public sector is not perceived to be corrupt and transparency within the sector is safeguarded by codes of conducts for civil servants, with a special focus on integrity within their sectors, according to the National Integrity System Assessment 2012.
Executives surveyed in the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014 do not perceive corruption a problem to doing business.The Netherlands is a global leader in the area of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), and that most companies operating in the Netherlands have established a code of conduct as well as internal mechanisms to detect and prevent bribery.
According to Eurobarometer 2012,connections between business and politics are the most cited reason behind corruption and almost one-third of surveyed citizens share this perception. This is supported by the National Integrity System Assessment 2012, which notes that collusion between businesses and public authorities is especially prevalent in the public procurement sector. This sector is sensitive to irregularities and the report recommends the government to strengthen regulations and supervision of public procurements.
Transparency International's 2016 Corruption Perception Index ranks the country 8th place out of 176 countries.
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993. Its nonprofit purpose is to take action to combat global corruption with civil societal anti-corruption measures and to prevent criminal activities arising from corruption. Its most notable publications include the Global Corruption Barometer and the Corruption Perceptions Index. Transparency International has the legal status of a German registered voluntary association (Eingetragener Verein) and serves as an umbrella organization. Its members have grown from a few individuals to more than 100 national chapters which engage in fighting corruption in their home countries. TI is a member of UNESCO Consultative Status, United Nations Global Compact and shares the goals of peace, justice, strong institutions and partnerships of the United Nations Sustainable Development Group (UNSDG). TI confirmed the dis-accreditation of the national chapter of United States of America in 2017.
Police corruption is a form of police misconduct in which law enforcement officers end up breaking their political contract and abuse their power for personal gain. This type of corruption may involve one or a group of officers. Internal police corruption is a challenge to public trust, cohesion of departmental policies, human rights and legal violations involving serious consequences. Police corruption can take many forms, such as bribery.
The Global Corruption Report is one of Transparency International's flagship publications, bringing together experts from all over the world to discuss and analyze corruption in a specific sector. Most recent reports have focused on corruption in climate change, the private sector, water and the judiciary. In 2013, it is in its eleventh year of publication. It began in 2001 simply as a collection of research on global corruption. But, since 2003, has grown into a report dedicated to providing information and solutions to corruption in various areas. The forthcoming report focuses on corruption in education and will be released 1 October 2013.
The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is an index published annually by Transparency International since 1995 which ranks countries "by their perceived levels of public sector corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
Crime in Bulgaria is combated by the Bulgarian police and other agencies. The United States Department of State's Bureau of Diplomatic Security ranks Bulgaria's crime rating as High.
Among the countries in Africa when it comes to corruption, Botswana is routinely ranked as the least corrupt by many large, well-known international organizations. While Botswana does have a low rank when it comes to corruption, the government and the people are still victims to it. Corruption can still be seen in a wide majority of different governmental sectors and in differing forms. To combat this corruption, Botswana has quickly passed many legal acts and policies to ensure that the corruption it is facing does not experience anymore growth.
Corruption in Zimbabwe has become endemic within its political, private and civil sectors. Zimbabwe ranks joint 160th out of 180 countries in the 2016 Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index. On a scale of 0 to 100, the Corruption Perceptions Index marked Zimbabwe 22. This marks an increase in corruption since 1999, when the country ranked 4.1.
Corruption in Italy is a major problem. In Transparency International's annual surveys, Italy has consistently been regarded as one of the most corrupt countries in the Eurozone. Transparency International's 2019 Corruption Perception Index ranks the country in 51st place out of 180 countries, scoring on a par with Malta, Saudi Arabia, and Grenada. Political corruption remains a major problem particularly in Lombardy, Campania and Sicily where corruption perception is at a high level. Political parties are ranked the most corrupt institution in Italy, closely followed by public officials and Parliament, according to Transparency International's. But in the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer report, Italy is in 17° position in front of the United Kingdom (18°), Switzerland (21°) and the United States (22°).
Corruption in Romania is considered a major problem. According to Transparency International's annual Corruption Perceptions Index, as of 2018, Romania is the 61st least corrupt country out of 180 countries, down from the 57th place in 2017, and the fourth most corrupt in the European Union. In the 2014 EU Anti-Corruption Report, 57% of the Romanians were most likely to say they are personally affected by corruption. Corruption can be found both in the public sector and in private businesses, and poses concerns for foreign investors. Although there have been improvements since the late 1990s, corruption remains a problem in Romania as it is especially found on all levels of public office, in the police force as well as in the judiciary system.
Corruption in Sweden has been defined as "the abuse of power" by Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå). By receiving bribes, bribe takers abuse their position of power, which is consistent with how the National Anti-Corruption Unit of the Swedish Prosecution Authority specifies the term. Although bribes and improper rewards are central in the definition of corruption in Sweden, corruption in the sense of "abuse of power" can also manifest itself in other crimes such as misuse of office, embezzlement, fraud and breach of trust against a principal.
According to Transparency International Global Corruption Barometer 2013, corruption is a large concern in the public sector as more than half of the surveyed households consider Parliament, police, public officials, and particularly the judiciary and political parties very corrupt.
In 2018 Transparency International ranked Switzerland as the 3rd least corrupt country in the world. However, the banking sector has been rated as one of the most corrupt in the world due to strong secrecy laws and a large offshore banking industry which allow money laundering and hiding corruptly obtained money.
Corruption in Luxembourg is examined on this page.
Corruption in Portugal is examined on this page.
Corruption in the Czech Republic is considered to be widespread by a majority of the Czech public, according to Transparency International’s Global Corruption Barometer 2013.
Corruption in Slovenia is examined on this page.
Austria has a well-developed institutional and legal system, and most corruption cases under investigation by a parliamentary committee end with judicial trials and effective judgments. However, there are several significant Austrian corruption cases which have taken place during the past decade involving land and regional officials, high-level public officials, the central government and, in one instance, the former Chancellor.
Corruption in Georgia had been an issue in the post-Soviet decades. Before the 2003 Rose Revolution, according to Foreign Policy, Georgia was among the most corrupt nations in all Eurasia. The level of corruption abated dramatically, however, after the revolution. In 2010, Transparency International (TI) said that Georgia was "the best corruption-buster in the world." Low-level corruption has been virtually eliminated in recent years. Transparency International's 2017 Corruption Perception Index ranks the country 46th place out of 180 countries.
Corruption levels are perceived to be high by surveyed residents of Serbia, and public trust in key institutions remains low.
Corruption in Bulgaria has been a central problem of the country's government since the late 1990s, and fighting it has been at the top of the government's agenda. Despite that, Bulgaria has "systematically demonstrated very high levels of perception of corruption." Government officials reportedly engage in embezzlement, influence trading, government procurement violations and bribery with impunity.