Corymborkis

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Cinnamon orchids
Corymborkis flava flower.jpg
Corymborkis flava
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Tribe: Tropidieae
Genus: Corymborkis
Thouars [1]
Synonyms [1]
  • CorymbisThouars
  • CorymborchisThouars ex Blume
  • HysteriaReinw.
  • MacrostylisBreda
  • RhynchandraRchb.
  • RynchantheraBlume
  • TomotrisRaf.

Corymborkis, commonly known as cinnamon orchids, [2] or 管花兰属 (guan hua lan shu) [3] is a genus of eight species of orchids in the family Orchidaceae. They are evergreen, terrestrial plants which grow in clumps and have thin roots, leafy stems, pleated leaves and widely-opening flowers with thin, spreading sepals and petals. They are widely distributed in the tropics.

Contents

Description

Orchids in the genus Corymborkis are terrestrial, evergreen herbs which often grow in clumps and have short rhizomes and thin, wiry stems. One or more thin, unbranched stems arise from the same rhizome and have many papery, pleated, egg-shaped to elliptic leaves near their top half. A branching flowering stem develops from the upper leaf axils and carry crowded, widely-opening flowers. The flowers are greenish white and usually have thin, spreading sepals and petals which are similar to each other, with the petals slightly wider than the sepals. The labellum is about as long as the sepals, closely surrounds the column and has a tube-like base and two longitudinal ridges. [2] [3] [4] [5]

Taxonomy and naming

The genus Corymborkis was first formally described in 1809 by Louis-Marie Aubert du Petit-Thouars and the description was published in Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris. [1] [6] The name Corymborkis is derived from the Ancient Greek words korymbos meaning "bunch of flowers or fruit" [7] :214 and orchis meaning "testicle" or "orchid", [7] :576 referring to the bunched flowers of these orchids. [5]

Distribution and habitat

Orchids in this genus are found in tropical Africa, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea and Australia, including on Christmas Island. They usually grow in moist, shady places in rainforest. [2] [5]

List of species

The following is a list of species of Corymborkis recognised by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families as at August 2018: [1]

Related Research Articles

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Eulophia, commonly known as corduroy orchids, is a genus of about two hundred species of flowering plants in the orchid family, Orchidaceae. Most Eulophia orchids are terrestrial but some are deciduous while others are evergreen. They either have an underground rhizome or pseudobulbs on the surface and those species with leaves have them on the end of a fleshy stem. The flowers are arranged on a thin flowering spike, the flowers having sepals which are larger than the petals. The genus is widely distributed but most species are found in Africa and Asia, usually growing in shady places with grass or shrubs in forests.

<i>Cymbidium</i> Genus of flowering plants in the orchid family Orchidaceae

Cymbidium, commonly known as boat orchids, is a genus of evergreen flowering plants in the orchid family Orchidaceae. Orchids in this genus are epiphytic, lithophytic, terrestrial or rarely leafless saprophytic herbs usually with pseudobulbs. There are usually between three and twelve leaves arranged in two ranks on each pseudobulb or shoot and lasting for several years. From one to a large number of flowers are arranged on an unbranched flowering stem arising from the base of the pseudobulb. The sepals and petals are all free from and similar to each other. The labellum is significantly different from the other petals and the sepals and has three lobes. There are about fifty-five species and sixteen further natural hybrids occurring in the wild from tropical and subtropical Asia to Australia. Cymbidiums are well known in horticulture and many cultivars have been developed.

<i>Spathoglottis</i> Genus of orchids

Spathoglottis, commonly known as purple orchids or 苞舌兰属 is a genus of about fifty species of orchids in the family Orchidaceae. They are evergreen terrestrial herbs with crowded pseudobulbs, a small number of leaves and medium-sized resupinate flowers on an upright flowering stem. The sepals and petals are all similar to each other and are white, yellow, pink or purple. Species of Spathoglottis are found from eastern and south-eastern Asia to Australia and some Pacific Islands.

<i>Apostasia</i> (plant) Genus of orchids

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<i>Pachystoma</i> Genus of plants

Pachystoma, commonly known as kunai orchids or 粉口兰属 , is a genus of two species of flowering plants in the orchid family, Orchidaceae. They are deciduous, terrestrial herbs with one or two linear, pleated or veiny leaves and more or less drooping flowers which do not open widely, on a thin, wiry flowering stem. Species in this genus are found in tropical and subtropical Asia to Australia and islands of the southwest Pacific Ocean.

<i>Calanthe</i> Genus of orchids

Calanthe, commonly known as Christmas orchids, is a genus of about 220 species of orchids in the family Orchidaceae. They are evergreen or deciduous terrestrial plants with thick roots, small oval pseudobulbs, large corrugated leaves and upright, sometimes arching flowering stems. The sepals and petals are narrow and a similar size to each other and the labellum usually has spreading lobes.

<i>Phaius</i> Genus of orchids

Phaius, commonly known as swamp orchids or 鶴頂蘭屬/鹤顶兰属 , is a genus of forty five species of flowering plants in the orchid family, Orchidaceae. They are evergreen, terrestrial herbs which form clumps with crowded, sometimes stem-like pseudobulbs, large, pleated leaves and relatively large, often colourful flowers. Species in this genus are found in the tropical parts of Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Australia, and various islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. One species is also naturalized in Hawaii, Florida, and the Caribbean.

<i>Zeuxine</i> Genus of orchids

Zeuxine, commonly known as verdant jewel orchids, is a genus of about eighty species of orchids in the tribe Cranichideae. They are native to parts of tropical Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Australia and some Pacific Islands. They have relatively narrow, dark green leaves and small, dull-coloured resupinate flowers with the dorsal sepal and petals overlapping to form a hood over the column. The labellum has a pouched base and its tip has two lobes.

<i>Epipogium</i> Genus of orchids

Epipogium, commonly known as ghost orchids or as 虎舌兰属 , is a genus of four species of terrestrial leafless orchids in the family Orchidaceae. Orchids in this genus have a fleshy, underground rhizome and a fleshy, hollow flowering stem with small, pale coloured, drooping, short-lived flowers with narrow sepals and petals. They are native to a region extending from tropical Africa to Europe, temperate and tropical Asia, Australia and some Pacific Islands.

<i>Didymoplexis</i> Genus of plants

Didymoplexis, commonly known as crystal orchids or as 双唇兰属 , is a genus of terrestrial leafless orchids in the family Orchidaceae, about twenty species of which have been described. Orchids in this genus have swollen, fleshy rhizomes and thin, pale, upright fleshy flowering stems with resupinate, bell-shaped white or pale yellowish brown flowers. They are native to Africa, Madagascar, Southeast Asia, Australia and various islands of the Pacific.

<i>Crepidium</i> Genus of orchids

Crepidium, commonly known as 沼兰属 or spur orchids is a genus of about three hundred species of orchids in the family Orchidaceae. Plants in this genus are evergreen, mostly terrestrial plants with short stems lying on the ground, two or more relatively large, pleated leaves and small, non-resupinate flowers with spreading sepals and petals. The genus is widely distributed in the tropics.

<i>Dienia</i> Species of orchid

Dienia, commonly called snout orchids, is a genus of six species of orchids in the family Orchidaceae. Plants in this genus are evergreen, mostly terrestrial plants with a fleshy, above ground stem, large, pleated leaves and small, non-resupinate flowers with thin sepals and petals. The labellum is short and tongue-like. The genus is distributed in Southeast Asia, Australia, Micronesia and Melanesia.

<i>Tropidia</i> (plant) Genus of orchids

Tropidia, commonly known as crown orchids or as 竹茎兰属 , is a genus of about thirty species of evergreen terrestrial orchids in the family Orchidaceae. They have thin, wiry stems with two or more tough, pleated leaves with a flowering spike at the top of the stem, bearing crowded flowers. Species in this genus are distributed across the warmer parts of both the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.

<i>Cheirostylis</i> Genus of flowering plants

Cheirostylis, commonly known as fleshy jewel orchids or velvet orchids, is a genus of about sixty species of flowering plants in the orchid family Orchidaceae. Plants in this genus are terrestrial herbs with a caterpillar-like rhizome and a loose rosette of leaves. Small, white, hairy flowers develop as the leaves wither. They are found in tropical Africa, southern Asia, Southeast Asia, Malesia, New Guinea and Australia.

<i>Vrydagzynea</i> Genus of orchids

Vrydagzynea, commonly called tonsil orchids, is a genus of orchids in the tribe Cranichideae. About forty five species of Vrydagzynea have been formally described. They are native to India, Taiwan, Southeast Asia, Malesia, Melanesia and Polynesia. A single species in Australia is possibly extinct. They have thinly textured, stalked leaves and small, dull-coloured resupinate flowers with the dorsal sepal and petals overlapping to form a hood over the column.

<i>Hetaeria</i> Species of orchid

Hetaeria, commonly known as hairy jewel orchids, is a genus of about thirty species of flowering plants in the orchid family Orchidaceae. Plants in this genus are terrestrial herbs with a succulent rhizome and a loose rosette of leaves. Small, pale, hairy non-resupinate flowers are borne on a thin, hairy flowering stem. They are found in tropical Africa and Asia to New Guinea, Australia and some Pacific Islands.

<i>Phaius tankervilleae</i> Species of orchid

Phaius tankervilleae, commonly known as the greater swamp-orchid, swamp lily, swamp orchid, nun's-hood orchid, nun's orchid, veiled orchid, Lady Tankerville's swamp orchid or 鹤顶兰 , is a species of orchid native to areas from Asia to islands in the Pacific Ocean. It has large, pleated leaves and tall flowering stems bearing up to twenty five white, brown, mauve and yellow flowers. It was named for Lady Tankerville who owned the greenhouse where the first orchid flowered. It was the first tropical orchid to flower in England.

<i>Phaius tankervilleae <span style="font-style:normal;">var.</span> australis</i> Variety of orchid

Phaius tankervilleaevar.australis, also known as the common swamp orchid, southern swamp-orchid, swamp lily or island swamp-orchid, is a species of orchid endemic to eastern Australia. It is an evergreen, terrestrial herb with large, crowded pseudobulbs, large pleated leaves and flowers that are reddish brown on the inside and white outside.

<i>Corymborkis veratrifolia</i> Species of orchid

Corymborkis veratrifolia, commonly known as the white cinnamon orchid is a plant in the orchid family and is native to areas from tropical and subtropical Asia to Australia and the Pacific Islands. It is an evergreen, terrestrial orchid with a thin, upright stem, papery, pleated leaves and a short flowering stems with up to sixty crowded, short-lived green and white flowers.

Tropidia territorialis, commonly known as the striped crown orchid, is an evergreen, terrestrial plant with between three and six thin, pleated, dark green leaves and up to twenty crowded, green and white flowers. It is only known from about five places in the Northern Territory, Australia.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Corymborkis". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  2. 1 2 3 Jones, David L. (2006). A complete guide to native orchids of Australia including the island territories. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: New Holland. p. 354. ISBN   1877069124.
  3. 1 2 Chen, Xinqi; Gale, Stephan W.; Cribb, Phillip J. "Corymborkis". Flora of china. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  4. Hyde, Mark; Wursten, Bart; Ballings, Petra; Coates, Palgrave M. "Corymborkis". Flora of Zimbabwe. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  5. 1 2 3 D.L.Jones; T.Hopley; S.M.Duffy (2010). "Corymborkis". Australian Tropical Rainforest Orchids . Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research (CANBR), Australian Government . Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  6. Petit-Thouars, Louis-Marie (1809). "Botanique". Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris. 1: 318. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  7. 1 2 Brown, Roland Wilbur (1956). The Composition of Scientific Words. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.