|French: Alpes Cottiennes; Italian: Alpi Cozie|
Monte Viso in the Cottian Alps, seen from the Rocciamelone
|Elevation||3,841 m (12,602 ft)|
|Countries||Italy and France|
|Provinces||Piedmont, Rhône-Alpes and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur|
|Borders on||Graian Alps, Dauphiné Alps, Provence Alps and Prealps, Maritime Alps and Po plain|
The Cottian Alps ( // ; French : Alpes Cottiennes [alp kɔtjɛn] ; Italian : Alpi Cozie [ˈalpi ˈkɔttsje] ) are a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps. They form the border between France (Hautes-Alpes and Savoie) and Italy (Piedmont). The Fréjus Road Tunnel and Fréjus Rail Tunnel between Modane and Susa are important transportation arteries between France (Lyon, Grenoble) and Italy (Turin).
The name Cottian comes from Marcus Julius Cottius , a king of the tribes inhabiting that mountainous region in the 1st century BC. These tribes had previously opposed but later made peace with Julius Caesar. Cottius was succeeded by his son Gaius Julius Donnus II (reigned 3 BC-4 AD), and his grandson Marcus Julius Cottius II (reigned 5-63 AD), who was granted the title of king by the emperor Claudius. On his death, Nero annexed his kingdom as the province of Alpes Cottiae.
For a long part of the Middle Ages the Cottian Alps were divided between the Duchy of Savoy, which controlled their northern part and the easternmost slopes, and the Dauphiné, which at the time was independent from France. The Dauphins also held, in addition to the southwestern slopes of the range (Briançon and Queyras, now on the French side), the upper part of some of the valleys that were tributaries of the Po River (Valle di Susa, Chisone valley, Varaita Valley). The Alpine territory of Dauphiné, known as Escartons , used to have a limited autonomy and elected its own parliament.This semi-autonomous status lasted also after the annexation of the Dauphiné to France (1349), and was only abolished in 1713 due to the Treaty of Utrecht, which assigned to the House of Savoy all the mountainous area on the eastern side of the Cottian Alps.
After the treaty annexing Nice and Savoy to France, signed in Turin in March 1860 (Treaty of Turin), the north-western slopes of the range became part of the French republic.
Two eastern valleys of the Cottian Alps (Pellice and Germanasca) have been for centuries a kind of sanctuary for the Waldensians, a Christian movement founded by Peter Waldo and which was persecuted as heretical from the 12th century onwards.
Administratively the range is divided between the Italian province of Cuneo and the Metropolitan City of Turin (the eastern slopes), and the French departments of Savoie, Hautes-Alpes, and Alpes-de-Haute-Provence (the western slopes).
The Cottian Alps are drained by the rivers Durance and Arc and their tributaries on the French side; and by the Dora Riparia and other tributaries of the Po on the Italian side.
The borders of the Cottian Alps are (clockwise):
The chief peaks of the Cottian Alps are:
|Monte Viso||3841||12,609||Aiguille de Chambeyron||3412||11,155|
|Aiguille de Scolette||3506||11,500||Pics de la Font Sancte||3387||11,112|
|Brec de Chambeyron||3388||11,116||Dents d'Ambin||3382||11,096|
|Punta Ferrand||3364||11,037||Punta Sommeiller||3333||10,935|
|Bric de Rubren||3340||10,958||Bric Froid||3302||10,833|
|Pic de Rochebrune||3320||10,891||Rognosa di Sestriere||3280||10,761|
|Punta Merciantaira||3293||10,804||Roche du Grand Galibier||3242||10,637|
|Peou Roc||3231||10,601||Pointe Haute de Mary||3212||10,539|
|Grand Galibier||3228||10,590||Pic du Thabor||3207||10,522|
|Pic du Pelvat||3218||10,558||Mont Thabor||3180||10,440|
|Pain de Sucre||3208||10,526||Tete des Toillies||3179||10,430|
|Pointe des Cerces||3180||10,434||Monte Platasse||3149||10,331|
|Monte Granero||3170||10,401||Tete de Moyse||3110||10,204|
|Rocce del Rouit||3145||10,318||Punta Bagnà||3129||10,266|
|Mont Chaberton||3130||10,286||Pelvo d'Elva||3064||10,053|
|Monte Meidassa||3105||10,187||Rocca Bianca||3059||10,307|
|Grand Queyron||3060||10,040||Bric Ghinivert||3037||9,963|
|Monte Albergian||3041||9,977||Monte Politri||3026||9,928|
|Monte Barifreddo||3028||9,933||Viso Mozzo||3019||9,905|
|Pic Caramantran||3025||9,925||Pointe du Fréjus||2934||9,626|
|Bric Bouchet||2998||9,836||Pic du Malrif||2906||9,535|
|Pointe des Marcelettes||2909||9,545||Punta Cornour||2868||9,410|
|Monte Orsiera||2890||9,479||Cima Ciantiplagna||2849||9,347|
|Monte Friolànd||2738||8,981||Pointe de Bellecombe||2775||9,104|
|Pic de Morgon||2324||7,625||L'Aiguille Rouge||2545||8,350|
|Gran Truc||2366||7,762||Monte Birrone||2131||6,991|
|Monte Ricordone||1764||5,787||Monte Freidour||1445||4,741|
The chief passes of the Cottian Alps are:
(as of 1911 [update] )
|Col Sommeiller||Bardonecchia to Bramans||snow||2962/9718|
|Col de la Traversette||Crissolo to Abriès||bridle path||2950/9679|
|Col d'Ambin||Exilles to Bramans||snow||2854/9364|
|Col de St Veran||Valle Varaita to the Queyras Valley||footpath||2844/9331|
|Col du Parpaillon||Ubaye Valley to the Queyras Valley||footpath||2780/9121|
|Col d'Étache||Bardonecchia to Bramans||bridle path||2787/9144|
|Col Agnel||Valle Varaita to the Queyras Valley||road||2744/9003|
|Col Girardin||Ubaye Valley to the Queyras Valley||bridle path||2699/8855|
|Col de Sautron||Valle Maira to Barcelonnette||bridle path||2689/8823|
|Col de Longet||Ubaye Valley to Valle Varaita||bridle path||2672/8767|
|Col de Mary||Ubaye Valley to Valle Maira||bridle path||2654/8708|
|Col d'Abriès||Perosa to Abriès||bridle path||2650/8695|
|Col de la Roue||Bardonecchia to Modane||bridle path||2566/8419|
|Col du Fréjus||Bardonecchia to Modane||dirt road||2542/8340|
|Colle della Rho||Bardonecchia to Modane||dirt road/briddle path||2541/8338|
|Col de Clapier||Bramans to Susa||bridle path||2491/8173|
|Col d'Izoard||Briançon to the Queyras Valley||road||2388/7835|
|Col de la Croix or Colle della Croce||Torre Pellice to Abriès||bridle path||2299/7541|
|Petit Mont Cenis||Bramans to the Mont Cenis Plateau||bridle path||2184/7166|
|Col de Vars||Ubaye Valley to the Queyras Valley||road||2115/6939|
|Mont Cenis||Lanslebourg to Susa||road||2101/6893|
|Colle Sestriere||Pinerolo to Cesana Torinese||road||2021/6631|
|Col de Larche/Maddalena Pass||Ubaye Valley to the Stura Valley||road||1991/6532|
|Col de Montgenèvre||Briançon to Susa||road||1854/6083|
|Col de l'Échelle||Briançon to Bardonecchia||road||1760/5774|
|Col de la Vallée Étroite||Briançon to Modane||footpath||2445/8022|
The Dauphiné Alps are a group of mountain ranges in southeastern France, west of the main chain of the Alps. Mountain ranges within the Dauphiné Alps include the Massif des Écrins, Belledonne, the Taillefer range and the mountains of Matheysine.
The Maritime Alps are a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps. They form the border between the French region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur and the Italian regions of Piedmont and Liguria. They are the southernmost part of the Alps.
Briançon (French: [bʁijɑ̃sɔ̃] is a commune in the Hautes-Alpes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department.
Susa is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Turin, Piedmont, Italy. In the middle of Susa Valley, it is situated on at the confluence of the Cenischia with the Dora Riparia, a tributary of the Po River, at the foot of the Cottian Alps, 51 km (32 mi) west of Turin.
The Dora Riparia is an alpine river, a left-hand tributary of the Po. It is 125 kilometres (78 mi) long, with a 1,231 square kilometres (475 sq mi) drainage basin. It originates in the Cottian Alps, close to the Col de Montgenèvre in France, where it is called the Piccola Dora. Its name becomes the Dora Riparia after the confluence with the Ripa in the Argentera Valley and the Thuras de Bousson close to Cesana.
Mont Cenis is a massif and pass in Savoie (France), which forms the limit between the Cottian and Graian Alps.
The Alpes Cottiae were a small province of the Roman Empire founded in 63 AD by Nero. It was one of the three provinces straddling the Alps between modern France and Italy, along with Alpes Graiae et Poeninae and Alpes Maritimae.
Marcus Julius Cottius was king of the Celtic and Ligurian inhabitants of the mountainous region then known as Alpes Taurinae and now as the Cottian Alps early in the 1st century BC. He was the son and successor of King Donnus and negotiated a dependent status with Rome that preserved considerable autonomy for his country.
The Susa Valley is a valley in the Metropolitan City of Turin, Piedmont region of northern Italy, located between the Graian Alps in the north and the Cottian Alps in the south. It one of the longest valleys of the Italian Alps. It extends over 50 kilometres (31 mi) in an east-west direction from the French border to the outskirts of Turin. The valley takes its name from the city of Susa which lies in the valley. The Dora Riparia river, a tributary of the Po, flows through the valley.
Maurienne is one of the provinces of Savoy, corresponding to the arrondissement of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne in France. It is also the original name of the capital of the province, now Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne.
The chieftain called by Latins Donnus was the ruler of the Ligurian tribes inhabiting the mountainous region now known as the Cottian Alps during the 1st century BC. Although initially an opponent of Julius Caesar during the latter's conquest of Gaul, Donnus later made peace with him. Donnus' son and successor, Cottius, initially maintained his independence in the face of Augustus' effort to subdue the various Alpine tribes, but afterwards agreed to an alliance, and the family continued to rule the region as prefects of Rome, until Nero annexed the dominion as the province of Alpes Cottiae. His name was first cited in the Arch of Augustus of Susa engraving.
The Cenischia is a mountain torrent which straddles the south-west French department of Savoie and the north-west Italian Metropolitan City of Turin, in Piedmont. Part of the Po basin, it is a left tributary of the Dora Riparia and forms the valley called the Val Cenischia which marks the boundary between the Graian Alps to the north and the Cottian Alps to the south.
The Segusini were a Ligurian tribe whose territory largely corresponded with the ancient Roman province of Alpes Cottiae, in the Cottian Alps.
Punta Bagnà or Cime du Grand Vallon is a mountain of Savoie, France and of the Province of Turin, Italy. It lies in the Cottian Alps range. It has an elevation of 3,129 metres above sea level.
Punta Sommeiller or Pointe Sommeiller is a mountain of the Province of Turin, Italy and of Savoie, France. It lies in the Cottian Alps range. It has an elevation of 3,333 metres (10,935 ft) above sea level.
The Ambin group is a sub-range of the Cottian Alps located on the French-Italian border.
The Punta Nera is a mountain of Savoie (France) and of the Province of Turin (Italy). It lies in the Cottian Alps range. It has an elevation of 3,047 metres above sea level.
The Mont Chenaillet is a 2,650 metres high mountain of the Cottian Alps, located on the Main chain of the Alps South of the Col de Montgenèvre.
The Signal du Petit Mont-Cenis is a 3,162 m high mountain of the Cottian Alps.
The Pointe de Bellecombe is a 2,775 m high mountain of the northern Cottian Alps.
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 737–754.. Encyclopædia Britannica . 1 (11th