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The Council of Capharthutha (also Kafartut or Kafr Tut) was a synod of the Syriac Orthodox Church held in February 869 AD under Patriarch John IV of Antioch. It was called to resolve the differences between the Patriarch of Antioch and the Maphrian of the East over their ecclesiastical jurisdiction in Mesopotamia and Persia. It aimed to regulate mutual relations and to resolve some difficulties that were frequently arising between two centers.
The assembly codified eight canons preserved in Bar Hebraeus' 13th-century nomocanon, the Kthobo d-Hudoye (Book of Guides):
1. The bishops and the monks in the Mar Mathai's Monastery, should submit to and obey the Maphrian whose seat is in Tigris
2. The Patriarch should not interfere in the administration of the Church in Tigris, unless when invited. In the same way the maphrian should not interfere in the Patriarchal See
3. When the Maphrian is present along with the Patriarch of Antioch he should be seated immediately at the right hand side of the Patriarch. The name of the Maphrian shall be mentioned immediately after that of the Patriarch, in the liturgy; and he should receive the Holy Qurbana after the Patriarch
4. When a Maphrian is alive, a Patriarch should not be installed without his concurrence, otherwise, the orientals shall have the right to install the Maphrian by themselves. The question of who should perform the laying on of hands on the new Patriarch - i.e., the Maphrian or the President of the Synod, shall be decided by four bishops, two each elected by the orientals and the westerners (Antiochan) respectively
5. The Archdiocese of Kurdu, Beth-Sabdaya and also Najran, provided, the Arabs agree to it, shall vest with Tigris administration
6. The mutual excommunications between the orientals and the Antiochans shall be withdrawn
7. A final decision was taken about the three bishops consecrated by the Patriarch in the see of the Maphrian
8. A bishop excommunicated by the Maphrian shall also be considered as excommunicated by the Patriarch
The word Maphrian is a transliteration of the Greek καθολικός (katholikos), meaning concerning the whole, universal or general. It was a title that existed in the Roman Empire where Government representative who was in charge of a large area was called ‘Catholicos’. The Churches later started to use this term for their Chief Bishops.
‘Maphriyono’ (Maphrian) is derived from the Syriac word 'afri', “to make fruitful’, or "one who gives fecundity". This title be used exclusively for the head of the Syriac Orthodox Church in the East. From the mid 13th century onwards, a few occupants of the Maphrianate were referred also as ‘Catholicos’, but the title never came into extensive usage.
According to one of the most famous Maphriyans, Mar Gregorios Bar Ebraya (Bar Hebraeus), Apostle Thomas is the first in the Apostolic succession of the East. Bar Ebraya did not believe that the Eastern Church was an integral part of the Antiochian Church, due to the historical context of the time in which he lived. He did, however, vigorously defend his rights, as dictated by the church canons.
The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (MOSC) also known as the Malankara Church and the Indian Orthodox Church, is an autocephalous (independent) church based in Kerala, India. Part of Oriental Orthodoxy, it is one of the oldest Christian communities in Asia. The church belongs to India's Saint Thomas Christian population. According to sacred tradition, the church originated in the missions of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century. The autocephalous Catholicos of the East and the Malankara Metropolitan enthroned on the Apostolic Throne of St. Thomas is the primate of the church, presently His Holiness Moran Mor Baselios Marthoma Paulose II. The church employs the Malankara Rite, an Indian form of the West Syriac liturgical rite.
The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church, and the Church of the East are termed patriarchs.
Catholicos, plural Catholicoi, is a title used for the head of certain churches in some Eastern Christian traditions. The title implies autocephaly and in some cases it is the title of the head of an autonomous church. The word comes from ancient Greek καθολικός, pl. καθολικοί, derived from καθ' ὅλου from κατά and ὅλος, meaning "concerning the whole, universal, general"; it originally designated a financial or civil office in the Roman Empire. The name of the Catholic Church comes from the same word - however, the title "Catholicos" does not exist in its hierarchy.
Maphrian is the second-highest rank in the ecclesiastical hierarchy of the Syriac Orthodox Church, right below that of patriarch. The office of a maphrian is an maphrianate. There have been three maphrianates in the history of the Syriac Orthodox Church and one, briefly, in the Syriac Catholic Church.
George I of Antioch was the Patriarch of Antioch, and head of the Syriac Orthodox Church from 758 until his death in 790.
Baselios Paulose II was the first Maphrian of the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church.
Moran Mar Ignatius Abded Aloho II Sattuf was the Patriarch of Antioch, and head of the Syriac Orthodox Church from 1906 until his death in 1915.
The Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Christian Church also known as the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Christian Church, the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church, or the Syriac Orthodox Church of India, is an autonomous Oriental Orthodox Church based in the Indian state of Kerala, and is an integral branch of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch. It recognizes the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch Of Antioch and all the East, Ignatius Aphrem II seated in the Cathedral of Saint George, Bab Tuma, Damascus, Syria, as its Supreme Head. It functions as a largely autonomous unit within the church, under the authority of the Catholicos of India, Baselios Thomas I. Currently, this is the only church in Malankara which has a direct relationship with the Syriac Christians of Antioch, which has continued from after the schism and they continue to employ the West Syriac Rite Liturgy of Saint James.
Ignatius III David was the Patriarch of Antioch, and head of the Syriac Orthodox Church from 1222 until 1252.
Catholicos of India is an ecclesiastical office in the Syriac Orthodox Church, the head of the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church in Kerala, India. He is the Catholicos/ Maphrian of the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church an autonomous body within the Syriac Orthodox Church, and functions at an ecclesiastical rank second to the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch. The jurisdiction of the Syriac Orthodox Catholicos is limited to India and Indian diaspora, although he is often invited to preside over Syriac Orthodox functions abroad. The current Catholicos of India is Catholicos Baselios Thomas I, who was consecrated in 2002.
Moran Mor Ignatius Abded Mshiho II was the Patriarch of Antioch, and head of the Syriac Orthodox Church from 1895 until his deposition in 1903.
Catholicos is the title used by head bishops of regions outside the Roman Empire having self ecclesiastical and autonomous status from the ancient period. The word "Catholicos" means "Universal" - the same word from which the name of the Catholic Church also derives.
Catholicos of the East is an ecclesiastical title used by Eastern Churches. The term "Catholicos" is derived from the Greek word Katholikos (Καθολικός), meaning "Universal Bishop".
The Oriental Orthodox Churches are a group of Christian churches adhering to miaphysite Christology and theology, and together have 60 to 70 million members worldwide.
John IV was the Patriarch of Antioch, and head of the Syriac Orthodox Church from 846 until his death in 873.
Athanasius IV Salhoyo was the Patriarch of Antioch, and head of the Syriac Orthodox Church from 986 until his death in 1002.
Athanasius VI bar Khamoro was the Patriarch of Antioch, and head of the Syriac Orthodox Church from 1091 until his death in 1129.
Dionysius bar Masih was an illegitimate Maphrian of the East of the Syriac Orthodox Church, and rivalled Gregorius Jacob, the legitimate Maphrian, from 1189 until his death in 1204.
The Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antiochܦܛܪܝܪܟܐ ܕܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ is the head of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch. He is the Head of the Holy Synod of the Syriac Orthodox Church, the highest authority of Syriac Orthodox Church.