The Council of National Defense (Polish : Rada Obrony Państwa) was an extraordinary temporary governmental body created by a decree of the Sejm of the Second Polish Republic, of 1 July 1920.
Poland was then facing defeat by Bolshevik Red Armies that were approaching Warsaw. The Council was a body that was intended to make decisions more expeditiously than the Sejm. It was fully authorized to take decisions regarding the conduct and conclusion of the war.
The Council comprised:
The Chief of State was empowered to call Council meetings, chair them and set the agenda.
The Council enjoyed very broad powers, in order to be able to exercise far-reaching autonomy and reduce bureaucratic obstacles. Its decisions were to be implemented at once.
The Sejm, officially known as the Sejm of the Republic of Poland, is the lower house of the bicameral parliament of Poland.
The President of the Republic of Poland is the head of state of Poland. Their rights and obligations are determined in the Constitution of Poland. The president heads the executive branch. In addition the president has a right to dissolve parliament in certain cases, veto legislation and represents Poland in the international arena.
The Government of Poland takes place in the framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government.
The Greater Poland uprising of 1918–1919, or Wielkopolska uprising of 1918–1919 or Posnanian War was a military insurrection of Poles in the Greater Poland region against German rule. The uprising had a significant effect on the Treaty of Versailles, which granted a reconstituted Second Polish Republic the area won by the Polish insurrectionists. The region had been part of the Kingdom of Poland and then Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth before the 1793 Second Partition of Poland when it was annexed by the German Kingdom of Prussia. It had also, following the 1806 Greater Poland Uprising, been part of the Duchy of Warsaw (1807–1815), a French puppet state during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Senate is the upper house of the Polish parliament, the lower house being the Sejm. The history of the Polish Senate stretches back over 500 years; it was one of the first constituent bodies of a bicameral parliament in Europe and existed without hiatus until the final partition of the Polish state in 1795. The contemporary Senate is composed of 100 senators elected by a universal ballot and is headed by the "Marshal of the Senate". The incumbent Marshal of the Senate is Tomasz Grodzki.
The Council of State of the Republic of Poland was introduced by the Small Constitution of 1947 as an organ of executive power. The Council of State consisted of the President of the Republic of Poland as chairman, the Marshal and Vice-marshals of the Sejm, President of the Supreme Audit Office, and potential other members. The Council of State had the power to approve decrees issued by the Council of Ministers, exercise supreme control over the local national councils, approve promulgation of laws concerning the budget and military draft, declare a state of emergency and martial law, initiate legislation, and others.
The Government Delegation for Poland was an agency of the Polish Government in Exile during World War II. It was the highest authority of the Polish Secret State in occupied Poland and was headed by the Government Delegate for Poland, a de facto deputy Polish Prime Minister.
The Regency Council of the Kingdom of Poland was a semi-independent and temporarily appointed highest authority in the Partitioned Poland during World War I. It was formed by Imperial Germany and Austria-Hungary within the war-torn, and historically Polish lands around September 1917. The Council was supposed to stay in office until a new monarch or the Regent would be appointed. On October 7, 1918, the Regency Council of Kingdom of Poland declared independence for Poland. Also in October 1918 the Council took over the command of the Polska Siła Zbrojna.
The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, commonly referred to as the Government of Ukraine, is the highest body of state executive power in Ukraine. As Cabinet of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR, it was formed on 18 April 1991, by the Law of Ukrainian SSR No.980-XII. Vitold Fokin was approved the first Prime Minister of Ukraine.
The General Sejm was the bicameral parliament of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was established by the Union of Lublin in 1569 from the merger of the Sejm of the Kingdom of Poland and the Seimas of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia and Samogitia. It was one of the primary elements of the democratic governance in the Commonwealth. The sejm was a powerful political institution and the king could not pass laws without the approval of that body.
The Council of Ministers of the Republic of Poland is the collective executive decision-making body of the Polish government. The cabinet consists of the Prime Minister, also known as the President of the Council of Ministers, the Deputy Prime Minister, who acts as a vice-president of the council, and other ministers. The current competences and procedures of the cabinet are described between Articles 146 to 162 of the constitution.
The Chief of State was the title of Poland's head of state in the early years of the Second Polish Republic. This office was held only by Józef Piłsudski, from 1918 to 1922. Until 1919 the title was called the provisional chief of state. After 1922 the Polish head of state became the President of Poland.
The Small Constitution of 1919 was the first constitution of the Second Polish Republic. It was formally called the "Legislative Sejm's ordinance of 20 February 1919, entrusting Józef Piłsudski with the further execution of the office of Chief of State". The legislation was published as Dz. Pr. P.P. Nr 19, poz. 226.
The Constitution of the Polish People's Republic was a supreme law passed in communist-ruled Poland on 22 July 1952. It superseded the post-World War II provisional Small Constitution of 1947, which in turn replaced the pre-war April Constitution of 1935.
Henryk Kowalczyk is a Polish politician, and the acting Minister of State Treasury. He has been a minister without portfolio in the cabinet of Beata Szydło since 16 November 2015. Kowalczyk is the chair of the Standing Committee of the Council of Ministers and vice-chair of the Economic Committee of the Council of Ministers. He was first elected to the Sejm on 25 September 2005, getting 7,211 votes in 18 Siedlce district, as a candidate on the Law and Justice list.
Związek Ludowo-Narodowy was a Polish political party aligned with the National Democracy political movement during the Second Polish Republic, gathering together right-wing politicians with conservative and nationalist opinions.
National Council was a local level of government in People's Republic of Poland. Introduced by Polish Constitution of 1952, they were elected for a term of office of 3 years in gminas, cities, powiats and voivodships. National Councils had their own presidiums and were subordinate to higher-level National Councils.
Jack of the President of the Republic of Poland – Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland is a jack flag used in the Polish Armed Forces to mark the presence and pay respect to the President of the Republic of Poland who is also ex officio the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. The jack is raised on Polish Navy ships when the president is officially on board, as well as on land, if the president is present. The design of the jack is based directly on the pre-war Banner of the Republic of Poland which used to be part of presidential insignia.
Sejm of the Duchy of Warsaw was the parliament of the Duchy of Warsaw. It was created in 1807 by Napoleon, who granted a new constitution to the recently created Duchy. It had limited competences, including having no legislative initiative. It met three times: for regular sessions in 1809 and 1811, and for an extraordinary session in 1812. In the history of Polish parliament, it succeeded the Sejm of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and was followed by the Sejm of the Congress Poland.
The General Sejm was the parliament of the Kingdom of Poland. It had evolved from the earlier institution of Curia Regis and was one of the primary elements of democratic governance in the Polish dominion.