Counties of Croatia

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Counties of Croatia
Hrvatske županije (Croatian)
Counties of Croatia:
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Bjelovar-Bilogora
Brod-Posavina
Dubrovnik-Neretva
Istria
Karlovac
Koprivnica-Krizevci
Krapina-Zagorje
Lika-Senj
Medimurje
Osijek-Baranja
Pozega-Slavonia
Primorje-Gorski Kotar
Sibenik-Knin
Sisak-Moslavina
Split-Dalmatia
Varazdin
Virovitica-Podravina
Vukovar-Srijem
Zadar
City of Zagreb
Zagreb County Croatia-counties-colorkey450px.png
Counties of Croatia:   Bjelovar-Bilogora  Brod-Posavina  Dubrovnik-Neretva  Istria  Karlovac  Koprivnica-Križevci  Krapina-Zagorje  Lika-Senj  Međimurje  Osijek-Baranja  Požega-Slavonia  Primorje-Gorski Kotar  Šibenik-Knin  Sisak-Moslavina  Split-Dalmatia  Varaždin  Virovitica-Podravina  Vukovar-Srijem  Zadar  City of Zagreb  Zagreb County
Category Unitary state
Location Republic of Croatia
Number20 Counties + Zagreb City
Populations50,927 (Lika-Senj) – 790,017 (Zagreb)
Areas640 km2 (247 sq mi) (Zagreb) – 5,350 km2 (2,067 sq mi) (Lika-Senj)
Government
Subdivisions

The counties of Croatia (Croatian : županije ) are the primary administrative subdivisions of the Republic of Croatia. [1] Since they were re-established in 1992, Croatia has been divided into 20 counties and the capital city of Zagreb, which has the authority and legal status of both a county and a city (separate from the surrounding Zagreb County). [2] [3] As of 2015, the counties are subdivided into 128 cities and 428 (mostly rural) municipalities. [4] [5]

Contents

Government

County assembly (Croatian : županijska skupština) is a representative and deliberative body in each county. Assembly members are elected for a four-year term by popular vote (proportional system with closed lists and d'Hondt method) in local elections. [6]

The executive branch of each county's government is headed by a county prefect (county president) (Croatian : župan ), except that a mayor heads the city of Zagreb's executive branch. Croatia's county prefects (with two deputy prefects), mayor of Zagreb (with two deputy mayors) [lower-alpha 1] are elected for a four-year term by a majority of votes cast within applicable local government units, with a runoff election if no candidate achieves a majority in the first round of voting (majoritarian vote, two-round system). [6] County prefects (with deputy prefects and mayor of Zagreb with his/her deputies) can be recalled by a referendum. County administrative bodies are administrative departments and services which are established for the performance of works in the self-governing domain of the county, as well as for the performance of works of state administration transferred to the county. Administrative departments and services are managed by heads (principals) nominated by the county prefect on the basis of a public competition. [7]

In each county exists a State Administration Office (Croatian : Ured državne uprave) which performs the tasks of the central government (under Ministry of Public Administration). Head of State Administration Office (predstojnik Ureda državne uprave), who is a university graduate in law, is appointed by the Croatian Government (in the City of Zagreb the mayor is responsible for the state administration).These offices ("administrations") are not subordinate to the county assembly or county prefect, but rather the direct presence of the state (similar to governorates or prefectures in certain countries).

Funding and tasks

The counties are funded by the central government, as well as from county-owned businesses, county taxes and county fees. County taxes include a five percent inheritance and gift tax, a motor vehicle tax, a vessel tax and an arcade game machine tax. [8] [9]

The counties are tasked with performing general public administration services, primary and secondary education, government funded healthcare, social welfare, administration pertaining to agriculture, forestry, hunting, fisheries, mining, industry and construction, and other services to the economy at the county level, as well as road transport infrastructure management and issuing of building and location permits and other document in relation to construction in the county area excluding the area of the big city and the county seat city; the central government and local (city and municipal) governments may also perform each of those tasks at their respective levels according to the law. [7]

The Croatian County Association (Croatian : Hrvatska zajednica županija) was set up in 2003 as a framework for inter-county cooperation. [10]

Nomenclature

The Croatian (singular) term županija was originally applied to territory controlled by a župan (official title). [11] Since the 12th century, the counties have also been referred to by the Latin term comitatus . [11]

History

Approximate positions of the first counties of 10th century Croatia, overlaid on a map of modern Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina Croatia Counties 10th century with Gacka, Krbava, Lika.png
Approximate positions of the first counties of 10th century Croatia, overlaid on a map of modern Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina

Croatia was first subdivided into counties in the Middle Ages. [12] Counties were first introduced in Croatia during the House of Trpimirović's rule. The exact number and borders of these early counties are difficult to determine accurately; they were considered to encompass areas subordinated to a single centre of local authority, but the possessions of significant nobles had a legal status separate from local authority.

The following fourteen are usually listed as the oldest counties of Croatia, dating back to the 10th century: [13] [14]

The ban ruled over three župas Krbava, Lika, and Gacka in Western Croatia, approximately today's Lika-Senj County territory. In the same period, the counties in Lower Pannonia ("Pannonian Croatia" north of Gvozd Mountain) are poorly documented. It is generally thought that the Pannonian counties were directly subject to the Croatian monarchy, unlike the southern counties controlled by nobles. [11]

The county number, extent and authority have varied significantly, reflecting: changes in the monarchial and noble relative influences; Ottoman conquest and Croatian recapture of various territories; and societal and political changes through several centuries. [11] [15] In the 13th and 14th century, the Croatian nobility grew stronger and the counties defined by the king were reduced to a legislative framework, while military and financial power was concentrated in the feudal lords. Other forms of administration that overlapped with county administration in this period included the Roman Catholic Church and the free royal cities, and separately the cities of Dalmatia. After Croatia became a crown land of the Habsburg Monarchy in 1527, the importance of counties faded even further, but was gradually restored after 1760. [11]

The divisions have changed over time, reflecting: territorial losses to Ottoman conquest and subsequent Croatian recapture of some territory; changes in the political status of Dalmatia, Dubrovnik and Istria; and political circumstances, including the personal union and settlement between Croatia and Hungary. [11] [15]

In the 19th century, the Revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas brought upon numerous political changes and introduced a civic government of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia as part of Austria-Hungary, which in turn proceeded to absorb the Croatian and Slavonian Military Frontiers in 1881. During the second half of the 19th century Croatian counties went through various reorganizations (1848–1850, 1850–1854, 1854–1861, 1861–1870, 1870–1874, 1874–1886, 1886–1914) that also reflected the position of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia within the Austrian Empire (after 1867 the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy); the last major reorganisation of the counties was in 1886, when eight counties were established within the kingdom. This layout largely remained in effect until the Croatian counties were abolished in 1922, [11] [15] while some minor adjustments of county boundaries happened in 1913. [16] The counties were set up as self-governmental units in contrast to earlier county incarnations since the Middle Ages. Each had an assembly (Croatian županijska skupština) with the wealthiest taxpayers comprising half the assembly members and elected members comprising the remaining half. Supreme prefect (Croatian veliki župan) was appointed by the king and county officials by the ban. Managing board of each county had 6 members elected by the county assembly, while the remaining members were county officials ex officio (supreme prefect, viceprefect, county health supervisor etc.). Counties were divided into districts (Croatian kotari as government units similar to Austrian Bezirke), while municipalities (Croatian općine) and cities (Croatian gradovi) were units of local self-government. [11]

The traditional division of Croatia into counties was abolished in 1922, when the oblasts of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes were introduced; these were later replaced by the banovinas of Yugoslavia. [17] Socialist Republic of Croatia, as a constituent part of post-World War II Yugoslavia had approximately 100 municipalities as main governmental units and local government entities. The counties were reintroduced in 1992, but with significant territorial alterations from the pre-1922 subdivisions; for instance, before 1922 Transleithanian Croatia was divided into eight counties, but the new legislation established fourteen counties in the same territory. Međimurje County was established in the eponymous region acquired through the 1920 Treaty of Trianon. [18] [19] The county borders have sometimes changed since their 1992 restoration (for reasons such as historical ties and requests by cities); the latest revision took place in 2006. [4]

Today's counties correspond to tier three of the European Union (EU) Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) division of Croatia. The NUTS Local Administrative Unit (LAU) divisions are two-tiered; the LAU 1 divisions for Croatia also match the counties (in effect making these the same as the NUTS 3 units). [20]

Lists of counties

Current

Counties of Croatia as defined in 2006
CountySeatArea [21] Population (2011) [21] GDP per capita (2013) [22] Arms Geographic coordinates
Bjelovar-Bilogora Bjelovar 2,640 km2 (1,020 sq mi)119,764€6,838 Bjelovar-Bilogora County coat of arms.png 45°54′10″N16°50′51″E / 45.90278°N 16.84750°E / 45.90278; 16.84750 (Bjelovar-Bilogora County)
Brod-Posavina Slavonski Brod 2,030 km2 (780 sq mi)158,575€5,858 Coat of arms of Brod-Posavina County.svg 45°09′27″N18°01′13″E / 45.15750°N 18.02028°E / 45.15750; 18.02028 (Brod-Posavina County)
Dubrovnik-Neretva Dubrovnik 1,781 km2 (688 sq mi)122,568€9,969 Dubrovacko-neretvanska.png 42°39′13″N18°05′41″E / 42.65361°N 18.09472°E / 42.65361; 18.09472 (Dubrovnik-Neretva County)
Istria Pazin 2,813 km2 (1,086 sq mi)208,055€12,711 Grb Istarske zupanije.svg 45°14′21″N13°56′19″E / 45.23917°N 13.93861°E / 45.23917; 13.93861 (Istria County)
Karlovac Karlovac 3,626 km2 (1,400 sq mi)128,899€7,763 Coat of Arms of Karlovac county.svg 45°29′35″N15°33′21″E / 45.49306°N 15.55583°E / 45.49306; 15.55583 (Karlovac County)
Koprivnica-Križevci Koprivnica 1,748 km2 (675 sq mi)115,584€8,768 Koprivnica County coat of arms.png 46°10′12″N16°54′33″E / 46.17000°N 16.90917°E / 46.17000; 16.90917 (Koprivnica-Križevci County)
Krapina-Zagorje Krapina 1,229 km2 (475 sq mi)132,892€6,380 Seal of Krapina-Zagorje County.svg 46°7′30″N15°48′25″E / 46.12500°N 15.80694°E / 46.12500; 15.80694 (Krapina-Zagorje County)
Lika-Senj Gospić 5,353 km2 (2,067 sq mi)50,927€7,841 Lika-Senj County coat of arms.png 44°42′25″N15°10′27″E / 44.70694°N 15.17417°E / 44.70694; 15.17417 (Lika-Senj County)
Međimurje Čakovec 729 km2 (281 sq mi)113,804€8,481 Medimurska zupanija (grb).svg 46°27′58″N16°24′50″E / 46.46611°N 16.41389°E / 46.46611; 16.41389 (Međimurje County)
Osijek-Baranja Osijek 4,155 km2 (1,604 sq mi)305,032€8,121 Osijek-Baranja County Arms.png 45°38′13″N18°37′5″E / 45.63694°N 18.61806°E / 45.63694; 18.61806 (Osijek-Baranja County)
Požega-Slavonia Požega 1,823 km2 (704 sq mi)78,034€6,102 Pozega-Slavonia County coat of arms.png 45°18′40″N17°44′24″E / 45.31111°N 17.74000°E / 45.31111; 17.74000 (Požega-Slavonia County)
Primorje-Gorski Kotar Rijeka 3,588 km2 (1,385 sq mi)296,195€12,930 Primorje-Gorski Kotar County coat of arms.png 45°27′14″N14°35′38″E / 45.45389°N 14.59389°E / 45.45389; 14.59389 (Primorje-Gorski Kotar County)
Šibenik-Knin Šibenik 2,984 km2 (1,152 sq mi)109,375€8,051 Coat of arms of Sibenik County.svg 43°55′44″N16°3′43″E / 43.92889°N 16.06194°E / 43.92889; 16.06194 (Šibenik-Knin County)
Sisak-Moslavina Sisak 4,468 km2 (1,725 sq mi)172,439€7,842 Sisak-Moslavina County coat of arms.png 45°13′15″N16°15′5″E / 45.22083°N 16.25139°E / 45.22083; 16.25139 (Sisak-Moslavina County)
Split-Dalmatia Split 4,540 km2 (1,750 sq mi)454,798€7,849 Coat of arms of Split-Dalmatia County.svg 43°10′0″N16°30′0″E / 43.16667°N 16.50000°E / 43.16667; 16.50000 (Split-Dalmatia County)
Varaždin Varaždin 1,262 km2 (487 sq mi)175,951€8,415 Varazdin County coat of arms.png 46°19′16″N16°13′52″E / 46.32111°N 16.23111°E / 46.32111; 16.23111 (Varaždin County)
Virovitica-Podravina Virovitica 2,024 km2 (781 sq mi)84,836€6,043 Virovitica-Podravina County coat of arms.png 45°52′23″N17°30′18″E / 45.87306°N 17.50500°E / 45.87306; 17.50500 (Virovitica-Podravina County)
Vukovar-Syrmia Vukovar 2,454 km2 (947 sq mi)179,521€6,025 Coat of Arms of Vukovar-Syrmia County.svg 45°13′43″N18°55′0″E / 45.22861°N 18.91667°E / 45.22861; 18.91667 (Vukovar-Srijem County)
Zadar Zadar 3,646 km2 (1,408 sq mi)170,017€8,173 Zadar County coat of arms.png 44°1′5″N15°53′42″E / 44.01806°N 15.89500°E / 44.01806; 15.89500 (Zadar County)
Zagreb County Zagreb 3,060 km2 (1,180 sq mi)317,606€7,781 Coat of arms of Zagreb County.svg 45°44′56″N15°34′16″E / 45.74889°N 15.57111°E / 45.74889; 15.57111 (Zagreb County)
City of Zagreb [lower-alpha 2] Zagreb 641 km2 (247 sq mi)790,017€18,132 Coat of arms of Zagreb.svg 45°49′0″N15°59′0″E / 45.81667°N 15.98333°E / 45.81667; 15.98333 (City of Zagreb)

Former

Counties of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, and location of the kingdom within Austria-Hungary (inset, orange) Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia counties.svg
Counties of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, and location of the kingdom within Austria-Hungary (inset, orange)
Counties of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia after the reorganisation of 1886
CountySeatArea
(1886–1912) [16]
Population (1910) [23] Arms Geographic coordinates
Bjelovar-Križevci Bjelovar 5,048 km2 (1,949 sq mi)331,385 Belovar-Koros coatofarms.jpg 45°55′14″N16°45′54″E / 45.92056°N 16.76500°E / 45.92056; 16.76500 (Bjelovar-Križevci County (historical))
Lika-Krbava Gospić 6,217 km2 (2,400 sq mi)203,973 Coa Hungary County Lika-Krbava (history).svg 44°42′28″N15°21′12″E / 44.70778°N 15.35333°E / 44.70778; 15.35333 (Lika-Krbava County (historical))
Modruš-Rijeka Ogulin 4,874 km2 (1,882 sq mi)231,354 Modrus-Fiume coatofarms.jpg 45°19′30″N14°58′28″E / 45.32500°N 14.97444°E / 45.32500; 14.97444 (Modruš-Rijeka County (historical))
Požega Požega 4,938 km2 (1,907 sq mi)263,690 Pozsega coatofarms.jpg 45°22′45″N17°31′4″E / 45.37917°N 17.51778°E / 45.37917; 17.51778 (Požega County (historical))
Syrmia Vukovar 6,848 km2 (2,644 sq mi)410,007 Coa Hungary County Szerem (history).svg 45°4′53″N19°15′33″E / 45.08139°N 19.25917°E / 45.08139; 19.25917 (Syrmia County (historical))
Varaždin Varaždin 2,521 km2 (973 sq mi)305,558 Varasd coatofarms.jpg 46°15′7″N16°11′38″E / 46.25194°N 16.19389°E / 46.25194; 16.19389 (Varaždin County (historical))
Virovitica Osijek 4,852 km2 (1,873 sq mi)269,199 Veroce coatofarms.jpg 45°38′27″N17°51′30″E / 45.64083°N 17.85833°E / 45.64083; 17.85833 (Virovitica County (historical))
Zagreb Zagreb 7,215 km2 (2,786 sq mi)587,378 Coa Hungary County Zagrab (history).svg 45°38′27″N16°11′57″E / 45.64083°N 16.19917°E / 45.64083; 16.19917 (Zagreb County (historical))

See also

Notes

  1. Also city mayors and municipality presidents with deputies.
  2. The city of Zagreb acts as both a county and a city, and is not part of any other countyZagreb County is a separate administrative unit encompassing territory outside the city of Zagreb. [4]

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References

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  5. "Popovača dobila status grada". Poslovni dnevnik (in Croatian). 12 April 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
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  10. "Home". hrvzz.hr. Croatian County Association. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Josip Vrbošić (September 1992). "Povijesni pregled razvitka županijske uprave i samouprave u Hrvatskoj" [A historical review of the development of county administration and self-government in Croatia]. Društvena Istraživanja (in Croatian). Ivo Pilar Institute of Social Sciences. 1 (1): 55–68. ISSN   1330-0288 . Retrieved 9 April 2012.
  12. Oleg Mandić (1952). "O nekim pitanjima društvenog uređenja Hrvatske u srednjem vijeku" [On some issues regarding Croatia's social system in the Middle Ages](PDF). Historijski zbornik (in Croatian). Školska knjiga. 5 (1–2): 131–138. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
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