|Counties of Croatia|
Hrvatske županije (Croatian)
|Location||Republic of Croatia|
|Number||20 Counties + Zagreb City|
|Populations||50,927 (Lika-Senj) – 790,017 (Zagreb)|
|Areas||640 km2 (247 sq mi) (Zagreb) – 5,350 km2 (2,067 sq mi) (Lika-Senj)|
The counties of Croatia (Croatian : županije ) are the primary administrative subdivisions of the Republic of Croatia. Since they were re-established in 1992, Croatia has been divided into 20 counties and the capital city of Zagreb, which has the authority and legal status of both a county and a city (separate from the surrounding Zagreb County). As of 2015, the counties are subdivided into 128 cities and 428 (mostly rural) municipalities.
County assembly (Croatian : županijska skupština) is a representative and deliberative body in each county. Assembly members are elected for a four-year term by popular vote (proportional system with closed lists and d'Hondt method) in local elections.
The executive branch of each county's government is headed by a county prefect (county president) (Croatian : župan ), except that a mayor heads the city of Zagreb's executive branch. Croatia's county prefects (with two deputy prefects), mayor of Zagreb (with two deputy mayors) are elected for a four-year term by a majority of votes cast within applicable local government units, with a runoff election if no candidate achieves a majority in the first round of voting (majoritarian vote, two-round system). County prefects (with deputy prefects and mayor of Zagreb with his/her deputies) can be recalled by a referendum. County administrative bodies are administrative departments and services which are established for the performance of works in the self-governing domain of the county, as well as for the performance of works of state administration transferred to the county. Administrative departments and services are managed by heads (principals) nominated by the county prefect on the basis of a public competition.
In each county exists a State Administration Office (Croatian : Ured državne uprave) which performs the tasks of the central government (under Ministry of Public Administration). Head of State Administration Office (predstojnik Ureda državne uprave), who is a university graduate in law, is appointed by the Croatian Government (in the City of Zagreb the mayor is responsible for the state administration).These offices ("administrations") are not subordinate to the county assembly or county prefect, but rather the direct presence of the state (similar to governorates or prefectures in certain countries).
The counties are funded by the central government, as well as from county-owned businesses, county taxes and county fees. County taxes include a five percent inheritance and gift tax, a motor vehicle tax, a vessel tax and an arcade game machine tax.
The counties are tasked with performing general public administration services, primary and secondary education, government funded healthcare, social welfare, administration pertaining to agriculture, forestry, hunting, fisheries, mining, industry and construction, and other services to the economy at the county level, as well as road transport infrastructure management and issuing of building and location permits and other document in relation to construction in the county area excluding the area of the big city and the county seat city; the central government and local (city and municipal) governments may also perform each of those tasks at their respective levels according to the law.
The Croatian County Association (Croatian : Hrvatska zajednica županija) was set up in 2003 as a framework for inter-county cooperation.
The Croatian (singular) term županija was originally applied to territory controlled by a župan (official title).Since the 12th century, the counties have also been referred to by the Latin term comitatus .
Croatia was first subdivided into counties in the Middle Ages.Counties were first introduced in Croatia during the House of Trpimirović's rule. The exact number and borders of these early counties are difficult to determine accurately; they were considered to encompass areas subordinated to a single centre of local authority, but the possessions of significant nobles had a legal status separate from local authority.
The following fourteen are usually listed as the oldest counties of Croatia, dating back to the 10th century:
The ban ruled over three župas Krbava, Lika, and Gacka in Western Croatia, approximately today's Lika-Senj County territory. In the same period, the counties in Lower Pannonia ("Pannonian Croatia" north of Gvozd Mountain) are poorly documented. It is generally thought that the Pannonian counties were directly subject to the Croatian monarchy, unlike the southern counties controlled by nobles.
The county number, extent and authority have varied significantly, reflecting: changes in the monarchial and noble relative influences; Ottoman conquest and Croatian recapture of various territories; and societal and political changes through several centuries.In the 13th and 14th century, the Croatian nobility grew stronger and the counties defined by the king were reduced to a legislative framework, while military and financial power was concentrated in the feudal lords. Other forms of administration that overlapped with county administration in this period included the Roman Catholic Church and the free royal cities, and separately the cities of Dalmatia. After Croatia became a crown land of the Habsburg Monarchy in 1527, the importance of counties faded even further, but was gradually restored after 1760.
The divisions have changed over time, reflecting: territorial losses to Ottoman conquest and subsequent Croatian recapture of some territory; changes in the political status of Dalmatia, Dubrovnik and Istria; and political circumstances, including the personal union and settlement between Croatia and Hungary.
In the 19th century, the Revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas brought upon numerous political changes and introduced a civic government of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia as part of Austria-Hungary, which in turn proceeded to absorb the Croatian and Slavonian Military Frontiers in 1881. During the second half of the 19th century Croatian counties went through various reorganizations (1848–1850, 1850–1854, 1854–1861, 1861–1870, 1870–1874, 1874–1886, 1886–1914) that also reflected the position of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia within the Austrian Empire (after 1867 the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy); the last major reorganisation of the counties was in 1886, when eight counties were established within the kingdom. This layout largely remained in effect until the Croatian counties were abolished in 1922,while some minor adjustments of county boundaries happened in 1913. The counties were set up as self-governmental units in contrast to earlier county incarnations since the Middle Ages. Each had an assembly (Croatian županijska skupština) with the wealthiest taxpayers comprising half the assembly members and elected members comprising the remaining half. Supreme prefect (Croatian veliki župan) was appointed by the king and county officials by the ban. Managing board of each county had 6 members elected by the county assembly, while the remaining members were county officials ex officio (supreme prefect, viceprefect, county health supervisor etc.). Counties were divided into districts (Croatian kotari as government units similar to Austrian Bezirke), while municipalities (Croatian općine) and cities (Croatian gradovi) were units of local self-government.
The traditional division of Croatia into counties was abolished in 1922, when the oblasts of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes were introduced; these were later replaced by the banovinas of Yugoslavia.Socialist Republic of Croatia, as a constituent part of post-World War II Yugoslavia had approximately 100 municipalities as main governmental units and local government entities. The counties were reintroduced in 1992, but with significant territorial alterations from the pre-1922 subdivisions; for instance, before 1922 Transleithanian Croatia was divided into eight counties, but the new legislation established fourteen counties in the same territory. Međimurje County was established in the eponymous region acquired through the 1920 Treaty of Trianon. The county borders have sometimes changed since their 1992 restoration (for reasons such as historical ties and requests by cities); the latest revision took place in 2006.
Today's counties correspond to tier three of the European Union (EU) Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) division of Croatia. The NUTS Local Administrative Unit (LAU) divisions are two-tiered; the LAU 1 divisions for Croatia also match the counties (in effect making these the same as the NUTS 3 units).
|County||Seat||Area||Population (2011)||GDP per capita (2013)||Arms||Geographic coordinates|
|Bjelovar-Bilogora||Bjelovar||2,640 km2 (1,020 sq mi)||119,764||€6,838|
|Brod-Posavina||Slavonski Brod||2,030 km2 (780 sq mi)||158,575||€5,858|
|Dubrovnik-Neretva||Dubrovnik||1,781 km2 (688 sq mi)||122,568||€9,969|
|Istria||Pazin||2,813 km2 (1,086 sq mi)||208,055||€12,711|
|Karlovac||Karlovac||3,626 km2 (1,400 sq mi)||128,899||€7,763|
|Koprivnica-Križevci||Koprivnica||1,748 km2 (675 sq mi)||115,584||€8,768|
|Krapina-Zagorje||Krapina||1,229 km2 (475 sq mi)||132,892||€6,380|
|Lika-Senj||Gospić||5,353 km2 (2,067 sq mi)||50,927||€7,841|
|Međimurje||Čakovec||729 km2 (281 sq mi)||113,804||€8,481|
|Osijek-Baranja||Osijek||4,155 km2 (1,604 sq mi)||305,032||€8,121|
|Požega-Slavonia||Požega||1,823 km2 (704 sq mi)||78,034||€6,102|
|Primorje-Gorski Kotar||Rijeka||3,588 km2 (1,385 sq mi)||296,195||€12,930|
|Šibenik-Knin||Šibenik||2,984 km2 (1,152 sq mi)||109,375||€8,051|
|Sisak-Moslavina||Sisak||4,468 km2 (1,725 sq mi)||172,439||€7,842|
|Split-Dalmatia||Split||4,540 km2 (1,750 sq mi)||454,798||€7,849|
|Varaždin||Varaždin||1,262 km2 (487 sq mi)||175,951||€8,415|
|Virovitica-Podravina||Virovitica||2,024 km2 (781 sq mi)||84,836||€6,043|
|Vukovar-Syrmia||Vukovar||2,454 km2 (947 sq mi)||179,521||€6,025|
|Zadar||Zadar||3,646 km2 (1,408 sq mi)||170,017||€8,173|
|Zagreb County||Zagreb||3,060 km2 (1,180 sq mi)||317,606||€7,781|
|City of Zagreb||Zagreb||641 km2 (247 sq mi)||790,017||€18,132|
|Population (1910)||Arms||Geographic coordinates|
|Bjelovar-Križevci||Bjelovar||5,048 km2 (1,949 sq mi)||331,385|
|Lika-Krbava||Gospić||6,217 km2 (2,400 sq mi)||203,973|
|Modruš-Rijeka||Ogulin||4,874 km2 (1,882 sq mi)||231,354|
|Požega||Požega||4,938 km2 (1,907 sq mi)||263,690|
|Syrmia||Vukovar||6,848 km2 (2,644 sq mi)||410,007|
|Varaždin||Varaždin||2,521 km2 (973 sq mi)||305,558|
|Virovitica||Osijek||4,852 km2 (1,873 sq mi)||269,199|
|Zagreb||Zagreb||7,215 km2 (2,786 sq mi)||587,378|
The Geography of Croatia is defined by its location—it is described as a part of Central Europe and Southeast Europe, a part of the Balkans and Mitteleuropa. Croatia's territory covers 56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi), making it the 127th largest country in the world. Bordered by Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia in the east, Slovenia in the west, Hungary in the north and Montenegro and the Adriatic Sea in the south, it lies mostly between latitudes 42° and 47° N and longitudes 13° and 20° E. Croatia's territorial waters encompass 18,981 square kilometres (7,329 sq mi) in a 12 nautical miles wide zone, and its internal waters located within the baseline cover an additional 12,498 square kilometres (4,826 sq mi).
The politics of Croatia are defined by a parliamentary, representative democratic republic framework, where the Prime Minister of Croatia is the head of government in a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Government and the President of Croatia. Legislative power is vested in the Croatian Parliament. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The parliament adopted the current Constitution of Croatia on 22 December 1990 and decided to declare independence from Yugoslavia on 25 May 1991. The Constitutional Decision on the Sovereignty and Independence of the Republic of Croatia came into effect on 8 October 1991. The constitution has since been amended several times. The first modern parties in the country developed in the middle of the 19th century, and their agenda and appeal changed, reflecting major social changes, such as the breakup of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, dictatorship and social upheavals in the kingdom, World War II, the establishment of Communist rule and the breakup of the SFR Yugoslavia.
Slavonia is, with Dalmatia, Croatia proper and Istria, one of the four historical regions of Croatia. Taking up the east of the country, it roughly corresponds with five Croatian counties: Brod-Posavina, Osijek-Baranja, Požega-Slavonia, Virovitica-Podravina and Vukovar-Syrmia, although the territory of the counties includes Baranya, and the definition of the western extent of Slavonia as a region varies. The counties cover 12,556 square kilometres or 22.2% of Croatia, inhabited by 806,192—18.8% of Croatia's population. The largest city in the region is Osijek, followed by Slavonski Brod and Vinkovci.
Zagreb County is a county in central Croatia. It surrounds – but does not contain – the nation's capital Zagreb, which is a separate territorial unit. For that reason, the county is often nicknamed "Zagreb ring". According to the 2011 census, the county has 317,606 inhabitants, most of which live in smaller urban satellite towns.
Public holidays in Croatia are regulated by the Holidays, Memorial Days and Non-Working Days Act.
Canton 10 is the largest of the cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by area and eighth by population. It mainly covers an area of the historical and geographical region of Tropolje. The local government seat is in Livno, while the assembly is in Tomislavgrad.
The Government of Croatia, formally the Government of the Republic of Croatia, commonly abbreviated to Croatian Government, is the main executive branch of government in Croatia. It is led by the president of the Government, informally abbreviated to premier or prime minister. The prime minister is nominated by the president of the Republic from among those candidates who enjoy majority support in the Croatian Parliament; the candidate is then chosen by the Parliament. There are 20 other government members, serving as deputy prime ministers, government ministers or both; they are chosen by the prime minister and confirmed by the Parliament (Sabor). The Government of the Republic of Croatia exercises its executive powers in conformity with the Croatian Constitution and legislation enacted by the Croatian Parliament. The current government is led by Prime Minister Andrej Plenković.
Regular elections in Croatia are mandated by the Constitution and legislation enacted by Parliament. The presidency, Parliament, county prefects and assemblies, city and town mayors, and city and municipal councils are all elective offices. Since 1990, five presidential elections have been held. During the same period, nine parliamentary elections were also held. In addition, there were six nationwide local elections. Croatia has held two elections to elect 11 members of the European Parliament following its accession to the EU on 1 July 2013.
Varaždin County was an administrative subdivision (županija) of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Croatia-Slavonia was an autonomous kingdom within the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (Transleithania), the Hungarian part of the dual Austro-Hungarian Empire. Its territory is now in northern Croatia. The capital of the county was Varaždin.
The subdivisions of Croatia on the first level are the 20 counties and one city-county.
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Mala Subotica is a village and municipality in Međimurje County, Croatia.
Sveta Marija is a village and a municipality in Međimurje County, Croatia. It is located in the south-eastern part of the county, near the Drava River, approximately 27 kilometres south-east of Čakovec and 11 kilometres east of Prelog, the largest and second-largest city of Međimurje County respectively.
Eastern Orthodoxy in Croatia refers to adherents, religious communities, institutions and organizations of Eastern Orthodox Christianity in Croatia. It is the second-largest religious denomination in Croatia, as Roman Catholicism predominates. Over 190,000 people, forming 4.44% of the total Croatian population, are Eastern Orthodox Christians.
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Law on Use of Languages and Scripts of National Minorities is law which defines use of minority languages in Croatia. Additionally Croatian Constitutional law on national minorities rights and The Law on Education in language and script of national minorities explicitly define rights on usage of minority languages in Croatia.