Counties of Sweden

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The counties of Sweden (Swedish: Sveriges län ) are the top-level geographic subdivisions of Sweden. Sweden is today divided into 21 counties; however, the numbers of counties has varied over time, due to territorial gains/losses and to divisions and/or mergers of existing counties. This level of administrative unit was first established in the 1634 Instrument of Government on Lord Chancellor Count Axel Oxenstierna's initiative, and superseded the historical provinces of Sweden (Swedish : landskap) in order to introduce a more efficient administration of the realm. At that time, they were what the translation of län into English literally means: fiefdoms. The county borders often follow the provincial borders, but the Crown often chose to make slight relocations to suit its purposes.

Contents

In every county there is a county administrative board (länsstyrelse) headed by a governor ( landshövding ), appointed by the government, as well as a separate regional council (region). In the county of Gotland however, the county's only municipality has adopted regional responsibilities.

The aims of the county administrative board are to supervise local state administration (that is not otherwise assigned to other government agencies), and to coordinate political goals with the central government. The regional council is the elected regional political assembly that oversees the municipal affairs of the county, primarily in regards to public healthcare, public transport, and culture.

Several other government agencies are organised on a county basis, including the main bodies of the police, employment, social insurance, and forestry services.

List of counties

ISO 3166-2 codeNUTS codeFlagCoat of armsCounty (Län)Administrative centreGovernorArea (km2)Population (2019) [1]
SE-AB SE110 Stockholms lan vapenflagga.svg Stockholm lan vapen.svg Stockholm Stockholm Sven-Erik Österberg 6,519.32,377,081
SE-AC SE331 Vasterbottens lan vapenflagga.svg Vasterbotten lan vapen.svg Västerbotten Umeå Magdalena Andersson 55,186.2271,736
SE-BD SE332 Norrbottens lan vapenflagga.svg Norrbotten lan vapen.svg Norrbotten Luleå Björn O. Nilsson 98,244.8250,093
SE-C SE121 Uppsala lan vapenflagga.svg Uppland vapen.svg Uppsala Uppsala Göran Enander 8,207.2383,713
SE-D SE122 Sodermanlands lan vapenflagga.svg Sodermanland vapen.svg Södermanland Nyköping Beatrice Ask 6,102.3297,540
SE-E SE123 Ostergotlands lan vapenflagga.svg Ostergotland vapen.svg Östergötland Linköping Carl Fredrik Graf 10,602.0465,495
SE-F SE211 Jonkopings lan vapenflagga.svg Jonkoping lan vapen.svg Jönköping Jönköping Helena Jonsson10,495.1363,599
SE-G SE212 Kronobergs lan vapenflagga.svg Kronoberg vapen.svg Kronoberg Växjö Ingrid Burman 8,466.0201,469
SE-H SE213 Kalmar lan vapenflagga.svg Kalmar lan vapen.svg Kalmar Kalmar Thomas Carlzon 11,217.8245,446
SE-I SE214 Gotlands lan vapenflagga.svg Gotland vapen.svg Gotland Visby Anders Flanking 3,151.459,686
SE-K SE221 Blekinge lan vapenflagga.svg Blekinge vapen.svg Blekinge Karlskrona Sten Nordins 2,946.4159,606
SE-M SE224 Skane lan vapenflagga.svg Skane lan vapen.svg Skåne Malmö, Kristianstad Anneli Hulthén 11,034.51,377,827
SE-N SE231 Hallands lan vapenflagga.svg Halland vapen.svg Halland Halmstad Lena Sommestad 5,460.7333,848
SE-O SE232 Vastra Gotalands lan vapenflagga.svg Vastra Gotaland vapen.svg Västra Götaland Gothenburg, Vänersborg Anders Danielsson 23,948.81,725,881
SE-S SE311 Varmlands lan vapenflagga.svg Varmland vapen.svg Värmland Karlstad Johan Blom (acting)17,591.0282,414
SE-T SE124 Orebro lan vapenflagga.svg Orebro lan vapen.svg Örebro Örebro Maria Larsson 8,545.6304,805
SE-U SE125 Vastmanlands lan vapenflagga.svg Vastmanland vapen.svg Västmanland Västerås Minoo Akhtarzand 5,145.8275,845
SE-W SE312 Dalarnas lan vapenflagga.svg Dalarna vapen.svg Dalarna Falun Ylva Thörn 28,188.8287,966
SE-X SE313 Gavleborgs lan vapenflagga.svg Gavleborg lan vapen.svg Gävleborg Gävle Per Bill 18,198.9287,382
SE-Y SE321 Vasternorrlands lan vapenflagga.svg Vasternorrland lan vapen.svg Västernorrland Härnösand Berit Högman 21,683.8245,347
SE-Z SE322 Jamtlands lan vapenflagga.svg Jamtland lan vapen.svg Jämtland Östersund Jöran Hägglund 49,341.2130,810

Map

With county codes, which were official until 1974.

Each county region contains a number of municipalities (kommuner), the existence of which is partly at the discretion of the central government. Since 2004 their number has been 290, thus an average of 13.8 municipalities per county.

Until 1968, the City of Stockholm had its own "county code" A, which is still used interchangeably with AB in some contexts, and County of Stockholm had county code B. L was for Kristianstad County and M was for Malmöhus County but since they were merged to form Skåne County, M is usually used. O used to stand for Gothenburg and Bohus County but has been used for Västra Götaland County since it was merged with Skaraborg County (R) and Älvsborg County (P).

History

Older subdivisions

Sweden's provinces, or landskap, and the "lands", or landsdelar, lack political importance today but are common denominations culturally and historically. The provinces had their own laws and justice systems and could have large cultural and religious differences. Note that the province of Småland (literally small land) historically was several provinces with its own laws. Here burial tradition in the era before the Viking age could differ significantly from province to province. The province of Norrbotten is a relatively recent creation; it was part of Västerbotten which extended all the way to Österbotten into today's Finland before 1809. Finnish and Swedish Lappland was also one province until 1809.

Historically, the provinces were grouped in three lands: Götaland, being southern and western Sweden; Svealand being eastern and south-eastern, and Norrland being the entire northern half. The names of the first two refer to ancient tribes, and the third is a geographical reference. They are still commonly used as geographical references. The boundaries have changed over time, with the most significant in 1658 (the cession of provinces from Denmark-Norway to Sweden) and 1812 (due to the loss of Finland to Russia in 1809). In 1812 some provinces were moved from Götaland to Svealand.

Finland

After the Finnish War, Sweden was forced to cede the counties in Finland to Russia following the Treaty of Fredrikshamn in (1809). However, the counties were upheld in Finland until a reform in 1997. They are still in use in Sweden, 370 years later.

The counties in Finland established in 1634 were: Turku and Pori County, Nyland and Tavastehus County, Viborg and Nyslott County, Ostrobothnia County and Kexholm County. Over time the number of subdivisions in Finland increased to twelve, until a reorganization in 1997 reduced their number to six provinces, while keeping the administrative model intact. The counties in Finland were abolished in 2010.

Abolished counties

Abolished counties in current-day Sweden proper were:

Counties in Swedish-ruled Finland were:

Proposed regions

Six or nine new administrative regions. SWE-Regioner.svg
Six or nine new administrative regions.

Under the aegis of the Swedish government, Ansvarskommittén has been investigating the possibilities of merging the current 21 counties into 6 to 9 larger regions. These proposals are from their final report, delivered in 2007: [2]

A model for this comes from the merger of some counties into Skåne County and Västra Götaland County in 1997 and 1998, respectively, which is now considered a success.

The counties are discussing the proposal. An obstacle is that Stockholm County does not want to merge with any other county, while its neighbours want to merge with Stockholm. After this discussion the following proposal has in 2016 emerged:

  1. Norrbotten, Västerbotten, Västernorrland and Jämtland county
  2. Dalarna, Gävleborgs, Södermanlands, Uppsala, Västmanland and Örebro county
  3. Östergötland, Jönköping, Kalmar and Kronoberg county
  4. Gotland and Stockholm county
  5. Halland, Värmland and Västra Götaland county
  6. Blekinge and Skåne county

The main difference is that the proposed Berglagen is divided to other counties, and Stockholm is on its own (plus the small Gotland which has air connections to Stockholm)

Riksområden

Current statistical regions (riksomraden). Sweden nuts2.png
Current statistical regions (riksområden).

The counties in Sweden correspond to the third level of division in the European Union's system of Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics. For the purpose of creating regions corresponding to the second level, counties have been grouped into eight Riksområden, or National Areas: Stockholm, East Middle Sweden, North Middle Sweden, Middle Norrland, Upper Norrland, Småland and the islands, West Sweden and South Sweden.

See also

Related Research Articles

Geography of Sweden

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Västra Götaland County County (län) of Sweden

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Kexholm County county of Sweden

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Savolax and Kymmenegård County was a county of the Kingdom of Sweden from 1747 to 1775.

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Kymmenegård County was a county of Sweden 1775-1809 and province of Grand Duchy of Finland 1809-1831.

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References

  1. "Sweden: Major Municipalities". City Population. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  2. "Regional utveckling och regional samhällsorganisation". Government Offices of Sweden (in Swedish). 23 March 2007. SOU 2007:13.