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Coontie Antrìm/Countie Antrim
Church Quarter Cattle in County Antrim
Per angusta ad augusta (Latin)
"Through Trial to Triumphs"
|• Total||1,176 sq mi (3,046 km2)|
|1,808 ft (551 m)|
|• Rank||2nd [ citation needed ]|
|Time zone||UTC±0 (GMT)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+1 (BST)|
|Contae Aontroma is the Irish name; Coontie Antrìm, Countie Antrim, Coontie Anthrim and Coonty Entrim are Ulster-Scots names.|
County Antrim (named after the town of Antrim, from Irish : Aontroim, meaning "lone ridge", [ˈeːnˠt̪ˠɾˠɪmʲ] ) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland. Adjoined to the north-east shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of 3,046 square kilometres (1,176 sq mi) and has a population of about 618,000. County Antrim has a population density of 203 people per square kilometre or 526 people per square mile. It is also one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland, as well as part of the historic province of Ulster.
Antrim is a town and civil parish in County Antrim in the northeast of Northern Ireland, on the banks of the Six Mile Water, half a mile northeast of Lough Neagh. It had a population of 23,375 people in the 2011 Census. It is the county town of County Antrim and was the administrative centre of Antrim Borough Council. It is 22 miles (35 km) northwest of Belfast by rail.
Irish is a Goidelic language of the Celtic and Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language in substantial areas of counties Galway, Kerry, Cork and Donegal, smaller areas of Waterford, Mayo and Meath, and a few other locations, and as a second language by a larger group of non-habitual speakers across the country. A speaker of the Irish language is known as a Gaeilgeoir.
The counties of Northern Ireland were the principal local government divisions of Northern Ireland from its creation in 1921 until 1972, when their governmental features were abolished and replaced with twenty-six unitary authorities.
The Glens of Antrim offer isolated rugged landscapes, the Giant's Causeway is a unique landscape and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Bushmills produces whiskey, and Portrush is a popular seaside resort and night-life area. The majority of Belfast, the capital city of Northern Ireland, is in County Antrim, with the remainder being in County Down.
The Glens of Antrim, known locally as simply The Glens, is a region of County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It comprises nine glens (valleys), that radiate from the Antrim Plateau to the coast. The Glens are an area of outstanding natural beauty and are a major tourist attraction in north Antrim.
The Giant's Causeway is an area of about 40,000 interlocking basalt columns, the result of an ancient volcanic fissure eruption. It is located in County Antrim on the north coast of Northern Ireland, about three miles (4.8 km) northeast of the town of Bushmills.
A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity.
According to the 2001 census, it is currently one of only two counties of Ireland in which a majority of the population are from a Protestant background. The other is County Down to the south.
County Down is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland, in the northeast of the island of Ireland. It covers an area of 2,448 km2 and has a population of 531,665. It is also one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland and is within the province of Ulster. It borders County Antrim to the north, the Irish Sea to the east, County Armagh to the west, and County Louth across Carlingford Lough to the southwest.
A large portion of Antrim is hilly, especially in the east, where the highest elevations are attained. The range runs north and south, and, following this direction, the highest points are Knocklayd 514 m (1,690 ft), Slieveanorra 508 m (1,670 ft), Trostan 550 m (1,800 ft), Slemish 437 m (1,430 ft), Agnew's Hill 474 m (1,560 ft) and Divis 478 m (1,570 ft). The inland slope is gradual, but on the northern shore the range terminates in abrupt and almost perpendicular declivities, and here, consequently, some of the finest coast scenery in the world is found, widely differing, with its unbroken lines of cliffs, from the indented coast-line of the west. The most remarkable cliffs are those formed of perpendicular basaltic columns, extending for many miles, and most strikingly displayed in Fair Head and the celebrated Giant's Causeway. From the eastern coast the hills rise instantly but less abruptly, and the indentations are wider and deeper. On both coasts there are several resort towns, including Portrush (with well-known golf links), Portballintrae and Ballycastle; on the east Cushendun, Cushendall and Waterfoot on Red Bay, Carnlough and Glenarm, Larne on the Sea of Moyle, and Whitehead on Belfast Lough. All are somewhat exposed to the easterly winds prevalent in spring. The only island of size is the L-shaped Rathlin Island, off Ballycastle, 11 km (6.8 mi) in total length by 2 km (1.2 mi) maximum breadth, 7 km (4.3 mi) from the coast, and of similar basaltic and limestone formation to that of the mainland. It is partially arable, and supports a small population. Islandmagee is a peninsula separating Larne Lough from the North Channel.
Slieveanorra Forest is situated in the rural north of County Antrim, Northern Ireland, near the villages of Corkey and Newtown Crommelin. It is a vast conifer forest and offers panoramic views. Altnahinch Dam is located on the edge of the forest and many tourists visit the area during the summer. Many types of animal and plant life reside in the area. It is named after Slieveanorra [Sliabh an Earra, 'mountain of the tail/ridge'].The Battle of Aura took place on the surrounding mountain Slieve-na-Aura.
Slemish, historically called Slieve Mish, is a small mountain in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It lies a few miles east of Ballymena, in the townland of Carnstroan. Tradition holds that Saint Patrick, enslaved as a youth, was brought to this area and tended sheep herds on Slemish, and that during this time he found God.
Fair Head or Benmore is a 5 kilometre mountain cliff, close to the sea, at the north-eastern corner of County Antrim, Northern Ireland, whose rock face is formed into distinctive vertical columns like organ pipes. Fair Head is regarded as one of the best outdoor rock-climbing locations in Ireland, and its long cliff, up to 100 metres high in places, is considered one of the biggest expanses of climbable rock in the British Isles.
The valleys of the Bann and Lagan, with the intervening shores of Lough Neagh, form the fertile lowlands. These two rivers, both rising in County Down, are the only ones of importance. The latter flows to Belfast Lough, the former drains Lough Neagh, which is fed by a number of smaller streams. The fisheries of the Bann and of Lough Neagh (especially for salmon and eels) are of value both commercially and to sportsmen, the small town of Toome, at the outflow of the river, being the centre. Immediately below this point lies Lough Beg, the "Small Lake", about 4.5 m (15 ft) lower than Lough Neagh.
The River Bann is the longest river in Northern Ireland, its length, Upper and Lower Bann combined, being 129 km (80 mi). However, the total length of the River Bann, including its path through the 30 km (19 mi) long Lough Neagh is 159 km (99 mi). Another length of the River Bann given is 90 mi. The river winds its way from the southeast corner of Northern Ireland to the northwest coast, pausing in the middle to widen into the enormous Lough Neagh. The River Bann catchment has an area of 5,775 km2. The River Bann has a mean discharge rate of 92 m3/s. According to C. Michael Hogan, the Bann River Valley is a settlement area for some of the first human arrivals in Ireland after the most recent glacial retreat. The river has played an important part in the industrialisation of the north of Ireland, especially in the linen industry. Today salmon and eel fisheries are the most important economic features of the river. The river is often used as a dividing line between the eastern and western areas of Northern Ireland, often labelled the "Bann divide". Towns, councils and businesses "west of the Bann" are often seen as having less investment and government spending than those to the east. It is also seen as a religious, economic and political divide, with Catholics and Irish nationalists being in the majority to the west, and Ulster Protestants and unionists in the majority to the east; and with the financial and industrial capital of Greater Belfast to the east with the west of the Bann being more agricultural and rural.
The River Lagan is a major river in Northern Ireland which runs 53.5 miles (86 km) from the Slieve Croob mountain in County Down to Belfast where it enters Belfast Lough, an inlet of the Irish Sea. The River Lagan forms much of the border between County Antrim and County Down in the east of Ulster. It rises as a tiny, fast-moving stream near to the summit of Slieve Croob; Transmitter Road runs nearby. From here it continues on its journey to Belfast through Dromara, Donaghcloney and Dromore. On the lower slopes of the mountain, it is joined by another branch from Legananny (Cratlieve) Mountain, just opposite Slieve Croob. At Dromara, about four miles from its source, its height above the sea is 390 ft (119m). As the river continues on its journey to Belfast, it turns east to Magheralin into a broad plain between the plateaus of Antrim and Down.
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae. Other fish in the same family include trout, char, grayling and whitefish. Salmon are native to tributaries of the North Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. Many species of salmon have been introduced into non-native environments such as the Great Lakes of North America and Patagonia in South America. Salmon are intensively farmed in many parts of the world.
County Antrim has a number of air, rail and sea links.
Northern Ireland's main airport, Belfast International Airport, at Aldergrove is in County Antrim. Belfast International shares its runways with 38 Brigade Flying Station Aldergrove, which otherwise has its own facilities.[ citation needed ] It is the fifth-largest regional air cargo centre in the UK. There are regular services to Great Britain, Europe and North America.
Belfast International Airport is an airport 11.5 NM northwest of Belfast in Northern Ireland. Formerly known as Aldergrove Airport, after the nearby village of Aldergrove, Belfast International is Northern Ireland's busiest airport and the second busiest airport on the island of Ireland after Dublin Airport. In 2018, over 6.2 million passengers travelled through the airport, marking a 7.4% increase compared with 2017. It features flights to some European metropolitan and several leisure destinations as well as seasonal long-haul routes to the United States.
The region is also served by George Best Belfast City Airport, a mile east of Belfast city centre on the County Down side of the city, which was renamed in 2006 in honour of footballer George Best.
The main Translink Northern Ireland Railways routes are the major line between Belfast, Antrim, Ballymena, Coleraine and Derry, Belfast to Carrickfergus and Larne, the port for Stranraer in Scotland and Coleraine to Portrush.
Two of Northern Ireland's main ports are in County Antrim, Larne and Belfast.
Ferries sail from Larne Harbour to destinations including Cairnryan in Scotland.
The Port of Belfast is Northern Ireland's principal maritime gateway, serving the Northern Ireland economy and increasingly that of the Republic of Ireland. It is a major centre of industry and commerce and has become established as the focus of logistics activity for Northern Ireland. Around two-thirds of Northern Ireland's seaborne trade, and a quarter of that for Ireland as a whole is handled at the port, which receives over 6,000 vessels each year.
The population of County Antrim was 615,384 according to recent census information, making it the most populous county in Northern Ireland.
Statistics for 2009–2010 show 1,832 students attending the 12 Gaelscoileanna (Irish language primary schools) and 1 Gaelcholáiste (Irish language secondary school).
The Presbyterian Church in Ireland is the largest religious denomination, followed by the Catholic Church and the Anglican Church of Ireland. County Antrim is one of two counties in Ireland in which the majority of people are Protestant, according to the 2001 census, the other being Down. The strong Presbyterian presence in the county is due largely to the county's historical links with lowland Scotland, which supplied many immigrants to Ireland. Protestants are the majority in most of the county, whilst Catholics are concentrated in Belfast, particularly the west of the city, the northeast, and on the shore of Lough Neagh.
The traditional county town is Antrim. More recently, Ballymena was the seat of county government. The counties of Northern Ireland ceased to be administrative entities in 1973, with the reorganization of local government.
In Northern Ireland the county structure is no longer used in local government. Northern Ireland is split into districts. The majority of County Antrim residents are administered by the following councils:
Additionally, the area around the village of Aghagallon is administered by Armagh City, Banbridge and Craigavon Borough Council.
The county contains within it the whole of five parliamentary constituencies:
Parts of the following five parliamentary constituencies are also in County Antrim:
(places with official city status)
(population of 18,000 or more and under 75,000 at 2001 Census)
(population of 10,000 or more and under 18,000 at 2001 Census)
(population of 4,500 or more and under 10,000 at 2001 Census)
(population of 2,250 or more and under 4,500 at 2001 Census)
(population of 1,000 or more and under 2,250 at 2001 Census)
(population of less than 1,000 at 2001 Census)
At what date the county of Antrim was formed is not known, but it appears that a certain district bore this name before the reign of Edward II (early 14th century), and when the shiring of Ulster was undertaken by Sir John Perrot in the 16th century, Antrim and Down were already recognised divisions, in contradistinction to the remainder of the province. The earliest known inhabitants were Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of pre-Celtic origin,but the names of the townlands or subdivisions, supposed to have been made in the 13th century, are all of Celtic derivation.
In ancient times, Antrim was inhabited by a Celtic people called the Darini.In the early Middle Ages, southern County Antrim was part of the Kingdom of Ulidia, ruled by the Dál Fiatach clans Keenan and MacDonlevy/McDunlavey; the north was part of Dál Riada, which stretched into what is now western Scotland over the Irish Sea. Dál Riada was ruled by the O'Lynch clan, who were vassals of the Ulidians. Besides the Ulidians and Dál Riada, there were the Dál nAraide of lower County Antrim, and the Cruthin, who were pre-Gaelic Celts and probably related to the Picts of Britain. Between the 8th and 11th centuries Antrim was exposed to the inroads of the Vikings.
In the late 12th century Antrim became part of the Earldom of Ulster, conquered by Anglo-Norman invaders. A revival of Gaelic power followed the campaign of Edward Bruce in 1315, leaving Carrickfergus as the only significant English stronghold. In the late Middle Ages, Antrim was divided into three parts: northern Clandeboye, the Glynnes and the Route. The Cambro-Norman MacQuillans were powerful in the Route. A branch of the O'Neills of Tyrone migrated to Clandeboye in the 14th century, and ruled it for a time. Their family was called O'Neill Clannaboy. A Gallowglass sept, the MacDonnells, became the most powerful in the Glynnes in the 15th century.
During the Tudor era (16th century) numerous adventurers from Britain attempted to colonise the region; many Scots settled in Antrim around this time.In 1588 the Antrim coast was the scene of one of the 24 wrecks of the Spanish Armada in Ireland. The Spanish vessel La Girona was wrecked off Lacana Point, Giant's Causeway in 1588 with the loss of nearly 1,300 lives.
Antrim is divided into sixteen baronies. Lower Antrim, part of Lower Clandeboye, was settled by the sept O'Flynn/O'Lynn. Upper Antrim, part of Lower Clandeboye, was the home of the O'Keevans. Belfast was part of Lower Clandeboye and was held by the O'Neill-Clannaboys. Lower Belfast, Upper Belfast, and Carrickfergus were also part of Lower Clandeboye. Cary was part of the Glynnes; ruled originally by the O'Quinn sept, the MacDonnell galloglasses from Scotland took power here in the late Middle Ages and some of the O'Haras also migrated from Connaught. Upper and Lower Dunluce were part of the Route, and were ruled by the MacQuillans. Upper and Lower Glenarm was ruled by the O'Flynn/O'Lynn sept, considered part of the Glynns. In addition to that sept and that of O'Quinn, both of which were native, the Scottish Gallowglass septs of MacKeown, MacAlister, and MacGee, are found there. Kilconway was originally O'Flynn/O'Lynn territory, but was held by the MacQuillans as part of the Route, and later by the gallowglass sept of MacNeill. Lower Massereene was part of Lower Clandeboye and was ruled by the O'Flynns and the O'Heircs. Upper Massereene was part of Lower Clandeboye, ruled by the O'Heircs. Upper and Lower Toome, part of the Route, were O'Flynn/O'Lynn territory. Misc was first ruled by the MacQuillans. Later, the Scottish Gallowglass MacDonnells and MacAlisters invaded. The MacDonnells were a branch of the Scottish Clan MacDonald; the MacAlisters traced their origin back to the Irish Colla Uais, eldest of the Three Collas.
Islandmagee had, besides antiquarian remains, a notoriety as a home of witchcraft, and during the Irish Rebellion of 1641 was the scene of an act of reprisal (for the massacre of Protestants) against the Catholic population by the Scottish Covenanter soldiery of Carrickfergus.
In 1689 during the Williamite War in Ireland, County Antrim was a centre of Protestant resistance against the rule of the Catholic James II. During the developing crisis James' garrison at Carrickfergus successfully repulsed an attempt by local Protestants to storm it. After the advance of the Irish Army under Richard Hamilton, all of County Antrim was brought under Jacobite control. Later in the year a major expedition from England under Marshal Schomberg landed in Belfast Lough and successfully laid siege to Carrickfergus. Having captured most of the largest towns of the area, they then marched southwards towards Dundalk.
The antiquities of the county consist of cairns, mounts or forts, remains of ecclesiastical and military structures, and round towers.
There are three round towers: one at Antrim, one at Armoy, and one on Ram's Island in Lough Neagh, only that at Antrim being perfect. There are some remains of the ecclesiastic establishments at Bonamargy, where the earls of Antrim are buried, Kells, Glenarm, Glynn, Muckamore and Whiteabbey.
The castle at Carrickfergus, dating from the Norman invasion of Ireland, is one of the best preserved medieval structures in Ireland. There are, however, remains of other ancient castles, as Olderfleet, Cam's, Shane's, Glenarm, Garron Tower, Red Bay,and Dunluce Castle, notable for its dramatic location on a rocky outcrop.
The principal cairns are: one on Colin mountain, near Lisburn; one on Slieve True, near Carrickfergus; and two on Colinward. The cromlechs most worthy of notice are: one near Cairngrainey, to the north-east of the old road from Belfast to Templepatrick; the large cromlech at Mount Druid, near Ballintoy; and one at the northern extremity of Islandmagee. The mounts, forts and entrenchments are very numerous.
The natural rock formations of Giant's Causeway on the Antrim coast are now designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Slemish, about eight miles (13 km) east of Ballymena, is notable as being the scene of St Patrick's early life. According to tradition Saint Patrick was a slave for seven years, near the hill of Slemish, until he escaped back to Great Britain.
Linen manufacturing was previously an important industry in the County. At the time Ireland produced a large amount of flax. Cotton-spinning by jennies was first introduced to Belfast by industrialists Robert Joy and Thomas M'Cabe in 1777; and twenty-three years later it was estimated that more than 27,000 people were employed in the industry within ten miles (16 km) of Belfast. Women were employed in the working of patterns on muslin.
Records of the seaweeds of County Antrim were brought together and published in 1907 by J. Adamswho notes that the list contains 211 species. Batter's list, of 1902, contained 747 species in his catalogue of British marine algae.
Of the freshwater algae there are 10 taxa in the Charophyta (Charales) recorded from Co. Antrim: Chara aspera var. aspera; Chara globularis var. globularis; Chara globularis var. virgata (Kütz.) R.D.; Chara vulgaris var. vulgaris; Chara vulgaris var. contraria (A. Braun ex Kütz.) J.A.Moore; Chara vulgaris var. longibracteata (Kütz.) J. Groves & Bullock-Webster; Chara vulgaris var. papillata Wallr. ex A. Braun; Nitella flexilis var. flexilis; Nitella translucens (Pers.) C.A. Ag. and Tolypella nidifica var. glomerata (Desv.) R.D. Wood.
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Lough Neagh is a large freshwater lake in Northern Ireland. It is the largest lake by area in the British Isles, with a surface area of 151 square miles. It supplies 40% of Northern Ireland's water. Its main inflows are the Upper River Bann and River Blackwater, and its main outflow is the Lower River Bann. Its name comes from Irish: Loch nEachach, meaning "Eachaidh's lake". The lough is owned by the Earl of Shaftesbury.
North Antrim is a parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom House of Commons. Its current member is Ian Paisley Jr.
Glenarm is a village in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It lies on the North Channel coast north of the town of Larne and the village of Ballygalley, and south of the village of Carnlough. It is situated in the civil parish of Tickmacrevan and the historic barony of Glenarm Lower. It is part of Mid and East Antrim Borough Council and had a population of 1,851 people in the 2011 Census. Glenarm takes its name from the glen in which it lies, the southernmost of the nine Glens of Antrim.
Dál nAraidi or Dál Araide was a Cruthin kingdom, or possibly a confederation of Cruthin tribes, in north-eastern Ireland during the Middle Ages. It was part of the over-kingdom of Ulaid, and its kings often contended with the Dál Fiatach for the over-kingship of the province. At its greatest extent, the borders of Dál nAraidi roughly match those of County Antrim, and they seem to occupy the same area as the earlier Robogdii of Ptolemy's Geography, a region shared with Dál Riata. Their capital was Ráth Mór outside Antrim, and their eponymous ancestor is claimed as being Fiachu Araide.
Antrim, sometimes known as Antrim Borough to distinguish it from the former constituency of the same name, was a single-member county constituency of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.
Ulster railways, present and past, include:
The Route, also historically known as Reuta, Rowte, or in Irish: an Rúta, was a medieval territory in County Antrim, Northern Ireland, consisting of the baronies of Dunluce Upper, Dunluce Lower, Toome Lower, and the North East Liberties of Coleraine. It also formed part of the more ancient kingdoms of Dál Riata and Dál nAraidi, as well as part of the Earldom of Ulster. It was once ruled by the MacQuillans and later the MacDonnells.
Loughinsholin is a barony in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. Its southeast borders the northwest shore of Lough Neagh, and itself is bordered by seven other baronies: Dungannon Upper to the south; Strabane Upper to the west; Keenaght and Coleraine to the north; Kilconway, Toome Upper, and Toome Lower to the east. It was formed largely on the extent of the medieval Irish túath of Uí Tuirtri.
Antrim Lower is a barony in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It is bordered by six other baronies: Antrim Upper to the south; Toome Upper to the south-west; Toome Lower to the west; Kilconway to the north-west; Glenarm Lower to the north-east; and Glenarm Upper to the east. The River Braid flows through this barony.
Glenarm Upper is a barony in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. To its east runs the east-Antrim coast, and it is bordered by four other baronies: Glenarm Lower to the north; Antrim Lower to the west; Antrim Upper to the south-west; and Belfast Lower to the south. Chaine Tower, situated at the entrance to Larne Lough, is located within Glenarm Upper.
Dunluce Upper is a barony in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It is bordered by six other baronies: Dunluce Lower to the north; Cary to the north-east; North East Liberties of Coleraine to the north-west; Coleraine to the west; Kilconway to the south; and Glenarm Lower to the east. Dunluce Upper also formed part of the medieval territory known as the Route.
Kilconway is a barony in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It is bordered by six other baronies: Dunluce Upper to the north; Glenarm Lower to the east; Antrim Lower to the south-east; Toome Lower to the south; Loughinsholin to the south-west; and Coleraine to the north-east. Kilconway also formed part of the medieval territory known as the Route. Springmount Bog is located within the barony.
Belfast Lower is a barony in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. To its east lies the east-Antrim coast and Belfast Lough, and it is bordered by four other baronies: Belfast Upper to the south, Carrickfergus to the east, Antrim Upper to the west; Glenarm Upper to the north. The Forth and Milewater rivers both flow through Belfast Lower, with Larne harbour also situated in the barony.
Antrim Upper is a barony in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It is bordered by six other baronies: Antrim Lower to the north; Toome Upper to the west; Massereene Lower to the south-west; Belfast Upper to the south; Belfast Lower to the south-east; and Glenarm Upper to the east.
Massereene Lower is a barony in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. To its west lies Lough Neagh, and it is bordered by four other baronies: Massereene Upper to the south; Belfast Upper to the east; Antrim Upper to the north; and Toome Upper to the north-west.
Toome Upper is a barony in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. To its south lies Lough Neagh, and it is bordered by five other baronies: Toome Lower to the north; Antrim Lower to the north-east; Antrim Upper to the east; Massereene Lower to the south-east; and Loughinsholin to the south-east. Toome Upper also formed part of the medieval territories known as the Route and Clandeboye.
Toome Lower is a barony in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. To its east lies Belfast Lough, and it is bordered by four other baronies: Toome Upper to the south; Antrim Lower to the east; Kilconway to the north; and Loughinsholin to the west. Toome Lower also formed part of the medieval territories known as the Route and Clandeboye.
Ballylough Castle is a ruined castle in County Antrim, Northern Ireland, that was a stronghold of the MacQuillans and the MacDonnells in former times.
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