County Tipperary

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County Tipperary
Contae Thiobraid Árann
Tipperary COA.svg
Nickname(s): 
The Premier County
Island of Ireland location map Tipperary.svg
Country Ireland
Province Munster
County towns Nenagh / Clonmel
Dáil Éireann Tipperary
EU Parliament South
Established
Shired [1] 1328
Divided 1838
Reunified 2014
Government
  Type County Council
Area
  Total4,305 km2 (1,662 sq mi)
Area rank 6th
Highest elevation918 m (3,012 ft)
Population
 (2016) [2]
  Total159,553
  Rank 12th
  Density37/km2 (96/sq mi)
Time zone UTC±0 (WET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+1 (IST)
Eircode routing keys
E21, E25, E32, E34, E41, E45, E53, E91 (primarily)
Telephone area codes 051, 0504, 0505, 052, 062, 067 (primarily)
Vehicle index
mark code
T
Website www.tipperarycoco.ie
County Tipperary with subdivision into baronies Baronies of Tipperary.jpg
County Tipperary with subdivision into baronies

County Tipperary (Irish : Contae Thiobraid Árann) is a county in Ireland. It is located in the province of Munster. The county is named after the town of Tipperary, and was established in the early 13th century, shortly after the Norman invasion of Ireland. The population of the county was 159,553 at the 2016 census. [2] The largest towns are Clonmel, Nenagh and Thurles.

Contents

Tipperary County Council is the local government authority for the county. Since 1838, County Tipperary has been divided into two ridings, North and South. From 1899 until 2014, they had their own county councils which were unified under the Local Government Reform Act 2014, which came into effect following the 2014 local elections on 3 June 2014. [3]

Geography and political subdivisions

Tipperary is the sixth-largest of the 32 counties by area and the 12th largest by population. [4] It is the third-largest of Munster's 6 counties by both size and population. It is also the largest landlocked county in Ireland. The region is part of the central plain of Ireland, but the diverse terrain contains several mountain ranges: the Knockmealdown, the Galtee, the Arra Hills and the Silvermine Mountains. Most of the county is drained by the River Suir; the north-western part by tributaries of the River Shannon; the eastern part by the River Nore; the south-western corner by the Munster Blackwater. No part of the county touches the coast. The centre is known as 'the Golden Vale', a rich pastoral stretch of land in the Suir basin which extends into counties Limerick and Cork.

Baronies

There are 12 historic baronies in County Tipperary: Clanwilliam, Eliogarty, Iffa and Offa East, Iffa and Offa West, Ikerrin, Kilnamanagh Lower, Kilnamanagh Upper, Middle Third, Ormond Lower, Ormond Upper, Owney and Arra and Slievardagh.

Civil parishes and townlands

Parishes were delineated after the Down Survey as an intermediate subdivision, with multiple townlands per parish and multiple parishes per barony. The civil parishes had some use in local taxation and were included on the nineteenth century maps of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland. [5] For poor law purposes, District Electoral Divisions replaced the civil parishes in the mid-nineteenth century. There are 199 civil parishes in the county. [6] Townlands are the smallest officially defined geographical divisions in Ireland; there are 3,159 townlands in the county. [7]

Largest towns

RankTownPopulation
(2016 census)
1 Clonmel 17,140
2 Nenagh 8,968
3 Thurles 7,940
4 Carrick-on-Suir 5,771
5 Roscrea 5,446
6 Tipperary 4,979
7 Cashel 4,422
8 Cahir 3,593
9 Ballina 2,632
10 Templemore 1,939
11 Fethard 1,545

History

The Rock of Cashel, seat of the Kings of Munster Rock of Cashel, Tipperary.jpg
The Rock of Cashel, seat of the Kings of Munster
The Roscrea Brooch, 9th century Roscrea Brooch.jpg
The Roscrea Brooch, 9th century

Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the Kingdom of Munster was claimed as a lordship. By 1210, the sheriffdom of Munster shired into the shires of Tipperary and Limerick. [14] In 1328, Tipperary was granted to the Earls of Ormond as a county palatine or liberty. [14] The grant excluded church lands such as the archiepiscopal see of Cashel, which formed the separate county of Cross Tipperary. [14] Though the Earls gained jurisdiction over the church lands in 1662, "Tipperary and Cross Tipperary" were not definitively united until the County Palatine of Tipperary Act 1715, when the 2nd Duke of Ormond was attainted for supporting the Jacobite rising of 1715. [15] [16]

The county was divided once again in 1838. [17] The county town of Clonmel, where the grand jury held its twice-yearly assizes, is at the southern limit of the county, and roads leading north were poor, making the journey inconvenient for jurors resident there. [17] A petition to move the county town to a more central location was opposed by the MP for Clonmel, so instead the county was split into two "ridings"; the grand jury of the South Riding continued to meet in Clonmel, while that of the North Riding met in Nenagh. [17] When the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 established county councils to replace the grand jury for civil functions, the ridings became separate "administrative counties" with separate county councils. [17] Their names were changed from "Tipperary North/South Riding" to "North/South Tipperary" by the Local Government Act 2001, which redesignated all "administrative counties" as simply "counties". [18] The Local Government Reform Act 2014 has amalgamated the two counties and restored a single county of Tipperary. [19]

Local government and politics

Following the Local Government Reform Act 2014, Tipperary County Council is the local government authority for the county. The authority is a merger of two separate authorities North Tipperary County Council and South Tipperary County Council which operated up until June 2014. The local authority is responsible for certain local services such as sanitation, planning and development, libraries, the collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing. The county is part of the South constituency for the purposes of European elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the constituency used is: Tipperary. It returns five deputies (TDs) to the Dáil.

Geography

Tipperary is a part of the Golden Vale in the southwest. The Galty Mountains are the highest range, with Galtymore at 917m high. Other mountain ranges include the Silvermine Mountains, the Arra Mountains and the Knockmealdown Mountains. The Devil's Bit is a part of the Slieve Bloom range. The River Shannon flows along the northwest border with Limerick, Galway and Clare. The River Suir rises at the Devil's Bit and flows into the sea at Waterford.

Culture

Galtee Mountains seen from the Glen of Aherlow Galtee range aherlow.JPG
Galtee Mountains seen from the Glen of Aherlow

Tipperary is referred to as the "Premier County", a description attributed to Thomas Davis, Editor of The Nation newspaper in the 1840s as a tribute to the nationalistic feeling in Tipperary and said[ citation needed ] that "where Tipperary leads, Ireland follows". Tipperary was the subject of the famous song "It's a Long Way to Tipperary" written by Jack Judge, whose grandparents came from the county. It was popular with regiments of the British Army during World War I. The song "Slievenamon", which is traditionally associated with the county, was written by Charles Kickham from Mullinahone, and is commonly sung at sporting fixtures involving the county. [20]

Irish language

There is no Gaeltacht in County Tipperary and consequently few Irish speakers. Nevertheless, there are five Gaelscoileanna (Irish language primary schools) and two Gaelcholáistí (Irish language secondary schools). [21]

Economy

The area around Clonmel is the economic hub of the county, due to manufacturing facilities owned by Bulmers (brewers) and Merck & Co. (pharmaceuticals) east of the town. There is much fertile land, especially in the region known as the Golden Vale, one of the richest agricultural areas in Ireland.

Tipperary is famous for its horse breeding industry and is the home of Coolmore Stud, the largest thoroughbred breeding operation in the world. [22]

Tourism plays a significant role in County Tipperary – Lough Derg, Thurles, Rock of Cashel, Ormonde Castle, Ahenny High Crosses, Cahir Castle, Bru Boru Heritage Centre and Tipperary Crystal are some of the primary tourist destinations in the county.

Transport

Road transport dominates in County Tipperary. The M7 motorway crosses the north of the county through Roscrea and Nenagh and the M8 motorway bisects the county from north of Two-Mile Borris to the County Limerick border. Both routes are among some of the busiest roads on the island. The Limerick to Waterford N24 crosses the southern half of Tipperary, travelling through Tipperary Town, Bansha, north of Cahir and around Clonmel and Carrick-on-Suir.

Railways

Tipperary also has a number of railway stations situated on the Dublin-Cork line, Dublin-to-Limerick and Limerick-Waterford line. The railway lines connect places in Tipperary with Cork, Dublin Heuston, Waterford, Limerick, Mallow and Galway.

Sports

County Tipperary has a strong association with the Gaelic Athletic Association which was founded in Thurles in 1884. The Gaelic Games of Hurling, Gaelic football, Camogie and Handball are organised by the Tipperary GAA County Board of the GAA. The organisation competes in the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship and the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship. Tipperary, with 28 wins, are the only county to have won an All-Ireland title in every decade since the 1880s.

Horse racing takes place at Tipperary Racecourse, Thurles Racecourse and Clonmel Racecourse.

Places of interest

Ardfinnan Castle Castles of Munster, Ardfinnan, Tipperary - geograph.org.uk - 1393364.jpg
Ardfinnan Castle

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

Munster Traditional province in the southwest of Ireland

Munster is one of the provinces of Ireland, in the south of Ireland. In early Ireland, the Kingdom of Munster was one of the kingdoms of Gaelic Ireland ruled by a "king of over-kings". Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the ancient kingdoms were shired into counties for administrative and judicial purposes. In later centuries, local government legislation has seen further sub-division of the historic counties.

Thurles Town in Munster, Ireland

Thurles is a town in County Tipperary, Ireland. It is located in the civil parish of same name in the barony of Eliogarty and in the ecclesiastical parish of Thurles. The cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly is located in the town.

Cahir Town in Munster, Ireland

Cahir is a town in County Tipperary in Ireland. It is also a civil parish in the barony of Iffa and Offa West.

Nenagh Town in Munster, Ireland

Nenagh meaning “The Fair of Ormond” or simply "The Fair", is the county town and second largest town in County Tipperary in Ireland. Nenagh used to be a market town, and the site of the East Munster Ormond Fair.

Clonmel Town in Munster, Ireland

Clonmel is the county town and largest settlement of County Tipperary, Ireland. The town is noted in Irish history for its resistance to the Cromwellian army which sacked the towns of Drogheda and Wexford. With the exception of the townland of Suir Island, most of the borough is situated in the civil parish of "St Mary's" which is part of the ancient barony of Iffa and Offa East.

North Tipperary Place in Munster, Ireland

North Tipperary was a county in Ireland. It was part of the Mid-West Region and was also located in the province of Munster. It was named after the town of Tipperary and consisted of 48% of the land area of the traditional county of Tipperary. North Tipperary County Council was the local authority for the county. In 2011, the population of the county was 70,322. It was abolished on 3 June 2014, merged with South Tipperary under a new Tipperary County Council.

South Tipperary Place in Munster, Ireland

South Tipperary was a county in Ireland. It was part of the South-East Region and was also located in the province of Munster. It was named after the town of Tipperary and consisted of 52% of the land area of the traditional county of Tipperary. South Tipperary County Council was the local authority for the county. The population of the county was 88,433 according to the 2011 census. It was abolished on 3 June 2014, merged with North Tipperary under a new Tipperary County Council.

Templemore Town in Munster, Ireland

Templemore is a town in County Tipperary, Ireland. It is a civil parish in the historical barony of Eliogarty. It is part of the parish of Templemore, Clonmore and Killea in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly.

Carrick-on-Suir Town in Munster, Ireland

Carrick-on-Suir is a town in County Tipperary. It lies on both banks of the River Suir. The part on the north bank of the Suir lies in the civil parish of "Carrick", in the historical barony of Iffa and Offa East. The part on the south bank lies in the civil parish of Kilmolerin in the barony of Upperthird, County Waterford.

Galbally, County Limerick Village in Munster, Ireland

Galbally is a village in southeast County Limerick, Ireland, on the border with County Tipperary. It is located at the foot of the Galtee Mountains and at the western approach to the Glen of Aherlow. The Aherlow River, flowing down from the Galtee mountains, runs by the village, to meet the Suir at Kilmoyler a short distance north of Cahir. Galbally is in a valley overlooked by the Galtee Mountains.

N24 road (Ireland)

The N24 road is a national primary road in Ireland forming a route from Limerick to Waterford, running through County Tipperary and passing Tipperary Town, Cahir, Carrick-on-Suir and Clonmel.

A registration district in the United Kingdom is a type of administrative region which exists for the purpose of civil registration of births, marriages, and deaths and civil partnerships. It has also been used as the basis for the collation of census information.

Mooncoin Town in Leinster, Ireland

Mooncoin is a census town in County Kilkenny, in Ireland. As of 2016, the population was 1,175. Historically part of the Gaelic kingdom of Osraige, today it is in the far south of the county of Kilkenny, located in the valley of the River Suir. It is surrounded by the uplands of the Slievenamon and Comeragh Mountains, just 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) north of Waterford City along the N24 national primary road, and it is 48 kilometres (30 mi) south of Kilkenny.

Kilsheelan Village in Munster, Ireland

Kilsheelan is a village and civil parish within the in the barony of Iffa and Offa East in County Tipperary, Ireland. It is also one half of the Roman Catholic parish of Kilsheelan & Kilcash in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Waterford and Lismore.

Rossmore, County Tipperary Village in Munster, Ireland

Rossmore is a small village and townland in County Tipperary in Ireland. It is in the civil parish of Clonoulty, barony of Kilnamanagh Lower. It is located in the District Electoral Division (DED) of Clonoulty West. It is also half of the Clonoulty and Rossmore parish in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly.

Iffa and Offa West is a barony in County Tipperary, Ireland. This geographical unit of land is one of 12 baronies in County Tipperary. Its chief town is Cahir. The barony lies between Clanwilliam to the north-west, Middle Third to the north-east and Iffa and Offa East to the east. The area is currently administered by Tipperary County Council. The barony is within the geographic remit of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Waterford and Lismore.

Iffa and Offa East is a barony in County Tipperary, Ireland. This geographical unit of land is one of 12 baronies in County Tipperary. Its chief town is Clonmel. The barony lies between Iffa and Offa West to the west, Middle Third to the north-west and Slievardagh to the north-east. It is currently administered by Tipperary County Council. The entire barony lies within the geographic remit of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Waterford and Lismore with the exception of the parish of Clerihan which is in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly.

Middle Third is a barony in County Tipperary, Ireland. This geographical unit of land is one of 12 baronies in County Tipperary. Its chief town is Cashel. The barony lies between Eliogarty to the north, Iffa and Offa East to the south, Clanwilliam to the west and Slievardagh to the east. It is currently administered by Tipperary County Council.

The East Munster Way, formerly known as the Munster Way, is a long-distance trail in Ireland. It is 75 kilometres long and begins in Carrick-on-Suir, County Tipperary and ends in Clogheen, County Tipperary. It is typically completed in three days. It is designated as a National Waymarked Trail by the National Trails Office of the Irish Sports Council and is managed by Tipperary County Council, Coillte and Waterford County Council. The trail was opened by Frank Fahey, Minister of State for Youth and Sport in July 1988.

Turtulla, Fertiana

Turtulla is a townland in the civil parish of Fertiana, County Tipperary. It is a little over 790 acres in extent and is bounded on its northern edge by the River Suir, which separates it from another, much smaller, townland of the same name, which belongs to Thurles civil parish.

References

  1. "Brief History of County Tipperary – Roots Ireland". rootsireland.ie. Archived from the original on 21 June 2019. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
  2. 1 2 3 "Census 2016 Sapmap Area: County Tipperary". Central Statistics Office (Ireland). Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  3. "Tipperary County Council". Tipperary County Council. 29 May 2014. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014. Tipperary County Council will become an official unified authority on Tuesday, 3rd June 2014. The new authority combines the existing administration of North Tipperary County Council and South Tipperary County Council.
  4. Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists. Hodder Headline Ireland. pp. 186–91.
  5. "Interactive map (civil parish boundaries viewable in Historic layer)". Mapviewer. Ordnance Survey of Ireland. Archived from the original on 29 May 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
  6. "Placenames Database of Ireland – Tipperary civil parishes". Logainm.ie. 13 December 2010. Archived from the original on 20 September 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  7. "Placenames Database of Ireland – Tipperary townlands". Logainm.ie. 13 December 2010. Archived from the original on 20 September 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  8. For 1653 and 1659 figures from Civil Survey Census of those years, Paper of Mr Hardinge to Royal Irish Academy 14 March 1865.
  9. "Census for post 1821 figures". Cso.ie. Archived from the original on 9 March 2005. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  10. histpop.org Archived 7 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  11. "NISRA – Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency". Nisranew.nisra.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  12. Lee, JJ (1981). "On the accuracy of the Pre-famine Irish censuses". In Goldstrom, J. M.; Clarkson, L. A. (eds.). Irish Population, Economy, and Society: Essays in Honour of the Late K. H. Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  13. Mokyr, Joel; O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). "New Developments in Irish Population History, 1700-1850". The Economic History Review. 37 (4): 473–88. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x. hdl: 10197/1406 . Archived from the original on 4 December 2012.
  14. 1 2 3 Falkiner, Caesar Litton (1904). "The Counties of Ireland". Illustrations of Irish history and topography: mainly of the seventeenth century. Longmans, Green. pp.  108–42. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
  15. Deputy keeper of the public records in Ireland (26 April 1873). "Appendix 3: Extract from Report of the Assistant Deputy Keeper on the Records of the Court of Record of the County Palatine of Tipperary". Fifth Report. Command papers. C.760. HMSO. pp. 32–37. Archived from the original on 12 May 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
  16. Ireland (1794). "2 George I c.8". Statutes Passed in the Parliaments Held in Ireland. III: 1715–1733. Printed by George Grierson, printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. pp. 5–11. Archived from the original on 1 January 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
  17. 1 2 3 4 Murphy, Donal A. (1994). The two Tipperarys: the national and local politics, devolution and self-determination, of the unique 1838 division into two ridings, and the aftermath . Relay. ISBN   9780946327133.
  18. "Local Government Act, 2001 sec.10(4)(a)". Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 22 October 2013.[ permanent dead link ]
  19. Minister for Environment, Community and Local Government (15 October 2013). "sec.10(2) Boundaries of amalgamated local government areas". Local Government Bill 2013 (As initiated) (PDF). Dublin: Stationery Office. ISBN   978-1-4468-0502-2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
  20. "Sliabh na mban – Slievenamon". Irishpage.com. Archived from the original on 6 March 2010. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  21. "Oideachas Trí Mheán na Gaeilge in Éirinn sa Ghalltacht 2010-2011" (PDF) (in Irish). gaelscoileanna.ie. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
  22. "€4bn value put on Magnier's Coolmore Stud – Independent.ie". Independent.ie. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018.

Bibliography

Coordinates: 52°40′N7°50′W / 52.667°N 7.833°W / 52.667; -7.833