County Tipperary

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County Tipperary

Contae Thiobraid Árann
Tipperary COA.svg
Coat of arms
Island of Ireland location map Tipperary.svg
Country Ireland
Province Munster
County towns Nenagh / Clonmel
Dáil Éireann Tipperary
EU Parliament South
Government
  Type County Council
Area
  Total4,305 km2 (1,662 sq mi)
Area rank 6th
Population
(2016) [1]
  Total159,553
  Rank 12th
  Density37/km2 (96/sq mi)
Vehicle index
mark code
T
Website www.tipperarycoco.ie

County Tipperary (Irish : Contae Thiobraid Árann) is a county in Ireland. It is located in the province of Munster. The county is named after the town of Tipperary, and was established in the early thirteenth century, shortly after the Norman invasion of Ireland. The population of the county was 159,553 at the 2016 census. [1] The largest towns are Clonmel, Nenagh and Thurles.

Irish language Goidelic (Gaelic) language spoken in Ireland and by Irish people

Irish is a Goidelic (Gaelic) language originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language in substantial areas of counties Galway, Kerry, Cork and Donegal, smaller areas of Waterford, Mayo and Meath, and a few other locations, and as a second language by a larger group of non-habitual speakers across the country.

Counties of Ireland Administrative division of Ireland, historically 32 in number

The counties of Ireland are sub-national divisions that have been, and in some cases continue to be, used to geographically demarcate areas of local government. These land divisions were formed following the Norman invasion of Ireland in imitation of the counties then in use as units of local government in the Kingdom of England. The older term "shire" was historically equivalent to "county". The principal function of the county was to impose royal control in the areas of taxation, security and the administration of justice at the local level. Cambro-Norman control was initially limited to the southeastern parts of Ireland; a further four centuries elapsed before the entire island was shired. At the same time, the now obsolete concept of county corporate elevated a small number of towns and cities to a status which was deemed to be no less important than the existing counties in which they lay. This double control mechanism of 32 counties plus 10 counties corporate remained unchanged for a little over two centuries until the early 19th century. Since then, counties have been adapted and in some cases divided by legislation to meet new administrative and political requirements.

Republic of Ireland Ireland, a country in north-western Europe, occupying 5/6 of the island of Ireland; succeeded the Irish Free State (1937)

Ireland, also known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the eastern part of the island, and whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint George's Channel to the south-east, and the Irish Sea to the east. It is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, and an elected President who serves as the largely ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the Taoiseach in turn appoints other government ministers.

Contents

Tipperary County Council is the local government authority for the county. Between 1838 and 2014 county Tipperary was divided into two ridings/counties, North Tipperary and South Tipperary, which were unified under the Local Government Reform Act 2014, which came into effect following the 2014 local elections on 3 June 2014. [2]

Tipperary County Council

Tipperary County Council is the authority responsible for local government in County Tipperary, Ireland. It came into operation on 3 June 2014 after the 2014 local elections, following the merger of North Tipperary County Council and South Tipperary County Council under the provisions of the Local Government Reform Act 2014. The county administration is headed by a Chief Executive, Joe MacGrath. The administrative centres are Nenagh and Clonmel.

Local government in the Republic of Ireland

In Ireland, local government functions are mostly exercised by thirty-one local authorities, termed County, City, or City and County Councils. The principal decision-making body in each of the thirty-one local authorities is composed of the members of the council, elected by universal franchise in local elections every five years. Irish Local Authorities are the closest and most accessible form of Government to people in their local community. Many of the authorities' statutory functions are, however, the responsibility of ministerially appointed career officials termed Chief executives. The competencies of the city and county councils include planning, transport infrastructure, sanitary services, public safety and the provision of public libraries.

A riding is an administrative jurisdiction or electoral district, particularly in several current or former Commonwealth countries.

Geography and political subdivisions

The Galtee Mountains seen from the Glen of Aherlow. Galtee range aherlow.JPG
The Galtee Mountains seen from the Glen of Aherlow.

Tipperary is the sixth largest of the 32 counties by area and the 12th largest by population. [3] It is the third largest of Munster's 6 counties by size and the third largest by population. It is also the largest landlocked county in Ireland. The region is part of the central plain of Ireland, but the diverse terrain contains several mountain ranges: the Knockmealdown, the Galtee, the Arra Hills and the Silvermine Mountains. Most of the county is drained by the River Suir; the north-western part by tributaries of the River Shannon; the eastern part by the River Nore; the south-western corner by the Munster Blackwater. No part of the county touches the coast. The centre is known as 'the Golden Vale', a rich pastoral stretch of land in the Suir basin which extends into counties Limerick and Cork.

Knockmealdown Mountains mountain range in Ireland

The Knockmealdown Mountains is a mountain range located on the border of counties Tipperary and Waterford in Ireland, running east and west between the two counties. The highest peak of the range is Knockmealdown, in County Waterford. On the western side of the summit, the range is crossed by a high pass through which runs the old mail coach road from Lismore to Clogheen.

Silvermine Mountains

The Silvermine Mountains or Silvermines Mountains are a mountain range in County Tipperary, Ireland. The highest peak of the range is Keeper Hill or Slievekimalta at 694 metres (2,277 ft) high. Traditionally, the mountains were deemed to be part of the Slieve Felim Mountains.

River Suir river in Ireland

The River Suir is a river in Ireland that flows into the Atlantic Ocean near Waterford after a distance of 185 kilometres (115 mi). The catchment area of the Suir is 3,610 km2. Its long term average flow rate is 76.9 cubic metres per second (m3/s), about twice the flow of either River Barrow or River Nore before these join, but a little less than Barrow's flow when it meets the Suir 20 km downstream.

Baronies

There are 12 historic baronies in County Tipperary: Clanwilliam, Eliogarty, Iffa and Offa East, Iffa and Offa West, Ikerrin, Kilnamanagh Lower, Kilnamanagh Upper, Middle Third, Ormond Lower, Ormond Upper, Owney and Arra and Slievardagh.

Barony (Ireland) historical subdivision of a county of Ireland

In Ireland, a barony is a historical subdivision of a county, analogous to the hundreds into which the counties of England were divided. Baronies were created during the Tudor reconquest of Ireland, replacing the earlier cantreds formed after the original Norman invasion. Some early baronies were later subdivided into half baronies with the same standing as full baronies.

Clanwilliam is a barony in County Tipperary, Ireland. This geographical unit of land is one of 12 baronies in County Tipperary. Its chief town is Tipperary. The barony lies between Kilnamanagh Lower to the north, Iffa and Offa West to the south and Middle Third to the east. It is currently administered by Tipperary County Council.

Eliogarty is a barony in County Tipperary, Ireland. This geographical unit of land is one of 12 baronies in County Tipperary. Its chief town is Thurles. The barony lies between Ikerrin to the north, Kilnamanagh Upper to the west, Middle Third to the south and County Kilkenny to the east. It is currently administered by Tipperary County Council.

Civil parishes and townlands

Parishes were delineated after the Down Survey as an intermediate subdivision, with multiple townlands per parish and multiple parishes per barony. The civil parishes had some use in local taxation and were included on the nineteenth century maps of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland. [4] For poor law purposes, District Electoral Divisions replaced the civil parishes in the mid-nineteenth century. There are 199 civil parishes in the county. [5] Townlands are the smallest officially defined geographical divisions in Ireland; there are 3,159 townlands in the county. [6]

Down Survey

The Down Survey was a cadastral survey of Ireland, carried out by English scientist, William Petty, in 1655 and 1656.

A townland is a small geographical division of land used in Ireland. The townland system is of Gaelic origin, pre-dating the Norman invasion, and most have names of Irish Gaelic origin. However, some townland names and boundaries come from Norman manors, plantation divisions, or later creations of the Ordnance Survey. The total number of inhabited townlands was 60,679 in 1911. The total number recognised by the Irish Place Names database as of 2014 was 61,098, including uninhabited townlands, mainly small islands.

Towns and villages

Ahenny Village/Civil Parish in Leinster, Ireland

Ahenny is a small village and townland in County Tipperary, Ireland. It is notable for its ancient Irish high crosses. Close to the village is the early Christian foundation of Kilclispeen monastery and in the adjoining graveyard stand two celebrated Irish High Crosses: the Ahenny High Crosses.

Ardfinnan Village in Munster, Ireland

Ardfinnan is a small village in County Tipperary in Ireland. It is situated on the River Suir and R665 regional road. The Catholic parish of Ardfinnan is made up of three areas: Ardfinnan, Ballybacon, and Grange. Ardfinnan is also a civil parish in the ancient barony of Iffa and Offa West. The village is located 14 kilometers from the town of Clonmel and six miles from Cahir via the R670 road. The population of the village is approximately 1000 people.

Ballina, County Tipperary Town in Munster, Ireland

Ballina, meaning "Mouth of the Ford", is a village that lies on the River Shannon in County Tipperary, Ireland. It is situated on the eastern shore of Lough Derg across from its 'twin-town' of Killaloe on the west bank of the lake. The towns are joined by Killaloe Bridge, pictured.

History

The Rock of Cashel, seat of the Kings of Munster Rock of Cashel, Tipperary.jpg
The Rock of Cashel, seat of the Kings of Munster

Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the Kingdom of Munster was claimed as a lordship. By 1210, the sheriffdom of Munster shired into the shires of Tipperary and Limerick. [13] In 1328, Tipperary was granted to the Earls of Ormond as a county palatine or liberty. [13] The grant excluded church lands such as the archiepiscopal see of Cashel, which formed the separate county of Cross Tipperary. [13] Though the Earls gained jurisdiction over the church lands in 1662, "Tipperary and Cross Tipperary" were not definitively united until the County Palatine of Tipperary Act 1715, when the 2nd Duke of Ormond was attainted for supporting the Jacobite rising of 1715. [14] [15]

The county was divided once again in 1838. [16] The county town of Clonmel, where the grand jury held its twice-yearly assizes, is at the southern limit of the county, and roads leading north were poor, making the journey inconvenient for jurors resident there. [16] A petition to move the county town to a more central location was opposed by the MP for Clonmel, so instead the county was split into two "ridings"; the grand jury of the South Riding continued to meet in Clonmel, while that of the North Riding met in Nenagh. [16] When the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 established county councils to replace the grand jury for civil functions, the ridings became separate "administrative counties" with separate county councils. [16] Their names were changed from "Tipperary North/South Riding" to "North/South Tipperary" by the Local Government Act 2001, which redesignated all "administrative counties" as simply "counties". [17] The Local Government Reform Act 2014 has amalgamated the two counties and restored a single county of Tipperary. [18]

Local government and politics

Following the Local Government Reform Act 2014, Tipperary County Council is the local government authority for the county. The authority is a merger of two separate authorities North Tipperary County Council and South Tipperary County Council which operated up until June 2014. The local authority is responsible for certain local services such as sanitation, planning and development, libraries, the collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing. The county is part of the South constituency for the purposes of European elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the constituency used is: Tipperary. It returns five deputies (TDs) to the Dáil.

Culture

Tipperary is referred to as the "Premier County", a description attributed to Thomas Davis, Editor of The Nation newspaper in the 1840s as a tribute to the nationalistic feeling in Tipperary and said[ citation needed ] that "where Tipperary leads, Ireland follows". Tipperary was the subject of the famous song "It's a Long Way to Tipperary" written by Jack Judge, whose grandparents came from the county. It was popular with regiments of the British army during World War I. The song "Slievenamon", which is traditionally associated with the county, was written by Charles Kickham from Mullinahone, and is commonly sung at sporting fixtures involving the county. [19]

Irish language

There are 979 Irish speakers in County Tipperary attending the five Gaelscoileanna (Irish language primary schools) and two Gaelcholáistí (Irish language secondary schools). [20]

Economy

The area around Clonmel is the economic hub of the county: to the east of the town the manufacturers Bulmers (brewers) and Merck & Co. (pharmaceuticals). There is much fertile land, especially in the region known as the Golden Vale, one of the richest agricultural areas in Ireland. Dairy farming and cattle raising are the principal occupations.[ citation needed ] Other industries are slate quarrying and the manufacture of meal and flour.

Tipperary is famous for its horse breeding industry and is the home of Coolmore Stud, the largest thoroughbred breeding operation in the world. [21]

Tourism plays a significant role in County Tipperary – Lough Derg, Thurles, Rock of Cashel, Ormonde Castle, Ahenny High Crosses, Cahir Castle, Bru Boru Heritage Centre and Tipperary Crystal are some of the primary tourist destinations in the county.

Transport

Road transport dominates in County Tipperary. The M7 motorway crosses the north of the county through Roscrea and Nenagh and the M8 motorway bisects the county from north of Two-Mile Borris to the County Limerick border. Both routes are among some of the busiest roads on the island. The Limerick to Waterford N24 crosses the southern half of Tipperary, travelling through Tipperary Town, Bansha, north of Cahir and around Clonmel and Carrick-on-Suir.

Railways

Tipperary also has a number of railway stations situated on the Dublin-Cork line, Dublin-to-Limerick and Limerick-Waterford line. The railway lines connect places in Tipperary with Cork, Dublin Heuston, Waterford, Limerick, Mallow and Galway.

Sports

County Tipperary has a strong association with the Gaelic Athletic Association which was founded in Thurles in 1884. The Gaelic Games of Hurling, Gaelic football, Camogie and Handball are organised by the Tipperary GAA County Board of the GAA. The organisation competes in the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship and the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship. Tipperary, with 27 wins, are the only county to have won an all-Ireland title in every decade since the 1880s.

Horse racing takes place at Tipperary Racecourse, Thurles Racecourse and Clonmel Racecourse.

Places of interest

Ardfinnan Castle, Ardfinnan. Castles of Munster, Ardfinnan, Tipperary - geograph.org.uk - 1393364.jpg
Ardfinnan Castle, Ardfinnan.

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

Thurles Town in Munster, Republic of Ireland

Thurles is a town in County Tipperary, Ireland. It is located in the civil parish of same name in the barony of Eliogarty and in the ecclesiastical parish of Thurles. The cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly is located in the town.

Cahir Town in Munster, Ireland

Cahir is a town in County Tipperary in Ireland. It is also a civil parish in the barony of Iffa and Offa West.

Nenagh Town in Munster, Ireland

Nenagh Irish: Aonach Urmhumhan or simply An tAonach, meaning “The Fair of Ormond” or simply "The Fair", is the county town and second largest town in County Tipperary in Ireland. Nenagh used to be a market town, and the site of the East Munster Ormond Fair.

North Tipperary Former County in Munster, Ireland

North Tipperary was a county in Ireland. It was part of the Mid-West Region and was also located in the province of Munster. It was named after the town of Tipperary and consisted of 48% of the land area of the traditional county of Tipperary. North Tipperary County Council was the local authority for the county. In 2011, the population of the county was 70,322. It was abolished on 3 June 2014, merged with South Tipperary under a new Tipperary County Council.

South Tipperary Former County in Munster, Ireland

South Tipperary was a county in Ireland. It was part of the South-East Region and was also located in the province of Munster. It was named after the town of Tipperary and consisted of 52% of the land area of the traditional county of Tipperary. South Tipperary County Council was the local authority for the county. The population of the county was 88,433 according to the 2011 census. It was abolished on 3 June 2014, merged with North Tipperary under a new Tipperary County Council.

Cashel, County Tipperary Town in Munster, Ireland

Cashel is a town in County Tipperary in Ireland. Its population was 4,422 in the 2016 census. The town gives its name to the ecclesiastical province of Cashel. Additionally, the cathedra of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly was originally in the town prior to the English Reformation. It is part of the parish of Cashel and Rosegreen in the same archdiocese. One of the six cathedrals of the Anglican Bishop of Cashel and Ossory, who currently resides in Kilkenny, is located in the town. It is in the civil parish of St. Patricksrock which is in the historical barony of Middle Third.

Carrick-on-Suir Town in Munster, Ireland

Carrick-on-Suir is a town in County Tipperary. It lies on both banks of the River Suir.The part on the north bank of the Suir lies in the civil parish of "Carrick", in the historical barony of Iffa and Offa East. The part on the south bank lies in the civil parish of Kilmolerin in the barony of Upperthird, County Waterford.

N24 road (Ireland) road in Ireland

The N24 road is a national primary road in Ireland forming a route from Limerick to Waterford, running through County Tipperary and passing Tipperary Town, Cahir, Carrick-on-Suir and Clonmel.

Golden Vale

The Golden Vale is an area of rolling pastureland in the civil province of Munster, southwestern Ireland. Covering parts of three counties, Limerick, Tipperary and Cork, it is the best land in Ireland for dairy farming. Historically it has been called the Golden Vein. An early instance is an 1837 book by Jonathan Binns, a British government official, where he refers to the area as '"the golden vale" ' and states "The land is of excellent quality, being part of the golden vein of Ireland—a district reaching from Tipperary towards Limerick. The extent of the golden vein is about fourteen miles long, by six or seven wide." Some subsequent writers similarly prefer "vein".

Holycross Village in Munster, Ireland

Holycross is a village and civil parish in County Tipperary, Ireland. It is one of 21 civil parishes in the barony of Eliogarty. Unusually, the civil parish straddles two counties and the baronies of Eliogarty and of Middle Third. It is also an ecclesiastical parish in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly.

Kilsheelan Village in Munster, Ireland

Kilsheelan is a small village in County Tipperary, Ireland. It is also a civil parish in the barony of Iffa and Offa East. It is one half of the Roman Catholic parish of Kilsheelan & Kilcash in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Waterford and Lismore. It is situated on the north bank of the River Suir, 8.5 km east of Clonmel and 11.8 km west of Carrick-on-Suir. It has a population of around 550 to 650 people. Kilsheelan has won Tidy Towns twice in 1975 and 1979. Its GAA club is Kilsheelan-Kilcash.

Rossmore, County Tipperary Village in Munster, Ireland

Rossmore is a small village and townland in County Tipperary in Ireland. It is in the civil parish of Clonoulty, barony of Kilnamanagh Lower. It is located in the District Electoral Division (DED) of Clonoulty West. It is also half of the Clonoulty and Rossmore parish in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly.

Kilnamanagh Upper is a barony in County Tipperary, Ireland. This geographical unit of land is one of 12 baronies in County Tipperary. Its chief town is Borrisoleigh. The barony lies between Ormond Upper to the north, Kilnamanagh Lower to the south and Eliogarty to the east. It is currently administered by Tipperary County Council.

Kilnamanagh Lower is a barony in County Tipperary, Ireland. This geographical unit of land is one of 12 baronies in County Tipperary. Its chief town is Dundrum. The barony lies between Kilnamanagh Upper to the north, Clanwilliam to the south and Eliogarty to the east. It is currently administered by Tipperary County Council.

Iffa and Offa West is a barony in County Tipperary, Ireland. This geographical unit of land is one of 12 baronies in County Tipperary. Its chief town is Cahir. The barony lies between Clanwilliam to the north-west, Middle Third to the north-east and Iffa and Offa East to the east. The area is currently administered by Tipperary County Council. The barony is within the geographic remit of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Waterford and Lismore.

Kilruane is a townland and civil parish in the historical barony of Ormond Lower, County Tipperary in Ireland. It is located between Nenagh and Cloughjordan.

Iffa and Offa East is a barony in County Tipperary, Ireland. This geographical unit of land is one of 12 baronies in County Tipperary. Its chief town is Clonmel. The barony lies between Iffa and Offa West to the west, Middle Third to the north-west and Slievardagh to the north-east. It is currently administered by Tipperary County Council. The entire barony lies within the geographic remit of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Waterford and Lismore with the exception of the parish of Clerihan which is in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly.

Middle Third is a barony in County Tipperary, Ireland. This geographical unit of land is one of 12 baronies in County Tipperary. Its chief town is Cashel. The barony lies between Eliogarty to the north, Iffa and Offa East to the south, Clanwilliam to the west and Slievardagh to the east. It is currently administered by Tipperary County Council.

The Tipperary Heritage Way is a long-distance trail in County Tipperary, Ireland. It is 56 kilometres long and begins at the Vee Gap, near Clogheen, and ends in Cashel. It is typically completed in two days. It is designated as a National Waymarked Trail by the National Trails Office of the Irish Sports Council and is managed by Tipperary County Council, South Tipperary Integrated Development Company and the Tipperary Heritage Way Committee. The trail was opened on 7 September 2002 by Michael Smith, Minister for Defence.

Loughmoe East

Loughmoe East is a civil parish in County Tipperary, Ireland.(Gaelic: Na Cealla Beaga). Also called CALLABEG, or KILNASEAR, the parish, in the barony of ELIOGARTY, County TIPPERARY, is in the province of MUNSTER, about 2 miles south-east of Templemore. This parish is situated on the river Suir, which separates it from Loughmoe-West, and on the road from Templemore to Thurles, and comprises 3417 statute acres.

References

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  2. "Tipperary County Council". Tipperary County Council. 29 May 2014. Tipperary County Council will become an official unified authority on Tuesday, 3rd June 2014. The new authority combines the existing administration of North Tipperary County Council and South Tipperary County Council.
  3. Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists. Hodder Headline Ireland. pp. 186–91.
  4. "Interactive map (civil parish boundaries viewable in Historic layer)". Mapviewer. Ordnance Survey of Ireland. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
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  7. For 1653 and 1659 figures from Civil Survey Census of those years, Paper of Mr Hardinge to Royal Irish Academy 14 March 1865.
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  9. histpop.org Archived 7 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine
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  12. Mokyr, Joel; O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). "New Developments in Irish Population History, 1700-1850". The Economic History Review. 37 (4): 473–88. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.[ dead link ]
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  14. Deputy keeper of the public records in Ireland (1873-04-26). "Appendix 3: Extract from Report of the Assistant Deputy Keeper on the Records of the Court of Record of the County Palatine of Tipperary". Fifth Report. Command papers. C.760. HMSO. pp. 32–37. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  15. Ireland (1794). "2 George I c.8". Statutes Passed in the Parliaments Held in Ireland. III: 1715–1733. Printed by George Grierson, printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. pp. 5–11. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
  16. 1 2 3 4 Murphy, Donal A. (1994). The two Tipperarys: the national and local politics, devolution and self-determination, of the unique 1838 division into two ridings, and the aftermath. Relay. ISBN   9780946327133.
  17. "Local Government Act, 2001 sec.10(4)(a)". Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  18. Minister for Environment, Community and Local Government (15 October 2013). "sec.10(2) Boundaries of amalgamated local government areas". Local Government Bill 2013 (As initiated) (PDF). Dublin: Stationery Office. ISBN   978-1-4468-0502-2 . Retrieved 17 October 2013.
  19. "Sliabh na mban – Slievenamon". Irishpage.com. Retrieved 2012-09-14.
  20. "Oideachas Trí Mheán na Gaeilge in Éirinn sa Ghalltacht 2010-2011" (PDF) (in Irish). gaelscoileanna.ie. 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
  21. "€4bn value put on Magnier's Coolmore Stud - Independent.ie". Independent.ie. Retrieved 2018-01-31.

Bibliography

Coordinates: 52°40′N7°50′W / 52.667°N 7.833°W / 52.667; -7.833