County of Nice
|Common languages||Niçard, Ligurian, Italian, French|
• independent republic of Ligurian league
• part of County of Provence
• independent republic of Ligurian league
• part of County of Savoy
• part of Duchy of Savoy
• part of Kingdom of Sardinia
• part of Kingdom of Sardinia
• French annexation, arrondissement of Nice
|Currency|| Piedmontese scudo (to 1816)|
French franc (1800–1814)
Sardinian lira (1816–1848)
|Today part of|| Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur,|
The County of Nice (French : Comté de Nice / Pays Niçois, Italian : Contea di Nizza/Paese Nizzardo, Niçard Occitan : Countèa de Nissa/Paìs Nissart) is a historical region of France located around the southeastern city of Nice and roughly equivalent to the modern arrondissement of Nice.
Its territory lies between the Mediterranean Sea (Côte d'Azur), Var River and the southernmost crest of the Alps.
Ligurian tribes populated the County of Nice prior to its occupation by the Romans. These tribes, conquered by Augustus, had become fully Romanized (according to Theodore Mommsen) by the 4th century, when the barbarian invasions began. In those Roman centuries, the area was part of the Regio IX Liguria of Italy.
The Franks conquered the region after the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, and the local Romance populations became integrated within the County of Provence, with a period of independence as a maritime republic (1108–1176). It was initially a semi-autonomous part of the ancient County of Provence.
In 1388, the citizens of Nice decided to hand over the city and its surrounding areas to the count of Savoy. Within Savoy, the region was initially named Terres neuves de Provence. The region received the name County of Nice around 1500, after its integration into the Piedmontese state. County is meant here as an administrative unit rather than as a medieval fief. From 1388 to 1860, the history of the County of Nice was tied to that of Savoy and then Piedmont-Sardinia. Its historical capital city is Nice.
France annexed the eastern part of County of Nice in 1860 (western part around Grasse already being annexed in 1792), during the Italian Wars of Independence. By an 1858 secret agreement concluded at Plombières between Napoleon III of France and Sardinian Prime Minister Count Camillo Benso di Cavour, France agreed to support Piedmont in a war against Austria in order to wrest the provinces of Lombardy and Venetia from Austrian rule. In exchange for French military assistance, Piedmont was to cede remaining part of the County of Nice and the Duchy of Savoy to France. The annexation was temporarily put in doubt after the Italian war of 1859, during which Napoleon III concluded a separate peace with Austria before Venetia could be captured.
In March 1860, however, as Piedmont was in the process of annexing Parma, Modena and the Marches, Napoleon III agreed to sanction Piedmont's Italian acquisitions in exchange for Nice and Duchy of Savoy. France annexed the provinces by the provisions of the Treaty of Turin, signed on 24 March 1860. There followed a deeply flawed plebiscites in Nice on 15 and 16 April and in Savoy on 22 and 23 April, in which "apparently and without any doubt" the vast majority of the inhabitants of the two territories voted to approve the treaty and join France. France took formal possession of Nice and Savoy on 12 June 1860.
Nevertheless, the Italian nationalist leader Giuseppe Garibaldi, who was born in Nice, strongly opposed the cession of his home city to France, arguing that the County of Nice was essentially Italian and should not be given as a "ransom" to French expansionism.
Though not among the most prized territories coveted by Italian nationalists after 1860, some Italian nationalists considered the County of Nice as part of "Italia irredenta", Italy's "unredeemed territories". During World War II, when Italy occupied parts of Southeastern France, it briefly (between 1940-43) included Nice administratively in the Kingdom of Italy.
As the county was too small to form its own department, the Government of France added it to the arrondissement of Grasse, detached from the neighbouring Var department, to create the Alpes-Maritimes department. Since 1860, the county has been largely coterminous with the arrondissement of Nice, one of two arrondissements of the Alpes-Maritimes, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region. Nevertheless, the term County of Nice (Countea de Nissa in Niçard dialect) continues in use today to identify the territory as a distinct cultural and historical region, particularly to distinguish it from neighbouring Provence.
The historical language used by inhabitants of the County of Nice was Niçard, though it has been almost entirely supplanted by French since 1860. Since 2010, the statue Neuf Lignes Obliques on the Promenade des Anglais commemorates the 150th year of Nice's annexation.
Savoy is a cultural-historical region in the Western Alps.
Nice is the seventh most populous urban area in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes department. The metropolitan area of Nice extends beyond the administrative city limits, with a population of nearly 1 million on an area of 744 km2 (287 sq mi). Located in the French Riviera, on the south east coast of France on the Mediterranean Sea, at the foot of the Alps, Nice is the second-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast and the second-largest city in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region after Marseille. Nice is approximately 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) from the principality of Monaco and 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the French-Italian border. Nice's airport serves as a gateway to the region.
Italian unification, also known as the Risorgimento, was the 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the consolidation of different states of the Italian Peninsula into a single state, the Kingdom of Italy. Inspired by the rebellions in the 1820s and 1830s against the outcome of the Congress of Vienna, the unification process was precipitated by the revolutions of 1848, and reached completion in 1871, when Rome was officially designated the capital of the Kingdom of Italy.
Alpes-Maritimes is a department of France located in the country's southeast corner, on the Italian border and on the Mediterranean coast. Part of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, it had a population of 1,083,310 in 2017.
The French Riviera is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France. There is no official boundary, but it is usually considered to extend from Toulon, Le Lavandou or Saint-Tropez in the west to Menton at the France–Italy border in the east. The coast is entirely within the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France. The Principality of Monaco is a semi-enclave within the region, surrounded on three sides by France and fronting the Mediterranean. Riviera is an Italian word that corresponds to the ancient Ligurian territory, wedged between the Var and Magra rivers. The Côte d'Azur or French Riviera, is a nickname given by France to the County of Nice after its annexation in 1860, because the rain and the Mistral were stopped by the Alps and the climate was similar to that of the north of Italy, even in winter, with a sky as blue as its sea, the French Riviera. When the Mistral and the Tramontane are blowing, this provokes an upwelling phenomenon between Languedoc and Provence: they push the surface waters out to sea and bring deeper, cooler waters up to the seaside. Consequently, on these beaches, the temperature of the Mediterranean can be very cool in summer depending on the wind regime. This phenomenon is observed very little or not on the coast between the French Riviera and the Italian Riviera. After the 2000s it was extended to the rest of Southern France, although the geography, culture or climate is different. The County of Nice is a mountainous area like Italy which stands out from the South of France. While the Saharan warm wind Sirocco blows over Italy, the cold wind Mistral blows over the south of France. As the County of Nice is protected by the Alps, it has a northern Italian climate. This corresponds to the mountain range of the Apennines and Ligurian Alps and located between the rivers of Var and Magra.
Menton is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region on the French Riviera, close to the Italian border.
Italian irredentism was a nationalist movement during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Italy with irredentist goals which promoted the unification of geographic areas in which indigenous peoples considered to be ethnic Italians and/or Italian-speaking individuals formed a majority, or substantial minority, of the population.
Niçard, nissart/Niçart, niçois, or nizzardo is the dialect that was historically spoken in the city of Nice, in France, and in all the area of the historical County of Nice. It is a subdialect of Provençal, itself a dialect of Occitan.
The two arrondissements of the Alpes-Maritimes department are:
Italian irredentism in Nice was the political movement supporting the annexation of the County of Nice to the Kingdom of Italy.
Belvédère is a commune in the Vesubie valley north of Nice in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France. The village of Belvédère is located at the entrance of the Gordolasque valley on the edge of the Mercantour National Park.
Andon is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of southeastern France.
Aiglun is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of southeastern France.
Golfe-Juan is a seaside resort on France's Côte d'Azur. The distinct local character of Golfe-Juan is indicated by the existence of a demonym, "Golfe-Juanais", which is applied to its inhabitants.
Italian irredentism in Savoy was the political movement among Savoyards promoting annexation to the Savoy dynasty's Kingdom of Italy. It was active from 1860 to World War II.
The Kingdom of Sardinia, also referred to as Kingdom ofSavoy-Sardinia, Piedmont-Sardinia, or Savoy-Piedmont-Sardinia during the Savoyard period, was a state in Southern Europe from the early 14th until the mid-19th century.
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Nice, France.
The France–Italy border is 515 km long. It runs from the Alps in the north, a region in which it passes over Mont Blanc, down to the Mediterranean coast in the south. Three national parks are located along the border: Vanoise National Park and Mercantour National Park on the French side and Gran Paradiso National Park on the Italian side.
The Niçard exodus was one of the first emigration phenomena that involved the Italian populations in the contemporary age. It was due to the refusal of a quarter of the Niçard Italians to stay in Nice after its annexation to France in 1861, which was decided after the Plombières Agreement.
Niçard Italians are Italians who have full or partial Nice heritage by birth or ethnicity.