Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

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Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Qrьm ASSR
Крымская АССР
ASSR of the Russian SFSR (1921–1941), (1944–1945)
ASSR of the Ukrainian SSR/Ukraine (1991–1992)
1921–1941
1944–1945
1991–1992
Capital Simferopol
  Type Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
History 
 Established
October 18, 1921
 Became Crimean Oblast
June 30, 1945
 Re-established
June 19, 1991
 Disestablished
May 6, 1992
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of Russia.svg Government of South Russia
Flag of German Reich (1935-1945).svg Reichskommissariat Ukraine
Flag of Ukrainian SSR.svg Crimean Oblast
Reichskommissariat Ukraine Flag of German Reich (1935-1945).svg
Crimean Oblast Flag of Russian SFSR (1937-1954).svg
Autonomous Republic of Crimea Flag of Crimea.svg
Today part of

Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic [lower-alpha 1] was an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the Russian SFSR located on the Crimean Peninsula.

Contents

History

It was created on October 18, 1921, as the Crimean Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic of the Russian SFSR . It was renamed the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on December 5, 1936 by the VIII Extraordinary Congress of Soviets of the USSR. [1]

Crimea was under de facto control of Nazi Germany from September 1942 to October 1943, administratively incorporated into Reichskommissariat Ukraine as Teilbezirk Taurien . Alfred Frauenfeld was appointed as General Commissar (although it seems that Frauenfeld spent most of his time in Crimea researching the peninsula's Gothic heritage and the actual government was in the hands of Erich von Manstein). [2]

In 1944, under the pretext [3] of alleged collaboration of the Crimean Tatars with the Nazi occupation regime, the Soviet government on orders of Joseph Stalin and Lavrentiy Beria deported the Crimean Tatar people from Crimea. [4]

Actual collaboration in the military sense had been rather limited, with a recorded 9,225 Crimean Tatars serving in anti-Soviet Tatar Legions and other German formed battalions, [5] but there was in fact a surprisingly high degree of co-operation between the occupation government and the local administration; this has been significantly due to Frauenfeld's unwillingness to implement the policy of brutality towards the local population pursued by Reichskommissar Erich Koch, which led to a series of public conflict between the two men. [6] The constitutional rights of the forcibly-resettled Tatars were restored with a decree dated September 5, 1967, but they were not allowed to return until the last days of the Soviet Union. [7]

The Crimean ASSR was converted into the Crimean Oblast of the RSFSR on June 30, 1945 by the decree of the both presidia of the Supreme Soviet of USSR and the Supreme Soviet of RSFSR (published on May 26, 1946), and the Crimean Oblast was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR in 1954. [8]

The ASSR was re-established on June 19, 1991 by the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR [9] [10] following a referendum held on January 20, 1991, [11] and it became the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, part of the newly independent state of Ukraine, effective May 6, 1992.

Administrative divisions

Okrugs and raions of the Crimean ASSR in May 1921 (in Russian) Krym mai 1921.png
Okrugs and raions of the Crimean ASSR in May 1921 (in Russian)

With the establishment of the autonomous republic in 1921, Crimea was divided into seven okrugs , which in turn were divided into 20 raions :

In November 1923, the okrugs were abolished and 15 raions were created instead, but in 1924, five of these were abolished.

Raions with national status; Crimean Tatar regions in light blue, Jewish in indigo, German in orange, Ukrainian in yellow Subdivisions of Crimean ASSR 1938.png
Raions with national status; Crimean Tatar regions in light blue, Jewish in indigo, German in orange, Ukrainian in yellow

On 30 October 1930, the remaining ten raions were reorganized into 16 new ones, and four cities under direct republican control. In 1935, 10 new raions were added and one abolished. In 1937, one more raion was established. Some of the raions had national status for Crimean Tatars, Jews, Germans and Ukrainians. By the beginning of World War II, all of these raions had lost their national status.

Heads of State

Russian SFSR

Central Executive Committee
Supreme Soviet

Ukrainian SSR/Ukraine

Heads of Government

Chairmen of Revkom

Council of People's Commissars

Council of Ministers

Principal Chekists

Cheka
Crimea GPU
Merged GPU
OGPU
Narkom of State Security

See also

Notes

  1. Modern Crimean Tatar: Qırım Muhtar Sotsialist Sovet Cumhuriyeti; Official Crimean Tatar name in the Uniform Turkic Alphabet: Qrьm Avonomjalь Sotsialist Sovet Respublikasь; Russian: Крымская Автономная Социалистическая Советская РеспубликаKrymskaja Avtonomnaja Socialističeskaja Sovetskaja Respublika

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References

  1. Handbook of history of Communist Party and Soviet Union
  2. Alan W. Fisher, The Crimean Tatars, 1978, p. 156
  3. line Encyclopedia of Mass Violence. "Sürgün: The Crimean Tatars' deportation and exile – Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence". Massviolence.org. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
  4. Subtelny, Orest (2000). Ukraine: A History . University of Toronto Press. p.  483. ISBN   0-8020-8390-0.
  5. Document reproduced in T.S. Kulbaev and A. Iu. Khegai, Deportatsiia (Almaty: Deneker, 2000), pp. 206–207.
  6. Rees, Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890, Simon & Schuster, 1990, p. 137.
  7. http://www.iccrimea.org/surgun/sovietdecree1967.html
  8. "The Transfer of Crimea to Ukraine". International Committee for Crimea. July 2005. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
  9. Про внесення змін і доповнень до Конституції (Основного Закону) Української РСР
  10. История референдумов в Крыму. Досье
  11. "Day in history – 20 January". RIA Novosti (in Russian). January 8, 2006. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2007.