|Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic|
| ASSR of the Russian SFSR (1921–1941), (1944–1945) |
ASSR of the Ukrainian SSR/Ukraine (1991–1992)
|• Type||Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic|
|October 18, 1921|
• Became Crimean Oblast
|June 30, 1945|
|June 19, 1991|
|May 6, 1992|
|Today part of|
| Administrative divisions|
of the Ukrainian SSR
Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republicwas an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the Russian SFSR located on the Crimean Peninsula.
It was created on October 18, 1921, as the Crimean Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic of the Russian SFSR . It was renamed the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on December 5, 1936 by the VIII Extraordinary Congress of Soviets of the USSR.
Crimea was under de facto control of Nazi Germany from September 1942 to October 1943, administratively incorporated into Reichskommissariat Ukraine as Teilbezirk Taurien . Alfred Frauenfeld was appointed as General Commissar (although it seems that Frauenfeld spent most of his time in Crimea researching the peninsula's Gothic heritage and the actual government was in the hands of Erich von Manstein).
In 1944, under the pretextof alleged collaboration of the Crimean Tatars with the Nazi occupation regime, the Soviet government on orders of Joseph Stalin and Lavrentiy Beria deported the Crimean Tatar people from Crimea.
Actual collaboration in the military sense had been rather limited, with a recorded 9,225 Crimean Tatars serving in anti-Soviet Tatar Legions and other German formed battalions,but there was in fact a surprisingly high degree of co-operation between the occupation government and the local administration; this has been significantly due to Frauenfeld's unwillingness to implement the policy of brutality towards the local population pursued by Reichskommissar Erich Koch, which led to a series of public conflict between the two men. The constitutional rights of the forcibly-resettled Tatars were restored with a decree dated September 5, 1967, but they were not allowed to return until the last days of the Soviet Union.
The Crimean ASSR was converted into the Crimean Oblast of the RSFSR on June 30, 1945 by the decree of the both presidia of the Supreme Soviet of USSR and the Supreme Soviet of RSFSR (published on May 26, 1946), and the Crimean Oblast was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR in 1954.
The ASSR was re-established on June 19, 1991 by the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSRfollowing a referendum held on January 20, 1991, and it became the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, part of the newly independent state of Ukraine, effective May 6, 1992.
With the establishment of the autonomous republic in 1921, Crimea was divided into seven okrugs , which in turn were divided into 20 raions :
In November 1923, the okrugs were abolished and 15 raions were created instead, but in 1924, five of these were abolished.
On 30 October 1930, the remaining ten raions were reorganized into 16 new ones, and four cities under direct republican control. In 1935, 10 new raions were added and one abolished. In 1937, one more raion was established. Some of the raions had national status for Crimean Tatars, Jews, Germans and Ukrainians. By the beginning of World War II, all of these raions had lost their national status.
Crimea is a peninsula located on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast. The status of Crimea is disputed. It is claimed by Ukraine and recognized as Ukrainian by most other countries, although it is administered by Russia following its annexation in 2014. Crimea is located south of the Ukrainian region of Kherson, to which it is connected by the Isthmus of Perekop, and west of the Russian region of Kuban, from which it is separated by the Strait of Kerch though linked by the Crimean Bridge since 2018. The Arabat Spit is located to the northeast, a narrow strip of land that separates a system of lagoons named Sivash from the Sea of Azov. Across the Black Sea to its west is Romania, and to its south, Turkey.
Simferopol is the second-largest city on the Crimean Peninsula, and the capital of the (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea. Simferopol is an important political, economic and transport hub of the peninsula, and serves as the administrative centre of both Simferopol Municipality and the surrounding Simferopol District. Founded on the site of a Crimean Tatar town Aqmescit, the city adopted its current name after the annexation of the Crimean Khanate to the Russian Empire. The population was 332,317 .
Crimean Tatar, also called Crimean, is a Kipchak Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada. It should not be confused with Tatar proper, spoken in Tatarstan and adjacent regions in Russia; the languages are related, but belong to two different subgroups of the Kipchak languages and thus are not mutually intelligible. It has been extensively influenced by nearby Oghuz dialects.
Crimean Tatars, or Crimeans, are a Turkic ethnic group and nation, who are an indigenous people of Crimea. The formation and ethnogenesis of Crimean Tatars occurred during the 13th–17th centuries, from Cumans that appeared in Crimea in the 10th century, with strong contributions from all the peoples who ever inhabited Crimea, including Greeks, Italians, and Goths. International indigenous groups do not dispute their status as an indigenous people and they have been officially recognized as an indigenous people of Ukraine since 2014. Currently the Russian government considers Crimean Tatars to be a "national minority", not an indigenous people of Crimea, and continues to deny that they are a titular people of Crimea; however, before the deportation and exile of Crimean Tatars from Crimea in 1944 and the subsequent dissolution of the Crimean ASSR the Soviet government considered Crimean Tatars to be the indigenous people of the Crimea.
Bakhchysarai is a town in central Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and annexed by Russia as the Republic of Crimea. It is the administrative center of the Bakhchysarai Raion (district), as well as the former capital of the Crimean Khanate. Its main landmark is Hansaray, the only extant palace of the Crimean Khans, currently open to tourists as a museum. Population: 27,448 .
Mustafa Abduldzhemil Jemilev, is the former Chairman of the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People and a member of the Ukrainian Parliament since 1998. Commissioner of the President of Ukraine for the Affairs of the Crimean Tatar People (2014-2019). He is the recognized leader of the Crimean Tatar National Movement and a former Soviet dissident.
The Crimea Germans were ethnic German settlers who were invited to settle in the Crimea as part of the East Colonization.
The recorded history of the Crimean Peninsula, historically known as Tauris, Taurica, and the Tauric Chersonese, begins around the 5th century BC when several Greek colonies were established along its coast. The southern coast remained Greek in culture for almost two thousand years as part of the Roman Empire, and its successor states, the Byzantine Empire, the Empire of Trebizond, and the independent Principality of Theodoro. In the 13th century, some port cities were controlled by the Venetians and by the Genovese. The Crimean interior was much less stable, enduring a long series of conquests and invasions; by the early medieval period it had been settled by Scythians (Scytho-Cimmerians), Tauri, Greeks, Romans, Goths, Huns, Bulgars, Kipchaks and Khazars. In the medieval period, it was acquired partly by Kievan Rus', but fell to the Mongol invasions as part of the Golden Horde. They were followed by the Crimean Khanate and the Ottoman Empire, which conquered the coastal areas as well, in the 15th to 18th centuries.
The Crimean Oblast was an oblast (province) of the former Russian SFSR (1945–1954) and Ukrainian SSR (1954–1991) within the Soviet Union. Its capital was the city of Simferopol.
The deportation of the Crimean Tatars or the Sürgünlik ("exile") was the ethnic cleansing of at least 191,044 Crimean Tatars in 18–20 May 1944 carried out by the Stalinist regime, specifically by Lavrentiy Beria, head of the Soviet state security and secret police, acting on behalf of Joseph Stalin. Within three days, Beria's NKVD used cattle trains to deport mostly women, children, the elderly, even Communists and members of the Red Army, to the Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan, several thousand kilometres away. They were one of the ten ethnicities who were encompassed by Stalin's policy of population transfer in the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, previously known as the Russian Soviet Republic and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic as well as being unofficially known as Soviet Russia, Russian Federation or simply Russia, was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest and most populous of the Soviet socialist republics of the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1922 to 1991, until becoming a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991, the last two years of the existence of the USSR. The Russian Republic was composed of sixteen smaller constituent units of autonomous republics, five autonomous oblasts, ten autonomous okrugs, six krais and forty oblasts. Russians formed the largest ethnic group. The capital of the Russian SFSR was Moscow and the other major urban centers included Leningrad, Novosibirsk, Sverdlovsk, Gorky and Kuybishev.
Administrative divisions development in Ukraine reviews the history of changes in the administrative divisions of Ukraine, in chronological order.
During its existence from 1919 to 1991, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic consisted of many administrative divisions. Itself part of the highly centralized Soviet Union, sub-national divisions in the Ukrainian SSR were subordinate to higher executive authorities and derived their power from them. Throughout the Ukrainian SSR's history, other national subdivisions were established in the republic, including guberniyas and okrugs, before finally being reorganized into their present structure as oblasts. At the time of the Ukrainian SSR's independence from the Soviet Union, the country was composed of 25 oblasts (provinces) and two cities with special status, Kyiv, the capital, and Sevastopol, respectively.
Kirovske (Kirovskoye) is an urban-type settlement in the Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and incorporated by Russia as the Republic of Crimea. Population: 6,883 .
Henichesk Raion is one of the 18 administrative raions (districts) of Kherson Oblast in southern Ukraine. Its administrative centre is located in the city of Henichesk. Population: 59,870 (2015 est.)
A referendum on sovereignty was held in the Crimean Oblast of the Ukrainian SSR on 20 January 1991 two months before the 1991 All-Union referendum. Voters were asked whether they wanted to re-establish the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, which had been abolished in 1945. The proposal was approved by 94% of voters.
The Autonomous Republic of Crimea is, de jure, an autonomous republic of Ukraine encompassing most of Crimea that was annexed by the Russian Federation in 2014.
The Republic of Crimea is a federal subject of Russia that is located on the Crimean Peninsula. The capital city and largest city within the republic is Simferopol, which is also the second largest city of Crimea, behind the federal city of Sevastopol. At the last census, the republic had a population of 1,891,465 .
Ministry of Interior in the Republic of Crimea is de facto the main police authority in Crimea in the Southern Federal District that was established by Russia after the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea. Crimea is recognized as part of Ukraine by most of the international community.
The emblem of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was adopted in 1921 by the government of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The emblem is identical to the emblem of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.