Cronus

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Cronus
God of the Harvest
Member of Titans
Saturnus fig274.png
Predecessor Uranus
Successor Zeus
Abode Mount Othrys (formerly)
Tartarus
Planet Saturn
Battles Titanomachy
Symbol Snake, grain, sickle, scythe
Personal information
Parents Uranus and Gaia
Siblings
  • Briareos
  • Cottus
  • Gyges
Consort Rhea
Offspring Zeus, Hera, Hades, Hestia, Demeter, Poseidon, Chiron
Equivalents
Roman equivalent Saturn
Slavic equivalentRod, Рід, Род
Egyptian equivalent Geb
Mesopotamian equivalent Ninurta [1]

In Greek mythology, Cronus, Cronos, or Kronos ( /ˈkrnəs/ or /ˈkrnɒs/ , US: /-s/ , from Greek : Κρόνος, Krónos) was the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of the primordial Gaia (Mother Earth) and Uranus (Father Sky). He overthrew his father and ruled during the mythological Golden Age, until he was overthrown by his own son Zeus and imprisoned in Tartarus. According to Plato, however, the deities Phorcys, Cronus, and Rhea were the eldest children of Oceanus and Tethys. [2]

Contents

Cronus was usually depicted with a harpe, scythe or a sickle, which was the instrument he used to castrate and depose Uranus, his father. In Athens, on the twelfth day of the Attic month of Hekatombaion, a festival called Kronia was held in honour of Cronus to celebrate the harvest, suggesting that, as a result of his association with the virtuous Golden Age, Cronus continued to preside as a patron of the harvest. Cronus was also identified in classical antiquity with the Roman deity Saturn.

Mythology

In an ancient myth recorded by Hesiod's Theogony , Cronus envied the power of his father, Uranus, the ruler of the universe. Uranus drew the enmity of Cronus's mother, Gaia, when he hid the gigantic youngest children of Gaia, the hundred-handed Hecatoncheires and one-eyed Cyclopes, in Tartarus, so that they would not see the light. Gaia created a great stone sickle and gathered together Cronus and his brothers to persuade them to castrate Uranus. [3]

Giorgio Vasari: The Mutilation of Uranus by Saturn (Cronus) The Mutilation of Uranus by Saturn.jpg
Giorgio Vasari: The Mutilation of Uranus by Saturn (Cronus)

Only Cronus was willing to do the deed, so Gaia gave him the sickle and placed him in ambush. [4] When Uranus met with Gaia, Cronus attacked him with the sickle, castrating him and casting his testicles into the sea. From the blood that spilled out from Uranus and fell upon the earth, the Gigantes, Erinyes, and Meliae were produced. The testicles produced a white foam from which the goddess Aphrodite emerged. For this, Uranus threatened vengeance and called his sons Titenes [lower-alpha 1] for overstepping their boundaries and daring to commit such an act. [lower-alpha 2]

After dispatching Uranus, Cronus re-imprisoned the Hecatoncheires and the Cyclopes and set the dragon Campe to guard them. He and his older sister Rhea took the throne of the world as king and queen. The period in which Cronus ruled was called the Golden Age, as the people of the time had no need for laws or rules; everyone did the right thing, and immorality was absent.

Painting by Peter Paul Rubens of Cronus devouring one of his children Rubens saturn.jpg
Painting by Peter Paul Rubens of Cronus devouring one of his children

Cronus learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overcome by his own sons, just as he had overthrown his father. As a result, although he sired the gods Demeter, Hestia, Hera, Hades and Poseidon by Rhea, he devoured them all as soon as they were born to prevent the prophecy. When the sixth child, Zeus, was born, Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save them and to eventually get retribution on Cronus for his acts against his father and children.

Rhea secretly gave birth to Zeus in Crete, and handed Cronus a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes, also known as the Omphalos Stone, which he promptly swallowed, thinking that it was his son.

Rhea kept Zeus hidden in a cave on Mount Ida, Crete. According to some versions of the story, he was then raised by a goat named Amalthea, while a company of Kouretes, armored male dancers, shouted and clapped their hands to make enough noise to mask the baby's cries from Cronus. Other versions of the myth have Zeus raised by the nymph Adamanthea, who hid Zeus by dangling him by a rope from a tree so that he was suspended between the earth, the sea, and the sky, all of which were ruled by his father, Cronus. Still other versions of the tale say that Zeus was raised by his grandmother, Gaia.

Once he had grown up, Zeus used an emetic given to him by Gaia to force Cronus to disgorge the contents of his stomach in reverse order: first the stone, which was set down at Pytho under the glens of Mount Parnassus to be a sign to mortal men, and then his two brothers and three sisters. In other versions of the tale, Metis gave Cronus an emetic to force him to disgorge the children. [5]

After freeing his siblings, Zeus released the Hecatoncheires, and the Cyclopes who forged for him his thunderbolts, Poseidon's trident and Hades' helmet of darkness. In a vast war called the Titanomachy, Zeus and his older brothers and sisters, with the help of the Hecatoncheires and Cyclopes, overthrew Cronus and the other Titans. Afterwards, many of the Titans were confined in Tartarus. However, Oceanus, Helios, Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus and Menoetius were not imprisoned following the Titanomachy. Gaia bore the monster Typhon to claim revenge for the imprisoned Titans.

Accounts of the fate of Cronus after the Titanomachy differ. In Homeric and other texts he is imprisoned with the other Titans in Tartarus. In Orphic poems, he is imprisoned for eternity in the cave of Nyx. Pindar describes his release from Tartarus, where he is made King of Elysium by Zeus. In another version,[ citation needed ] the Titans released the Cyclopes from Tartarus, and Cronus was awarded the kingship among them, beginning a Golden Age. In Virgil's Aeneid , [6] it is Latium to which Saturn (Cronus) escapes and ascends as king and lawgiver, following his defeat by his son Jupiter (Zeus).

In yet another account referred to by Robert Graves, [7] (who claims to be following the account of the Byzantine mythographer Tzetzes) it is said that Cronus was castrated by his son Zeus just as Uranus had earlier been castrated by his son Cronos. However the subject of a son castrating his own father, or simply castration in general, was so repudiated by the Greek mythographers of that time that they suppressed it from their accounts until the Christian era (when Tzetzes wrote).

The Fall of the Titans, Cornelis Cornelisz van Haarlem, 1596-1598 Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem - The Fall of the Titans - Google Art Project.jpg
The Fall of the Titans , Cornelis Cornelisz van Haarlem, 1596–1598

Libyan account by Diodorus Siculus

In a Libyan account related by Diodorus Siculus (Book 3), Uranus and Titaea were the parents of Cronus and Rhea and the other Titans. Ammon, a king of Libya, married Rhea (3.18.1). However, Rhea abandoned Ammon and married her younger brother Cronus. With Rhea's incitement, Cronus and the other Titans made war upon Ammon, who fled to Crete (3.71.1–2). Cronus ruled harshly and Cronus in turn was defeated by Ammon's son Dionysus (3.71.3–3.73) who appointed Cronus' and Rhea's son, Zeus, as king of Egypt (3.73.4). Dionysus and Zeus then joined their forces to defeat the remaining Titans in Crete, and on the death of Dionysus, Zeus inherited all the kingdoms, becoming lord of the world (3.73.7–8).

Sibylline Oracles

Cronus is mentioned in the Sibylline Oracles , particularly in book three, which makes Cronus, 'Titan' and Iapetus, the three sons of Uranus and Gaia, each to receive a third division of the Earth, and Cronus is made king over all. After the death of Uranus, Titan's sons attempt to destroy Cronus's and Rhea's male offspring as soon as they are born, but at Dodona, Rhea secretly bears her sons Zeus, Poseidon and Hades and sends them to Phrygia to be raised in the care of three Cretans. Upon learning this, sixty of Titan's men then imprison Cronus and Rhea, causing the sons of Cronus to declare and fight the first of all wars against them. This account mentions nothing about Cronus either killing his father or attempting to kill any of his children.

Other accounts

Cronus was said to be the father of the wise centaur Chiron by the Oceanid Philyra, who was subsequently transformed into a linden tree. [8] [9] [10] The Titan chased the nymph and consorted with her in the shape of a stallion, hence the half-human, half-equine shape of their offspring; [11] [12] this was said to have taken place on Mount Pelion. [13]

Two other sons of Cronus and Philyra may have been Dolops [14] and Aphrus, the ancestor and eponym of the Aphroi, i.e. the native Africans. [15]

In some accounts, Cronus was also called the father of the Corybantes. [16]

Name and comparative mythology

Antiquity

During antiquity, Cronus was occasionally interpreted as Chronos, the personification of time. [17] The Roman philosopher Cicero (1st century BCE) elaborated on this by saying that the Greek name Cronus is synonymous to chronos (time) since he maintains the course and cycles of seasons and the periods of time, whereas the Latin name Saturn denotes that he is saturated with years since he was devouring his sons, which implies that time devours the ages and gorges. [18]

The Greek historian and biographer Plutarch (1st century  CE) asserted that the Greeks believed that Cronus was an allegorical name for χρόνος (time). [19] The philosopher Plato (3rd century  BCE) in his Cratylus gives two possible interpretations for the name of Cronus. The first is that his name denotes "κόρος" (koros), the pure (καθαρόν) and unblemished (ἀκήρατον) [20] nature of his mind. [21] The second is that Rhea and Cronus were given names of streams (Rhea – ῥοή (rhoē) and Cronus – Xρόνος (chronos)). [22] Proclus (5th century CE), the Neoplatonist philosopher, makes in his Commentary on Plato's Cratylus an extensive analysis on Cronus; among others he says that the "One cause" of all things is "Chronos" (time) that is also equivalent to Cronus. [23]

Chronos and his child by Giovanni Francesco Romanelli, National Museum in Warsaw, a 17th-century depiction of Titan Cronus as "Father Time," wielding a harvesting scythe Romanelli Chronos and his child.jpg
Chronos and his child by Giovanni Francesco Romanelli, National Museum in Warsaw, a 17th-century depiction of Titan Cronus as "Father Time," wielding a harvesting scythe

In addition to the name, the story of Cronus eating his children was also interpreted as an allegory to a specific aspect of time held within Cronus' sphere of influence. As the theory went, Cronus represented the destructive ravages of time which devoured all things, a concept that was illustrated when the Titan king ate the Olympian gods—the past consuming the future, the older generation suppressing the next generation. [24]

From the Renaissance to the present

During the Renaissance, the identification of Cronus and Chronos gave rise to "Father Time" wielding the harvesting scythe.

H. J. Rose in 1928 [25] observed that attempts to give "Κρόνος" a Greek etymology had failed. Recently, Janda (2010) offers a genuinely Indo-European etymology of "the cutter", from the root *(s)ker- "to cut" (Greek κείρω (keirō), cf. English shear ), motivated by Cronus's characteristic act of "cutting the sky" (or the genitals of anthropomorphic Uranus). The Indo-Iranian reflex of the root is kar, generally meaning "to make, create" (whence karma ), but Janda argues that the original meaning "to cut" in a cosmogonic sense is still preserved in some verses of the Rigveda pertaining to Indra's heroic "cutting", like that of Cronus resulting in creation:

RV 10.104.10 ārdayad vṛtram akṛṇod ulokaṃ
he hit Vrtra fatally, cutting [> creating] a free path.
RV 6.47.4 varṣmāṇaṃ divo akṛṇod
he cut [> created] the loftiness of the sky.

This may point to an older Indo-European mytheme reconstructed as *(s)kert wersmn diwos "by means of a cut he created the loftiness of the sky". [26] The myth of Cronus castrating Uranus parallels the Song of Kumarbi , where Anu (the heavens) is castrated by Kumarbi. In the Song of Ullikummi , Teshub uses the "sickle with which heaven and earth had once been separated" to defeat the monster Ullikummi, [27] establishing that the "castration" of the heavens by means of a sickle was part of a creation myth, in origin a cut creating an opening or gap between heaven (imagined as a dome of stone) and earth enabling the beginning of time (chronos) and human history. [28]

A theory debated in the 19th century, and sometimes still offered somewhat apologetically, [29] holds that Κρόνος is related to "horned", assuming a Semitic derivation from qrn . [30] Andrew Lang's objection, that Cronus was never represented horned in Hellenic art, [31] was addressed by Robert Brown, [32] arguing that, in Semitic usage, as in the Hebrew Bible, qeren was a signifier of "power". When Greek writers encountered the Semitic deity El, they rendered his name as Cronus. [33]

Robert Graves remarks that "cronos probably means 'crow', like the Latin cornix and the Greek corōne", noting that Cronus was depicted with a crow, as were the deities Apollo, Asclepius, Saturn and Bran. [34]

El, the Phoenician Cronus

When Hellenes encountered Phoenicians and, later, Hebrews, they identified the Semitic El, by interpretatio graeca , with Cronus. The association was recorded c. 100 CE by Philo of Byblos' Phoenician history, as reported in Eusebius' Præparatio Evangelica I.10.16. [35] Philo's account, ascribed by Eusebius to the semi-legendary pre-Trojan War Phoenician historian Sanchuniathon, indicates that Cronus was originally a Canaanite ruler who founded Byblos and was subsequently deified. This version gives his alternate name as Elus or Ilus, and states that in the 32nd year of his reign, he emasculated, slew and deified his father Epigeius or Autochthon "whom they afterwards called Uranus". It further states that after ships were invented, Cronus, visiting the 'inhabitable world', bequeathed Attica to his own daughter Athena, and Egypt to Taautus the son of Misor and inventor of writing. [36]

Roman mythology and later culture

4th-century Temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum ForumRomanum.jpg
4th-century Temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum

While the Greeks considered Cronus a cruel and tempestuous force of chaos and disorder, believing the Olympian gods had brought an era of peace and order by seizing power from the crude and malicious Titans,[ citation needed ] the Romans took a more positive and innocuous view of the deity, by conflating their indigenous deity Saturn with Cronus. Consequently, while the Greeks considered Cronus merely an intermediary stage between Uranus and Zeus, he was a larger aspect of Roman religion. The Saturnalia was a festival dedicated in his honour, and at least one temple to Saturn already existed in the archaic Roman Kingdom.

His association with the "Saturnian" Golden Age eventually caused him to become the god of "time", i.e., calendars, seasons, and harvests—not now confused with Chronos, the unrelated embodiment of time in general. Nevertheless, among Hellenistic scholars in Alexandria and during the Renaissance, Cronus was conflated with the name of Chronos , the personification of "Father Time", [17] wielding the harvesting scythe.

As a result of Cronus's importance to the Romans, his Roman variant, Saturn, has had a large influence on Western culture. The seventh day of the Judaeo-Christian week is called in Latin Dies Saturni ("Day of Saturn"), which in turn was adapted and became the source of the English word Saturday. In astronomy, the planet Saturn is named after the Roman deity. It is the outermost of the Classical planets (the astronomical planets that are visible with the naked eye).

Cronus alias Geb in Greco-Roman Egypt

In Greco-Roman Egypt, Cronus was equated with the Egyptian god Geb, because he held a quite similar position in Egyptian mythology as the father of the gods Osiris, Isis, Seth and Nephthys as Cronus did in the Greek pantheon. This equation is particularly well attested in Tebtunis in the southern Fayyum: Geb and Cronus were here part of a local version of the cult of Sobek, the crocodile god. [37] The equation was shown on the one hand in the local iconography of the gods, in which Geb was depicted as a man with attributes of Cronus and Cronus with attributes of Geb. [38] On the other hand, the priests of the local main temple identified themselves in Egyptian texts as priests of "Soknebtunis-Geb", but in Greek texts as priests of "Soknebtunis-Cronus". Accordingly, Egyptian names formed with the name of the god Geb were just as popular among local villager as Greek names derived from Cronus, especially the name "Kronion". [39]

Astronomy

A star (HD 240430) was named after him in 2017 when it was reported to have swallowed its planets. [40] The planet Saturn, named after the Roman equivalent of Cronus, is still referred to as "Cronus" in modern Greek.

"Cronus" was also a suggested name for the dwarf planet Pluto, but was rejected and not voted for because it was suggested by the unpopular and egocentric astronomer Thomas Jefferson Jackson See. [41]

Genealogy

Descendants of Cronus and Rhea  [42]
Uranus' genitalsCRONUS Rhea
Zeus Hera Poseidon Hades Demeter Hestia
    a [43]
     b [44]
Ares Hephaestus
Metis
Athena [45]
Leto
Apollo Artemis
Maia
Hermes
Semele
Dionysus
Dione
    a [46]      b [47]
Aphrodite

Notes

  1. Τιτῆνες; according to Hesiod meaning "straining ones," the source of the word "titan", but this etymology is disputed.
  2. in an alternate version of this myth, a more benevolent Cronus overthrew the wicked serpentine Titan Ophion and in doing so he released the world from bondage and for a time ruled it justly.[ citation needed ]

Citations and references

  1. A Day in the Life of God (Paperback bw 5th Ed). ISBN   978-0615241944.
  2. Plato (1925) [c.360 BCE]. Timaeus. Translated by Lamb, W.R.M. Cambridge, MA; London, UK: Harvard University Press; William Heinemann Ltd. 40e via Perseus, Tufts University.
    See also Wikipedia article: Timaeus.
  3. Hesiod, Theogony 154–66.
  4. Hesiod, Theogony 167–206. .
  5. Apollodorus, 1.2.1.
  6. Vergil. "Book VIII, pp 323 ff". Aeneid .
  7. Graves, Robert, Hebrew Myths 21.4
  8. Tzetzes on Lycophron, 1200
  9. Pliny the Elder, Natural History 7. 197
  10. Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2.1235 citing Pherecydes
  11. Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2. 1231 ff
  12. Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1. 554
  13. Callimachus, Hymn 4 to Delos 104 ff
  14. Hyginus, Fabulae, Preface
  15. Suda s.v. Aphroi
  16. Strabo, Geographica 10.3.19
  17. 1 2 Κρόνος: Cronos – Later interpreted as chronos (time): LSJ entry Κρόνος
  18. Cicero, De Natura Deorum 25
  19. These men [the Egyptians] are like the Greeks who say that Cronus is but a metaphorical name for χρόνος (time). Plutarch, On Isis and Osiris, 32
  20. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940) [1843], "ἀκήρ-α^τος", A Greek-English Lexicon (revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones with the assistance of Roderick McKenzie ed.), Oxford: Clarendon Press, retrieved 9 August 2016 via Perseus Digital Library
  21. Plato, Cratylus, 402b
  22. Plato, Cratylus, 402b
  23. Proclus, Commentary on Plato's Cratylus, 396B7
  24. Dronke, Peter. (edit.) Marenbon, John. Poetry and Philosophy in the Middle Ages, Leiden, The Netherlands. Brill, 2001; p. 316
  25. Rose, A Handbook of Greek Mythology 1928:43.
  26. Michael Janda, Die Musik nach dem Chaos, Innsbruck, 2010, 54–56.
  27. Fritz Graf, Thomas Marier, trans. Thomas Marier, Greek mythology: an introduction, 1996 ISBN   978-0-8018-5395-1, p. 88.
  28. Janda 2010, p. 54 and passim.
  29. "We would like to consider whether the Semitic stem q r nmight be connected with the name Kronos," suggests A. P. Bos, as late as 1989, in Cosmic and Meta-cosmic Theology in Aristotle's Lost Dialogues, 1989:11 note 26.
  30. As in H. Lewy, Die semitischen Fremdwörter in Griechischen, 1895:216. and Robert Brown, The Great Dionysiak Myth, 1877, ii.127. "Kronos signifies 'the Horned one'", the Rev. Alexander Hislop had previously asserted in The Two Babylons; or, The papal worship proved to be the worship of Nimrod and his wife, Hislop, 2nd ed. 1862 (p. 46). with the note "From krn, a horn. The epithet Carneus applied to Apollo is just a different form of the same word. In the Orphic Hymns , Apollo is addressed as 'the Two-Horned god'".
  31. Lang, Modern Mythology 1897:35.
  32. Brown, Semitic Influence in Hellenic Mythology, 1898:112ff.
  33. "Philôn, who of course regarded Kronos as an Hellenic divinity, which indeed he became, always renders the name of the Semitic god Îl or Êl ('the Powerful') by 'Kronos', in which usage we have a lingering feeling of the real meaning of the name" (Brown 1898:116)
  34. Graves, Robert (1955). "The Castration of Uranus". Greek Myths. London: Penguin. p.  38. ISBN   0-14-001026-2.
  35. Walcot, "Five or Seven Recesses?" The Classical Quarterly, New Series, 15.1 (May 1965), p. 79. The quote stands as Philo Fr. 2.
  36. Eusebius of Caesarea: Praeparatio Evangelica Book 1, Chapter 10.
  37. Kockelmann, Holger (2017). Der Herr der Seen, Sümpfe und Flußläufe. Untersuchungen zum Gott Sobek und den ägyptischen Krokodilgötter-Kulten von den Anfängen bis zur Römerzeit. 1. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. pp. 81–88. ISBN   978-3-447-10810-2.
  38. Rondot, Vincent (2013). Derniers visages des dieux dʼÉgypte. Iconographies, panthéons et cultes dans le Fayoum hellénisé des IIe–IIIe siècles de notre ère. Paris: Presses de lʼuniversité Paris-Sorbonne; Éditions du Louvre. pp. 75–80, 122–27, 241–46.
  39. Sippel, Benjamin (2020). Gottesdiener und Kamelzüchter: Das Alltags- und Sozialleben der Sobek-Priester im kaiserzeitlichen Fayum. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. pp. 73–78. ISBN   978-3-447-11485-1.
  40. Sokol, Josh (21 September 2017). "Star nicknamed Kronos after eating its own planetary children". New Scientist. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
  41. Innes III, Kenneth. "Thomas Jefferson Jackson See" . Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  42. This chart is based upon Hesiod's Theogony , unless otherwise noted.
  43. According to Homer, Iliad 1.570–579, 14.338, Odyssey 8.312, Hephaestus was apparently the son of Hera and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74.
  44. According to Hesiod, Theogony 927–929, Hephaestus was produced by Hera alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74.
  45. According to Hesiod, Theogony 886–890, of Zeus' children by his seven wives, Athena was the first to be conceived, but the last to be born; Zeus impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later Zeus himself gave birth to Athena "from his head", see Gantz, pp. 51–52, 83–84.
  46. According to Hesiod, Theogony 183–200, Aphrodite was born from Uranus' severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
  47. According to Homer, Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus ( Iliad 3.374, 20.105; Odyssey 8.308, 320) and Dione ( Iliad 5.370–71), see Gantz, pp. 99–100.

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Aether (mythology) Ancient Greek deity, personification of the upper air

In Greek mythology, Aether is one of the primordial deities. Aether is the personification of the "upper sky". He embodies the pure upper air that the gods breathe, as opposed to the normal air breathed by mortals. Like Tartarus and Erebus, Aether may have had shrines in ancient Greece, but he had no temples and is unlikely to have had a cult.

In Greek mythology, the primordial deities are the first generation of gods and goddesses. These deities represented the fundamental forces and physical foundations of the world and were generally not actively worshipped, being largely unanthropomorphized personifications of places or abstract concepts.

Harpe

The harpē (ἅρπη) was a type of sword or sickle; a sword with a sickle protrusion along one edge near the tip of the blade. The harpe is mentioned in Greek and Roman sources, and almost always in mythological contexts.

Gaia Greek primordial deity, goddess of Earth

In Greek mythology, Gaia, also spelled Gaea, is the personification of the Earth and one of the Greek primordial deities. Gaia is the ancestral mother—sometimes parthenogenic—of all life. She is the mother of Uranus, from whose sexual union she bore the Titans, the Cyclopes, and the Giants; as well as of Pontus, from whose union she bore the primordial sea gods. Her equivalent in the Roman pantheon was Terra.

Uranus (mythology) Primordial Greek deity, god of the sky

Uranus, sometimes written Ouranos, was the primal Greek god personifying the sky and one of the Greek primordial deities. Uranus is associated with the Roman god Caelus. In Ancient Greek literature, Uranus or Father Sky was the son and husband of Gaia, the primordial Earth Mother. According to Hesiod's Theogony, Uranus was conceived by Gaia alone, but other sources suggest he was born from Nyx, or Aether and Hemera. Uranus and Gaia were the parents of the first generation of Titans, and the ancestors of most of the Greek gods, but no cult addressed directly to Uranus survived into Classical times, and Uranus does not appear among the usual themes of Greek painted pottery. Elemental Earth, Sky, and Styx might be joined, however, in solemn invocation in Homeric epic.

Hecatoncheires

In Greek mythology, the Hecatoncheires, or Hundred-Handers, also called the Centimanes,, named Cottus, Briareus and Gyges, were three monstrous giants, of enormous size and strength, with fifty heads and one hundred arms. In the standard tradition they were the offspring of Uranus (Sky) and Gaia (Earth), who helped Zeus and the Olympians overthrow the Titans in the Titanomachy.

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