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|Crown of Scotland|
Crown of Scotland
|Made||1540 (current version)|
|Owner||Queen Elizabeth II as Monarch of the United Kingdom|
|Weight||1.64 kg (3.6 lb)|
|Predecessors||Pre-1540 example remade to current version.|
The Crown of Scotland is the crown that was used at the coronation of the monarchs of Scotland. Remade in its current form for King James V of Scotland in 1540, the crown is part of the Honours of Scotland, the oldest surviving set of Crown jewels in the British Isles. The crown dates from at least 1503 when, in an earlier form, it was depicted in the portrait of James IV of Scotland in the Book of Hours commissioned for his marriage to Margaret Tudor.
In January 1540, King James V commissioned the royal goldsmith, John Mosman, to refashion the Crown of Scotland. The existing crown was delicate and had been repaired at least twice in the previous 30 years, and a 1539 inventory showed further damage, including the loss of one fleur-de-lis. Mosman dismantled the old crown and removed its stones and pearls. The crown was melted down and Mosman added 41 ounces of gold mined at Crawford Moor in Lanarkshire.
Constructed of solid gold, the crown consists of a base, with four fleur-de-lis alternating with four strawberry leaves. The four arches of the crown are decorated with gold and red oak leaves. At the intersection of the arches is a golden monde, painted blue with gold stars. The monde is surmounted by a large cross decorated in gold and black enamel and pearls. The crown is encrusted with 22 gemstones, including garnets and amethysts, 20 precious stones and 68 Scottish freshwater pearls.
James V ordered a purple and ermine bonnet from tailor Thomas Arthur of Edinburgh to fit inside the crown. James VII ordered the colour of the bonnet be changed to red. The bonnet had to be replaced several times, and the present bonnet was made in 1993. The completed crown weighs 1.64 kg (3 lb 10 oz).
The crown was first worn in the year of its manufacture by James V to the coronation at Holyrood Abbey of his second wife, Mary of Guise, as queen consort. It was subsequently used in the coronations of the child monarchs Mary I in 1543 and James VI in 1567.
In the absence of a resident Scottish monarch following the Union of the Crowns in 1603, (on James VI inheriting the thrones of England and Ireland the Royal Household relocated from Edinburgh to London), the Honours were carried to sittings of the Parliament of Scotland to symbolise the sovereign's presence and the Royal Assent to legislation.
The crown was used for the Scottish coronations of both Charles I in 1633 and Charles II in 1651. However, no subsequent monarchs of Scotland were crowned using this crown.
During the Civil War, having already destroyed the ancient English Crown Jewels, Oliver Cromwell sought to destroy the Scottish Crown Jewels. However, the Honours were secretly buried until the monarchy was restored in 1660.
Following the Act of Union of 1707, which unified the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, and having no ceremonial role to play in the proceedings of the new Parliament of Great Britain in London, the Honours were locked away in Edinburgh Castle. There they remained all but forgotten in a chest until 1818, when a group of people including Sir Walter Scott set out to find them. Since 1819 they have been on display in the Crown Room of Edinburgh Castle from where they are removed only for state occasions. The first was when presented to King George IV, at the Palace of Holyroodhouse in 1822, during his visit to Scotland (the first visit to Scotland by a reigning monarch since 1651).
On 24 June 1953, following her coronation at Westminster Abbey, the crown was carried before Queen Elizabeth II in a procession from the Palace of Holyroodhouse to the High Kirk of St Giles, Edinburgh, where the Honours of Scotland, including the crown, were presented to The Queen during a National Service of Thanksgiving.
More recently, the crown has been present at the official opening ceremonies of sessions of the Scottish Parliament, including the first in 1999and the official opening of the new Scottish Parliament Building in 2004. On such occasions the crown, carried by the Duke of Hamilton, the hereditary bearer of the Crown of Scotland, immediately precedes Her Majesty The Queen in the custom of the ancient opening ceremonial procession known as the Riding of Parliament.
As well as appearing in the Royal coat of arms of the UK used in Scotland and Scottish versions of the Royal Cypher, the crown appears in the version of the UK royal arms used by the Scotland Office, and also appeared in the arms used by the former Scottish Executive.
Stylised versions of the crown appear upon the badges of the Royal Regiment of Scotland, The Royal British Legion Scotland, the Scottish Ambulance Service, Police Scotland and, (As part of the Crest of the Royal Arms), upon the logos of the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service, RCAHMS, and General Register Office for Scotland.
A version of the crown is used upon Royal Mail premises, vehicles and Scottish pillar, lamp and wall boxes, and a metal insert plate showing the Crown of Scotland also appears on model K6 red telephone boxes in Scotland.
From 1927 until its abolition in 1975, the arms of Kincardineshire County Council featured the crown, together with the sword and sceptre, above an artist's rendering of Dunnottar Castle, to mark the county's status as the 17th century hiding place of the Honours of Scotland during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
The Crown of Scotland also appears on maritime flags, including the Blue Ensign of vessels belonging to Marine Scotland, (Compliance Division), and also upon the burgees of certain Royal yacht clubs in Scotland including, for example, that of the Royal Scottish Motor Yacht Club.
From 1968 to 2008, the reverse of the Five pence coin, minted for circulation throughout the United Kingdom, featured the Royal Badge of Scotland; a thistle surmounted by the Crown of Scotland.
The crown, as a component of the Royal Badge of Scotland, (A Thistle Royally Crowned), appeared on a 'Regional' series of definitive, pre-decimal Royal Mail stamps, during the period 1958 to 1970.
In 2003 a new crown was made for the Lord Lyon, modelled on the Crown of Scotland.This crown has removable arches (like one of the late Queen Mother's crowns) which will be removed at coronations to avoid any hint of lèse majesté.
The flag of Scotland consists of a white saltire defacing a blue field. The Saltire, rather than the Royal Standard of Scotland, is the correct flag for all private individuals and corporate bodies to fly. It is also, where possible, flown from Scottish Government buildings every day from 8:00 am until sunset, with certain exceptions.
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity as monarch of the United Kingdom. Variants of the Royal Arms are used by other members of the British royal family, by the British Government in connection with the administration and government of the country, and some courts and legislatures in a number of Commonwealth realms. In Scotland, there exists a separate version of the Royal Arms, a variant of which is used by the Scotland Office and the Judiciary. The arms in banner form serve as basis for the monarch's official flag, known as the Royal Standard.
The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle is an order of chivalry associated with Scotland. The current version of the Order was founded in 1687 by King James VII of Scotland who asserted that he was reviving an earlier Order. The Order consists of the Sovereign and sixteen Knights and Ladies, as well as certain "extra" knights. The Sovereign alone grants membership of the Order; he or she is not advised by the Government, as occurs with most other Orders.
The Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom, originally the Crown Jewels of England, are 140 royal ceremonial objects kept in the Tower of London, which include the regalia and vestments worn at their coronations by British kings and queens.
St Edward's Crown is the centrepiece of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom. Named after Saint Edward the Confessor, it has been traditionally used to crown English and British monarchs at their coronations since the 13th century.
The Honours of Scotland, informally known as the Scottish Crown Jewels, dating from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, are the oldest surviving set of crown jewels in the British Isles.
The Royal Standards of Canada are a set of uniquely Canadian personal flags approved by the Queen of Canada for use by members of the Canadian Royal Family. They are used to denote the presence of the bearer within any car, ship, airplane, building, or area, within Canada or when representing Canada abroad. There are six personal royal standards, one each for the Queen, the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Cambridge, the Princess Royal, the Duke of York, and the Earl of Wessex, as well as one standard for use more generally to denote the presence of any member of the Royal Family who has not previously been provided with a specific personal standard. The flags are part of a larger collection of Canadian royal symbols.
In English, a coronet is a small crown consisting of ornaments fixed on a metal ring. By one definition, a coronet differs from a crown in that a coronet never has arches, and from a tiara in that a coronet completely encircles the head, while a tiara does not. By a slightly different definition, a crown is worn by an emperor, empress, king or queen; a coronet by a nobleman or lady. See also diadem.
The Union of the Crowns was the accession of James VI of Scotland to the thrones of England and Ireland as James I, and the consequential unification for some purposes of the three realms under a single monarch on 24 March 1603. The Union of the Crowns followed the death of James's cousin, Elizabeth I of England, the last monarch of the Tudor dynasty.
The Tudor rose is the traditional floral heraldic emblem of England and takes its name and origins from the House of Tudor, which united the House of Lancaster and the House of York. The Tudor rose consists of five white inner petals, representing the House of York, and five red outer petals to represent the House of Lancaster and its superiority to the House of York. It is a symbol to show the battle of the roses.
A post box, also known as a collection box, mailbox, letter box or drop box is a physical box into which members of the public can deposit outgoing mail intended for collection by the agents of a country's postal service. The term post box can also refer to a private letter box for incoming mail.
A pillar box is a type of free-standing post box. They are found in the United Kingdom and in most former nations of the British Empire, members of the Commonwealth of Nations and British overseas territories, such as Australia, Cyprus, India, Gibraltar, Hong Kong, the Republic of Ireland, Malta, New Zealand and Sri Lanka. Pillar boxes were provided in territories administered by the United Kingdom, such as Mandatory Palestine, and territories with agency postal services provided by the British Post Office such as Bahrain, Dubai, Kuwait and Morocco. The United Kingdom also exported pillar boxes to countries that ran their own postal services, such as Argentina, Portugal and Uruguay.
Wall boxes are a type of post box or letter box found in many countries including France, the United Kingdom, the Commonwealth of Nations, Crown dependencies and Ireland. They differ from pillar boxes in that, instead of being a free-standing structure, they are generally set into a wall or supported on a free-standing pole, girder or other stable structure.
Lamp boxes are the smallest of the post boxes used by the Royal Mail in the UK, by its counterparts in the Commonwealth of Nations and also by An Post in Ireland. Their name derives from the fact that they were designed to be affixed to lamp posts, although they may equally be found embedded in walls or mounted on poles.
The Queen's Beasts are ten heraldic statues representing the genealogy of Queen Elizabeth II, depicted as the Royal supporters of England. They stood in front of the temporary western annexe to Westminster Abbey for the Queen's coronation in 1953. Each of The Queen's Beasts consists of an heraldic beast supporting a shield bearing a badge or arms of a family associated with the ancestry of Queen Elizabeth II. They were commissioned by the British Ministry of Works from sculptor James Woodford. They were uncoloured except for their shields at the coronation.
The royal arms of Scotland is the official coat of arms of the King of Scots first adopted in the 12th century. With the Union of the Crowns in 1603, James VI inherited the thrones of England and Ireland and thus his arms in Scotland were now quartered with the arms of England with an additional quarter for Ireland also added. Though the kingdoms of England and Scotland would share the same monarch, the distinction in heraldry used in both kingdoms was maintained. When the kingdoms of Scotland and England were united under the Acts of Union 1707 to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain, no single arms were created and instead, the royal arms as used in either Scotland and the rest of the United Kingdom would continue to differ.
Canadian royal symbols are the visual and auditory identifiers of the Canadian monarchy, including the viceroys, in the country's federal and provincial jurisdictions. These may specifically distinguish organizations that derive their authority from the Crown, establishments with royal associations, or merely be ways of expressing loyal or patriotic sentiment.
In modern heraldry, a royal cypher is a monogram-like device of a country's reigning sovereign, typically consisting of the initials of the monarch's name and title, sometimes interwoven and often surmounted by a crown. Where such a cypher is used by an emperor or empress, it is called an imperial cypher. In the system used by various Commonwealth realms, the title is abbreviated as R for rex or regina. Previously, I stood for imperator or imperatrix of British India. The cypher is displayed on some government buildings, impressed upon royal and state documents, and is used by governmental departments.
The Pillar Box War refers to a number of politically motivated acts of vandalism against post boxes in Scotland during the early 1950s in a dispute over the correct title of the new British monarch, Elizabeth II.
In the UK, a Ludlow wall box is a post box where mail is deposited to be collected by the Royal Mail and forwarded to the addressee. They are built into stone pillars or the walls of buildings and are never found free-standing. This is because they are made largely from wood. They were nearly all made by the now-defunct company of James Ludlow & Son of Birmingham, whose name they take. Similar designs exist as historical artefacts in certain Commonwealth countries. Ludlow style boxes have been in use since 1885 and were in continuous manufacture until 1965.