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Csodamalom Bábszínház (Magic Mill Puppet Theatre) of Miskolc, Hungary was formed by puppeteer Tibor Korzsény in 1986 as an amateur company. The name "Csodamalom" (Magic Mill) preserves the name of Fábián Mill, which was the former building of the company since then they had moved to 11, Kossuth Street. The theatre functioned as semi-official since 1988 and as official from 1992. Above the 50 play repertoire there are two or three premiers a year, usually a dramatizing classical folk tales. Uniquely in Hungary, they play musical puppet shows, including the puppet-pantomimes staged for adults, such as Pictures at an Exhibition by Mussorgsky, Bolero by Ravel and Carmina Burana by Orff. [1] [2]

Miskolc City with county rights in Northern Hungary, Hungary

Miskolc is a city in northeastern Hungary, known for its heavy industry. With a population of 161,265 Miskolc is the fourth largest city in Hungary. It is also the county capital of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén and the regional centre of Northern Hungary.

Hungary Country in Central Europe

Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres (35,920 sq mi) in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken Uralic language in the world, and among the few non-Indo-European languages to be widely spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; other major urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr.

Puppeteer person who manipulates a puppet in real time to create the illusion of life

A puppeteer is a person who manipulates an inanimate object that might be shaped like a human, animal or mythical creature, or another object to create the illusion that the puppet is "alive". The puppeteer may be visible to or hidden from the audience. A puppeteer can operate a puppet indirectly by the use of strings, rods, wires, electronics or directly by his or her own hands placed inside the puppet or holding it externally or any other part of the body- such as the legs. Some puppet styles require two or more puppeteers to work together to create a single puppet character.



During the last fifty years several attempts had been made to form a permanent puppet theatre in the city of Miskolc, which has outstanding theatrical traditions. In 1947 László Bod, later the director of Budapest State Puppet Theatre, tried to establish the genre in Miskolc.

Budapest Capital of Hungary

Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and the tenth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city has an estimated population of 1,752,286 over a land area of about 525 square kilometres. Budapest is both a city and county, and forms the centre of the Budapest metropolitan area, which has an area of 7,626 square kilometres and a population of 3,303,786, comprising 33% of the population of Hungary.

In the middle 1980s, in the building known as Fábián Mill, initially two groups started their work. The first to perform here was the amateur puppetry led by János Czikora until 1989. Beside this group was the Csodamalom Puppet Theatre established in 1986 by Tibor Korzsény, who was a member of the State Puppet Theatre before, and artist of the Tokaj Varieté.

The first performance was on 26 September 1986 under the management of Tibor Korzsényi. It was an adaptation of a tale by the Grimm Brothers entitled Hansel and Gretel . The artists, including Anna Molnár, Valéria Egerszegi, Aszterisz Pacadisz were members of the Tokaj Varieté, except Ildikó Gyürek.

Hansel and Gretel fairy tale

"Hansel and Gretel" is a well-known German fairy tale recorded by the Brothers Grimm and published in 1812. Hansel and Gretel are a young brother and sister kidnapped by a cannibalistic witch living in a forest in a house constructed of cake, confectionery, candy, and many more treats. The two children escape with their lives by outwitting her. The tale has been adapted to various media, most notably the opera Hänsel und Gretel (1893) by Engelbert Humperdinck. "Hansel and Gretel" is classified under Class 327А of the Aarne–Thompson classification system.

Following this, Tibor Korzsényi gathered together young people who were interested in the genre. The group enlarged and changed throughout the years. In September, 1990 the higher education of puppeteers was launched with twelve students, under the professional supervision of the State Puppet Theatre. The first shows' puppets were designed by Vera Bródy, and made in the workshop of the State Puppet Theatre by Emőke Szabó applied artist. Scenery were made in the workshop of the National Theatre of MIskolc under the direction of Attila Veres. Accompanying music was composed by composers of Miskolc, music teacher János Zoller and organist László Csabai.

The group soon grew out of its original location. In 1988 the theatre company, then being the amateur puppetry of the City Cultural Centre, received a group operational permit from the National Philharmony, then from 1992 the company was granted the license to work as professional theatre, and was relocated to the building of the former Studio Theatre in Kossuth Street, where they established their own workshop.


In the beginning they carried on the traditions of the State Puppet Theatre playing mainly classic puppet shows for young children.

In recent years the group's professional activities are characterized by variety of techniques and genres. Amongst others the group put up plays based on Roma genesis legends, but their series featuring traditional European fai puppet-show stories, or the stories of Czechoslovakian cartoons formerly being very popular in Hungary have eventually built up a unique repertoire.

Romani people Ethnic group living mostly in Europe and the Americas

The Romani, colloquially known as Roma, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group, traditionally itinerant, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, and Punjab regions of modern-day India.

Fairy mythical being or legendary creature

A fairy is a type of mythical being or legendary creature in European folklore, a form of spirit, often described as metaphysical, supernatural, or preternatural.

Czechoslovakia 1918–1992 country in Central Europe, predecessor of the Czech Republic and Slovakia

Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

Beside hand or glovepuppets they apply several techniques in creating puppets. They make Wayang puppets, and amongst the flat-puppets cut out from paper and installed onto posts, marionettes were used for example in the play, Háry János. Puppets in the King Mátyás tales are moved with a Sicilian marionette technique, while objects transformed into real actors in Rosszcsont Peti (Naughty Peter).

Wayang style is a style of puppetry influenced by the Indonesian wayang kulit, in which human figures and those that are supernatural are depicted as flat and very two-dimensional. This style was commonly used in East Java during the Majapahit Empire, which lasted from about 1293 AD to around 1500 AD.

Opera dei Pupi

The Opera dei Pupi is a marionette theatrical representation of Frankish romantic poems such as The Song of Roland or Orlando furioso that is one of the characteristic cultural traditions of Sicily. The sides of donkey carts are decorated with intricate, painted scenes; these same tales are enacted in traditional puppet theaters featuring hand-made marionettes of wood.




Tiberiu Olah or Tibor Oláh was a Romanian-Hungarian composer, teacher and musicologist.


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  1. "Az együttes rövid története". csodamalom. Archived from the original on 1 August 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  2. Klára, Dobos, and Gábor, Mikita, and Béla, GYarmati. Csodamalom Bábszínház, Miskolc 2007.... Miskolc, Redon4color ltd. 2007. p4-5.