Cui Guicong (崔龜從), courtesy name Xuangao (玄告), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Xuānzong.
A courtesy name, also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the Sinosphere, including China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty, during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was mentioned as the twenty-first Shang king by the same. Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals describe a Xia dynasty before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia. The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.
It is not known when Cui Guicong was born. He was from the "Greater Branch" of the prominent Cui clan of Qinghe (清河, in modern Xingtai, Hebei), and his male-line ancestors originally claimed ancestry from the ruling house of the Spring and Autumn period state Qi. Cui Guicong's traceable ancestry included officials of Han Dynasty (including Cui Yan), Liu Song, Northern Wei, Northern Qi, Sui Dynasty, and Tang Dynasty, although neither Cui Guicong's grandfather Cui Cheng (崔誠) nor his father Cui Huang (崔黃) were listed with any offices.
Xingtai is a prefecture-level city in southern Hebei province, People's Republic of China. It has a total area of 12,486 square kilometres (4,821 sq mi) and administers 2 districts, 2 county-level cities and 15 counties. At the 2010 census, its population was 7,104,103 inhabitants whom 1,461,809 lived in the built-up area made of 2 urban districts and Xingtai and Nanhe Counties largely being conurbated now. It borders Shijiazhuang and Hengshui in the north, Handan in the south, and the provinces of Shandong and Shanxi in the east and west respectively.
Hebei is a coastal province in Northern China. The modern province was established in 1911 as Chihli Province. Its capital and largest city is Shijiazhuang. Its one-character abbreviation is "冀" (Jì), named after Ji Province, a Han dynasty province (zhou) that included what is now southern Hebei. The name Hebei literally means "north of the river", referring to its location entirely to the north of the Yellow River.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou period. The period's name derives from the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronicle of the state of Lu between 722 and 479 BC, which tradition associates with Confucius.
Cui Guicong passed the imperial examinations in the Jinshi class in 817, during the reign of Emperor Xianzong, and he subsequently passed two additional special imperial examinations in the classes of those who were considered good and capable of strategies, and those who made good rulings. He thereafter served as You Shiyi (右拾遺), a low-level advisory official at the legislative bureau of government (中書省, Zhongshu Sheng). In 828, during the reign of Emperor Xianzong's grandson Emperor Wenzong, he was made Taichang Boshi (太常博士), a scholar at the ministry of worship (太常寺, Taichang Si).
Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy. Although there were imperial exams as early as the Han dynasty, the system became widely utilized as the major path to office only in the mid-Tang dynasty, and remained so until its abolition in 1905. Since the exams were based on knowledge of the classics and literary style, not technical expertise, successful candidates were generalists who shared a common language and culture, one shared even by those who failed. This common culture helped to unify the empire and the ideal of achievement by merit gave legitimacy to imperial rule.
Emperor Xianzong of Tang, personal name Li Chun, né Li Chun (李淳), was an emperor of the Chinese Tang Dynasty. He was the eldest son of Emperor Shunzong, who reigned for less than a year in 805 and who yielded the throne to him late that year.
Emperor Wenzong of Tang (809–840), personal name Li Ang, né Li Han (李涵), was an emperor of the Tang dynasty of China. He reigned from 827 to 840. Emperor Wenzong was the second son of Emperor Muzong and younger brother of Emperor Jingzong. A rare occurrence in Chinese history, Emperor Wenzong, along with his elder brother Emperor Jingzong and younger brother Emperor Wuzong, reigned in succession.
While serving as Taichang Boshi, Cui was considered an expert in proper etiquette in imperial ceremonies. As Emperor Wenzong had succeeded his older brother Emperor Jingzong after Emperor Jingzong's death, his mourning text for Emperor Jingzong originally referred to himself as, "your filially pious younger brother." Cui pointed out that because Emperor Wenzong was of the same generation as Emperor Jingzong, "filially pious" was inappropriate, and suggested that, instead, he referred to himself by name to show respect instead. Also at Cui's suggestion, the sacrifices made to the gods of nine regions of heaven were downgraded to below those offered to the gods of the five planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn), as he pointed out that traditionally, the gods of the nine regions were considered lower in status to the gods of the five planets. Further, it was at his suggestions that the custom that the emperor wait several days before mourning important officials be abolished — pointing out that Emperor Wenzong's distinguished ancestor Emperor Taizong had insisted on mourning those officials immediately.
Emperor Jingzong of Tang, personal name Li Zhan, was an emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China. He reigned from 824 to 827. Emperor Jingzong was the eldest son of emperor Emperor Muzong and elder brother of eventual Emperor Wenzong and Emperor Wuzong.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System. Its orbit around the Sun takes only 87.97 days, the shortest of all the planets in the Solar System. It is named after the Roman deity Mercury, the messenger of the gods.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun. It is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty. As the second-brightest natural object in the night sky after the Moon, Venus can cast shadows and, rarely, is visible to the naked eye in broad daylight. Venus lies within Earth's orbit, and so never appears to venture far from the Sun, setting in the west just after dusk and rising in the east a bit before dawn. Venus orbits the Sun every 224.7 Earth days. With a rotation period of 243 Earth days, it takes longer to rotate about its axis than any planet in the Solar System and goes in the opposite direction to all but Uranus. Venus does not have any natural satellites, a distinction it shares only with Mercury among planets in the Solar System.
Cui was later made Kaogong Langzhong (考功郎中), a supervisory official at the ministry of civil service affairs (吏部, Libu), as well as an editor of the imperial histories. In 835, he was made Sixun Langzhong (司勛郎中), still a supervisory official at the ministry of civil service affairs, and was also put in charge of drafting imperial edicts. Later in the year, he was made Zhongshu Sheren (中書舍人), a mid-level official at the legislative bureau.
Early in Emperor Wenzong's Kaicheng era (836-840), Cui was sent out of the capital Chang'an to serve as the prefect of Hua Prefecture (華州, in modern Weinan, Shaanxi). In 838, he was recalled to Chang'an to serve as the deputy minister of census (戶部侍郎, Hubu Shilang) and put in charge of tax collection. In 839, he was briefly made acting minister of civil service affairs (吏部尚書, Hubu Shangshu), to select officials for that year.
Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an. Chang'an means "Perpetual Peace" in Classical Chinese since it was a capital that was repeatedly used by new Chinese rulers. During the short-lived Xin dynasty, the city was renamed "Constant Peace" ; the old name was later restored. By the time of the Ming dynasty, a new walled city named Xi'an, meaning "Western Peace", was built at the Sui and Tang dynasty city's site, which has remained its name to the present day.
Weinan is a prefecture-level city in the east of Shaanxi province, China. The city lies about 60 km (37 mi) east of the provincial capital Xi'an.
Shaanxi is a landlocked province in Northwest China. It lies in central China, bordering the provinces of Shanxi, Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW), and Inner Mongolia (N).
In 850, by which time Emperor Wenzong's uncle Emperor Xuānzong was emperor, Cui Guicong, who was then the minister of census (戶部尚書, Hubu Shangshu) and the director of finances, was made a chancellor de facto with the designation Tong Zhongshu Menxia Pingzhangshi (同中書門下平章事).In 851, he submitted to Emperor Xuānzong a 30-volume calendar for Tang. In 852, he was removed from his chancellor position and made the military governor ( Jiedushi ) of Xuanwu Circuit (宣武, headquartered in modern Kaifeng, Henan). He served as military governor at other circuits before his death, although his terms of service and time of death were not given in his biographies.
Lu Shang (盧商) (789–859), courtesy name Weichen (為臣), formally the Duke of Fanyang (范陽公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, briefly serving as chancellor during the reign of Emperor Xuānzong.Sudikshya lohani is also called lu sang.
Zhao Zongru (趙宗儒), courtesy name Bingwen (秉文), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who served as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Dezong — and then served under five more descendants of Emperor Dezong's: his son Emperor Shunzong, his grandson Emperor Xianzong, his great-grandson Emperor Muzong, his great-great-grandsons Emperor Jingzong and Emperor Wenzong.
Cui Qun (崔群), courtesy name Dunshi (敦詩), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Xianzong.
Cui Zhi (崔植), courtesy name Gongxiu (公修), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Muzong. Both he and his cousin Cui Ling (崔倰) were blamed for policy missteps that led to the Tang imperial government's loss of control over circuits north of the Yellow River.
Li Cheng (李程) (766?-842?), courtesy name Biaochen (表臣), formally Duke Miu of Pengyuan (彭原繆公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Jingzong.
Dou Yizhi (竇易直), courtesy name Zongxuan (宗玄), formally Duke Gonghui of Jinyang (晉陽恭惠公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of Emperor Jingzong and Emperor Wenzong.
Wei Chuhou (韋處厚), né Wei Chun (韋淳), courtesy name Dezai (德載), formally the Duke of Lingchang (靈昌公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Wenzong.
Song Shenxi (宋申錫), courtesy name Qingchen (慶臣), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving briefly as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Wenzong. He was most known for planning with Emperor Wenzong to eliminate the power of the eunuchs from the court but then being falsely implicated in a plot to overthrow Emperor Wenzong and replace the emperor with Emperor Wenzong's brother Li Cou the Prince of Zhang. As a result, Song was exiled and died in exile.
Yang Sifu (楊嗣復) (783–848), courtesy name Jizhi (繼之), nickname Qingmen (慶門), formally Count Xiaomu of Hongnong (弘農孝穆伯), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Wenzong and (briefly) the reign of Emperor Wenzong's brother Emperor Wuzong. He was considered one of the leaders of the Niu Faction in the Niu-Li Factional Struggles.
Cui Dan (崔鄲) was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of Emperor Wenzong and Emperor Wenzong's brother Emperor Wuzong.
Li Shen (李紳), courtesy name Gongchui (公垂), formally Duke Wensu of Zhao (趙文肅公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Wuzong. He was also noted as a poet.
Li Rangyi (李讓夷), courtesy name Daxin (達心), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of Emperor Wuzong and (briefly) Emperor Wuzong's uncle Emperor Xuānzong.
Cui Xuan (崔鉉), courtesy name Taishuo (臺碩), formally the Duke of Wei (魏公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving two terms as a chancellor during the reigns of Emperor Wuzong and Emperor Wuzong's uncle Emperor Xuānzong.
Cui Yuanshi (崔元式) was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving briefly as chancellor during the reign of Emperor Xuānzong.
Linghu Tao, courtesy name Zizhi (子直), formally the Duke of Zhao (趙公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty. He was the leading chancellor during the last nine years of the reign of Emperor Xuānzong, but was removed from his chancellor position after Emperor Xuānzong's death, subsequently serving several terms as military governor (Jiedushi) in the circuits.
Zheng Lang (鄭朗), courtesy name Yourong (有融), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Xuānzong.
Cui Shenyou (崔慎由), courtesy name Jingzhi (敬止), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Xuānzong.
Bi Xian, courtesy name Cunzhi (存之), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Yizong.
Li Wei (李蔚), courtesy name Maoxiu (茂休), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Xizong.
Doulu Zhuan (豆盧瑑), courtesy name Xizhen (希真), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Xizong. When the agrarian rebel Huang Chao captured the Tang capital Chang'an, Doulu was unable to flee; he was then executed by Huang's new state of Qi.