Culemborg

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Culemborg
Martktplein culemborg.JPG
Culemborg market square
Culemborg flag correct.svg
Flag
Coat of arms of Culemborg.svg
Coat of arms
Map - NL - Municipality code 0216 (2009).svg
Location in Gelderland
Coordinates: 51°57′N5°14′E / 51.950°N 5.233°E / 51.950; 5.233 Coordinates: 51°57′N5°14′E / 51.950°N 5.233°E / 51.950; 5.233
Country Netherlands
Province Gelderland
Government
[1]
  Body Municipal council
   Mayor Gerdo van Grootheest (GL)
Area
[2]
  Total31.14 km2 (12.02 sq mi)
  Land29.42 km2 (11.36 sq mi)
  Water1.72 km2 (0.66 sq mi)
Elevation
[3]
5 m (16 ft)
Population
(August 2017) [4]
  Total27,973
  Density951/km2 (2,460/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Culemborger, Blauwlap
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postcode
4100–4107
Area code 0345
Website www.culemborg.nl
Town gate: de Binnenpoort Culemborg, de Binnenpoort RM11554 foto11 2015-08-06 13.21.jpg
Town gate: de Binnenpoort
Windmill: molen de Hoop Culemborg, molen de Hoop RM451862 foto3 2015-08-06 13.14.jpg
Windmill: molen de Hoop

Culemborg (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈkyləmbɔrx] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a municipality and a city in the centre of the Netherlands. The city has a population of 27,973, [5] and is situated just south of the Lek river. Direct train lines run from the railway station towards the cities of Utrecht and Den Bosch.

Municipality An administrative division having corporate status and usually some powers of self-government or jurisdiction

A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished (usually) from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns, villages and hamlets.

Netherlands Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe

The Netherlands is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian.

Culemborg railway station

Culemborg is a railway station in Culemborg, Netherlands. The station opened on 1 November 1868 and is on the Utrecht–Boxtel railway. The station is in the southern end of the town, on the edge of the Pavijen industrial estate and near the sustainable development EVA Lanxmeer.

Contents

History

Culemborg in Joan Blaeu's map from his Tooneel der Steeden, 1649 Culemborg 1649 Blaeu.jpg
Culemborg in Joan Blaeu's map from his Tooneel der Steeden, 1649

Culemborg, formerly also spelled Kuilenburg or Kuylenburgh, received city rights in 1318. For a long time, Culemborg was independent from any counties or duchies in the Netherlands. The city had gained the right of toll collection and the right of asylum: it was a so-called 'Vrijstad' (free city). In practice, this meant that people who had fled to Culemborg from other cities (for example due to bankruptcy) could evade their creditors in Culemborg. The creditors would not be allowed entry into the city. This did not mean that criminals could escape justice in Culemborg: the city had its own justice system which could sentence criminals. In Amsterdam, the phrase 'Naar Culemborg gaan' (Going to Culemborg) became synonymous with going bankrupt.

The road toll was a historical fee charged to the territorial lords of travellers and merchants in return for permission to use the roads and waterways of the country or state concerned. It was reinforced in the Holy Roman Empire by the law of Straßenzwang which meant that traders in certain goods had to use specified roads. In return, they were usually guaranteed safe passage under the right of escort or Geleitrecht. The road toll was widespread especially in medieval times, and, in addition to the payments from the staple rights, was an important source of income.

Right of asylum

The right of asylum is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by one's own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary. This right was recognized by the Egyptians, the Greeks, and the Hebrews, from whom it was adopted into Western tradition. René Descartes fled to the Netherlands, Voltaire to England, and Thomas Hobbes to France, because each state offered protection to persecuted foreigners.

A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories. Historically, this included cities such as Rome, Athens, Carthage, and the Italian city-states during the Renaissance. As of 2019, only a handful of sovereign city-states exist, with some disagreement as to which are city-states. A great deal of consensus exists that the term properly applies currently to Singapore, Monaco, and Vatican City. City states are also sometimes called micro-states which however also includes other configurations of very small countries, not to be confused with Micronations.

In Joan Blaeu's map of 1649, Culemborg remains entirely enclosed by walls behind its city moat-like encircling canals. The moated castle stands outside the city walls. Houses present a united front along streets and the two canals that cut the city in three sections, but they all face gardens behind, and market gardens are plentiful within the city walls.

Joan Blaeu Dutch cartographer (1596-1673)

Joan Blaeu was a Dutch cartographer born in Alkmaar, the son of cartographer Willem Blaeu.

Moat dry or watery ditch surrounding a fortification or town

A moat is a deep, broad ditch, either dry or filled with water, that is dug and surrounds a castle, fortification, building or town, historically to provide it with a preliminary line of defence. In some places moats evolved into more extensive water defences, including natural or artificial lakes, dams and sluices. In older fortifications, such as hillforts, they are usually referred to simply as ditches, although the function is similar. In later periods, moats or water defences may be largely ornamental. They could also act as a sewer.

In the beginning of the 18th century, Culemborg effectively lost its independence as it was incorporated into the Nijmegen Quarter, although it regained some sovereign rights. Later, it was gifted to stadholder Willem IV. To this day, the Dutch king Willem-Alexander remains count of Culemborg. In 1795, the city was occupied by French forces, who left the castle in such a despicable state it was demolished after the French had left. A few years later it was completely incorporated in the Bataafse Republiek, and losing its sovereign rights.

Nijmegen Quarter

The Nijmegen Quarter was the first of the four quarters in which the county, later duchy of Guelders was divided, as they were separated by rivers. In addition Guelders consisted of Zutphen Quarter, the Upper Quarter and Veluwe Quarter. Each quarter had its own capital.

William IV, Prince of Orange hereditary stadtholder of the Netherlands

William IV was Prince of Orange-Nassau and the first hereditary stadtholder of all the United Provinces.

Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands King of the Netherlands

Willem-Alexander is the King of the Netherlands, having ascended the throne following his mother's abdication in 2013.

In 1868, a railway bridge was built over the river Lek which was the longest bridge in Europe for a few years.

In 1995, Culemborg was one of the cities which was temporarily evacuated because of the risk of flooding.

Between 1994 and 2009 the city of Culemborg developed the innovative ecological neighbourhood EVA Lanxmeer. Close collaboration with inhabitants and experimental sustainable design has made the neighbourhood an international best practice.

EVA Lanxmeer human settlement in the Netherlands

EVA lanxmeer is the name of an ecological neighbourhood built from 1994 to 2009 in the Dutch town of Culemborg in the Netherlands. It is an environmentally friendly housing development.

Transportation

Culemborg is served by Culemborg railway station, which offers trains to Utrecht (city) 4x per hour and 2x per hour to 's-Hertogenbosch and Tiel each. The railway station also provides a bus hub, offering buses to the various neighbouring cities and villages (namely Buren, Beusichem and Nieuwegein).

s-Hertogenbosch City and municipality in North Brabant, Netherlands

's-Hertogenbosch, colloquially known as Den Bosch, is a city and municipality in the Southern Netherlands with a population of 152,968. It is the capital of the province of North Brabant.

Tiel Municipality in Gelderland, Netherlands

Tiel is a municipality and a town in the middle of the Netherlands. The town is enclosed by the Waal river and the Linge river on the south and the north side, and the Amsterdam-Rhine Canal on the east side. The city was founded in the 5th century AD.

Buren Municipality in Gelderland, Netherlands

Buren is a town and municipality in the Betuwe region of the Netherlands. The name originated from the word the Dutch word “buren”, which means neighbour.

Topography

Gem-Culemborg-OpenTopo.jpg

Dutch topographic map of the municipality of Culemborg, June 2015

Industry

Dough processing company Rademaker BV, founded in 1977, moved to Culemborg in 1981 and still has their headquarters here.

Windmills

There are two traditional windmills in Culemborg, De Hoop and Johanna. The base of a third mill, De Koornvriend, also survives. [6]

Notable residents

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References

  1. "Burgemeester Van Schelven" [Mayor Van Schelven] (in Dutch). Gemeente Culemborg. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  2. "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" [Key figures for neighbourhoods]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  3. "Postcodetool for 4101BK". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  4. "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  5. "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  6. "De Koornvriend, Culemborg" (in Dutch). Molendatabase. Retrieved 6 November 2014.