Culiacán

Last updated
Culiacán Rosales

Culiacán
Vista panoramica de Culiacan.jpg
Culiacan Escudo.PNG
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
La Perla del Humaya
(The Pearl of the Humaya)
Culiacan, Sinaloa.svg
Location of Culiacán Municipality
within Sinaloa
Mexico States blank map.svg
Red pog.svg
Culiacán Rosales
Location in Mexico
Coordinates: 24°48′17.46″N107°23′07.79″W / 24.8048500°N 107.3854972°W / 24.8048500; -107.3854972
Country Mexico
State Sinaloa
Foundation1531
Government
   Mayor Jesús Estrada (MRN)
Area
  City65 km2 (25 sq mi)
Elevation
[1] 71 m (233 ft)
Population
 (2015)
   Urban
785,800
   Demonym
Culiacanense / "culichi"
Time zone UTC−7 (MST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−6 (MDT)
Waterways Tamazula River, Humaya River, Culiacán River
Airports Federal de Bachigualato International Airport
Public transitRedPlus
RailroadsFerromex Culiacán Station
Website www.culiacan.gob.mx

Culiacán (Spanish pronunciation:  [kuljaˈkan] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a city in northwestern Mexico. It is the largest city in and the capital of the state of Sinaloa. It is also the seat of Culiacán Municipality. It had an urban population of 785,800 in 2015 while 905,660 lived in the entire municipality. While the municipality has a total area of 4,758 km2 (1,837 sq mi), the city itself is considerably smaller, measuring only 65 km2 (25 sq mi).

Mexico Country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the tenth most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

Sinaloa State of Mexico

Sinaloa, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities and its capital city is Culiacán Rosales.

Culiacán Municipality Municipality in Sinaloa, Mexico

Municipality of Culiacán is a municipality in Sinaloa in northwestern Mexico.

Contents

The city is located in a valley at the confluence of the Tamazula and Humaya Rivers, where the two meet to form the Culiacán River, 55 m above sea level. It is in the center of the state, at about the same distance to the two other urban centers of the state: Los Mochis to the north and Mazatlán to the south.

The Tamazula River is a river in the state of Sinaloa, Mexico, originating in the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains, flowing westward towards the Pacific Ocean. The Tamazula receives the Humaya River in the city of Culiacán to form the Culiacán River.

The Humaya River is a river in the state of Sinaloa, Mexico, that connects to the Tamazula River in the city of Culiacán to form the Culiacán River. The source of the river is the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains. The water flows from the north of the city. The water then flows to the Pacific Ocean.

Culiacán River river in Mexico

The Culiacán River is a river that is formed at the confluence of the Tamazula River and Humaya River, located in Culiacán city of Sinaloa state, in northwestern Mexico.

History

Precolonial period

The most accepted translation would be Colhuacan "place of those who adore the crooked god Coltzin". Another translation might come from the word coahuacan, which can mean "palace of snakes". Before the Spaniards arrived from Europe, this site had been a small Indian settlement since 628 when Amerindians had first founded it.

The Coltzin petroglyph, located approximately 65 km north of Mazatlán, Mexico, is approximately 8 m in diameter, carved into a cliff. It looks somewhat like a solstice wheel, but its meaning not known.

Spaniards people native to any part of Spain or that hold Spanish citizenship

Spaniards, or the Spanish people, are a Romance ethnic group that are indigenous to Spain. They share a common Spanish culture, history, ancestry, and language. Within Spain, there are a number of nationalisms and regionalisms, reflecting the country's complex history and diverse culture. Although the official language of Spain is commonly known as "Spanish", it is only one of the national languages of Spain, and is less ambiguously known as Castilian, a standard language based on the medieval romance speech of the Kingdom of Castile in north and central Spain. Historically, the Spanish people's heritage includes the pre-Celts and Celts.

Foundation

The city existing today was founded in 1531 by the Spanish captain Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán and named San Miguel de Culiacán. In the same decade, it was the terminus of the long journey of Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and company among natives. Explorer Francisco Vásquez de Coronado set out from Culiacán to explore what is now the southwestern United States. Settlers from Europe came to Culiacán, and in the following centuries, Culiacán continued to be a quiet town. Only after the federal government built dams in the adjacent areas in the 1950s did agriculture explode and the city began to grow exponentially. Some of Mexico's largest agricultural conglomerates operate in the vast and fertile coastal plains. The agroindustrial economy continues to be the single largest contributor to the region's legal economy. While the vast majority of technical and skilled labor is educated locally, the once-seasonal field labor pool now experiences a yearly shortage of workers. International patterns of migration now draw laborers from deep within Mexico's south to the northern border states and into the United States.

Agriculture Cultivation of plants and animals to provide useful products

Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs, sheep and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first.

After World War II

Culiacan Municipal Palace (City Hall) Culiacan Municipal Palace.png
Culiacán Municipal Palace (City Hall)

Beginning in the late 1950s, Culiacán became the birthplace of an incipient underground economy based on illicit drugs exported to the United States. The completion of the Pan-American Highway and the regional airport in the 1960s accelerated the expansion of a workable distribution infrastructure for the enterprising few families that would later come to dominate the international drug cartels along Mexico's Pacific Northwest.

Pan-American Highway network of roads of the Americas

The Pan-American Highway is a network of roads stretching across the American continents and measuring about 30,000 kilometres (19,000 mi) in total length. Except for a rainforest break of approximately 160 km (100 mi), called the Darién Gap, the roads link almost all of the Pacific coastal countries of the Americas in a connected highway system. According to Guinness World Records, the Pan-American Highway is the world's longest "motorable road". However, because of the Darién Gap, it is not possible to cross between South America and Central America with conventional highway vehicles. Without an all-terrain vehicle, it is necessary to circumnavigate this terrestrial stretch by sea.

Geography

Climate

Culiacán has a semiarid climate (Köppen: BSh), despite receiving an annual rainfall over 600 mm (24 in), due to its hot temperatures and high evaporation. Summers are very hot and humid, shade temperatures can reach 45 °C (113 °F) and high humidity can produce heat indices of 50 to 55 °C (122 to 131 °F), with the risk of heavy rainfall from decaying tropical cyclones also present. Winters are much milder with less humidity and an average high of 27 °C, with warm nights.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Climate data for Culiacán (1951–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)41.0
(105.8)
42.0
(107.6)
39.0
(102.2)
41.5
(106.7)
41.5
(106.7)
45.5
(113.9)
42.5
(108.5)
46.0
(114.8)
41.5
(106.7)
41.5
(106.7)
42.5
(108.5)
37.0
(98.6)
46.0
(114.8)
Average high °C (°F)27.8
(82.0)
28.9
(84.0)
30.5
(86.9)
32.8
(91.0)
34.9
(94.8)
35.9
(96.6)
35.5
(95.9)
34.8
(94.6)
34.4
(93.9)
34.2
(93.6)
31.5
(88.7)
28.2
(82.8)
32.5
(90.5)
Daily mean °C (°F)19.4
(66.9)
20.1
(68.2)
21.3
(70.3)
23.6
(74.5)
26.4
(79.5)
29.5
(85.1)
29.8
(85.6)
29.3
(84.7)
29.0
(84.2)
27.5
(81.5)
23.5
(74.3)
20.2
(68.4)
25.0
(77.0)
Average low °C (°F)10.9
(51.6)
11.3
(52.3)
12.1
(53.8)
14.5
(58.1)
18.0
(64.4)
23.2
(73.8)
24.1
(75.4)
23.8
(74.8)
23.6
(74.5)
20.7
(69.3)
15.6
(60.1)
12.2
(54.0)
17.5
(63.5)
Record low °C (°F)2.0
(35.6)
2.0
(35.6)
3.0
(37.4)
3.0
(37.4)
9.0
(48.2)
12.0
(53.6)
13.0
(55.4)
16.0
(60.8)
17.0
(62.6)
11.0
(51.8)
5.0
(41.0)
3.0
(37.4)
2.0
(35.6)
Average rainfall mm (inches)18.4
(0.72)
11.7
(0.46)
2.8
(0.11)
2.4
(0.09)
1.1
(0.04)
19.7
(0.78)
162.8
(6.41)
209.2
(8.24)
141.6
(5.57)
50.0
(1.97)
21.3
(0.84)
26.3
(1.04)
667.3
(26.27)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)2.21.40.60.40.22.413.814.810.82.91.62.253.3
Average relative humidity (%)72706765646772757572717270
Mean monthly sunshine hours 189.1186.5229.4213.0248.0222.0192.2198.4195.0229.4213.0182.92,498.9
Mean daily sunshine hours 6.16.67.47.18.07.46.26.46.57.47.15.96.8
Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (humidity 1981–2000) [2] [3] [4]
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun, 1941–1970) [5]

Economy

Culiacán's economy is mainly agricultural and commerce, being a trade center for produce, meat, and fish. Among other industries, Culiacán represents 32 percent of the state economy.

Coppel, Casa Ley, Homex and other companies of national importance are headquartered in Culiacan.

The Sinaloa Cartel, a drug-trafficking and organized crime syndicate, is based in Culiacán. [6]

Demographics

The city had an urban population of 785,800 in 2015 while 905,660 lived in the entire municipality. While the municipality has a total area of 4,758 km2 (1,837 sq mi), the city itself is considerably more compact, at only 65 km2 (25 sq mi).

Administrative divisions

The 27 sectors of Culiacan Sectors of Culiacan.png
The 27 sectors of Culiacán

Culiacán is divided into 27 sectors ( sectores ), which are groups of several quarters ( colonias ):

Media

The newspaper El Debate is published in Culiacán.

Education

Aerial view of Culiacan Culiacan Aerial View.jpg
Aerial view of Culiacán
Escuela Libre de Derecho de Sinaloa Escuela Libre de Derecho de Sinaloa.jpg
Escuela Libre de Derecho de Sinaloa

Universities

Transportation

Transit system

Urban transport

At present[ when? ], Culiacán has just over 68 urban transport routes, which serve about one million users. The Culiacán urban transport is operated by RedPlus.

Rail

The city has a train station, operated by Ferromex, and it is used only to transport freight. It is connected to south with Mazatlán and north with Guaymas.

Bus station

Culiacán uses the Central Internacional de Autobuses "Millennium" ("Millennium" International Buses Station) to travel across all Mexico (north, central, and south) and to the United States (Arizona and California). This replaced the old bus terminal in the southern city.

Roads and expressways

Though several high-speed roads have been built, most of the city's streets are rather narrow and traffic jams are common at rush hours. Now, 300,000 cars are in Culiacan, making the per capita number of cars one of the highest in the country considering the 745,000 inhabitants.

Main roads

Culiacán has several roads (avenues, boulevards, streets, etc.), but some of these are the main quick connection to other points of the city.

  • Álvaro Obregón Ave
  • Francisco I. Madero Blvd.
  • Paseo Niños Heroes
  • El Dorado Ave
  • Aeropuerto
  • Emiliano Zapata Blvd.
  • Benjamín Hill Ave
  • Calzada de las Torres
  • México 68
  • Plan Mar de Cortes
  • Heroico Colegio Militar
  • Revolución Ave
  • Sanalona Way
  • Rolando Arjona Amabilis Blvd.
  • Universitarios
  • José Limón Blvd.
  • Las Américas
  • Diego Valadez Ríos
  • Manuel J. Clouthier
  • Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
  • José Vasconcelos
  • Gabriel Leyva Solano Blvd.
  • Xicoténcatl
  • Josefa Ortíz de Domínguez
  • Enrique Sanchez Alonso Blvd.
  • De los Insurgentes
  • Pedro Infante Blvd.
  • Rotarismo Road
  • Ciudades Hermanas
  • Patria Ave
  • Constituyentes Emiliano García
  • Nicolás Bravo
  • 21 de Marzo Ave
  • Las Minas

Bridges and tunnels

The city has a total of 13 bridges: six across the Tamazula River, two spanning the Humaya River, and the longest one with other four crossing the Culiacán River. Efforts to solve traffic problems have been made, but most of the city streets and bridges are now crowded and insufficient to handle regular and rush hours traffic; a 40-km/h speed limit in most parts of the city worsens the situation.

  • Musalá Bridge (Tamazula River)
  • Musalá-Universitaria Bridge (Tamazula River)
  • Benito Juárez Bridge (Tamazula River)
  • Morelos Bridge (Tamazula River)
  • Miguel Hidalgo Bridge (Tamazula River)
  • Juan de Dios Bátiz-Tres Ríos Brige (Tamazula River)
  • Josefa Ortíz de Domínguez Bridge (Humaya River)
  • Rafael Buelna Bridge (Humaya River)
  • Jorge Almada Bridge (Culiacán River)
  • Black Rail Bridge (Culiacán River)
  • Rolando Arjona Amabilis-UDO (Culiacán River)
  • USE-Valle Alto (Culiacán River)
  • Libramiento Recursos (Rosales Channel)
  • Eje Federalismo Bridges (Rosales Channel)
  • Chavez Castro Bridge (Rosales Channel)
  • Emiliano Zapata Pass Bridge (Rosales Channel)

Also, Culiacán has bridges in streets conforming to high transit systems in places where the rush hour is common.

  • Zapata (Blvd. Emiliano Zapata)
  • 280-Aeropuerto (Blvd. Aeropuerto)
  • Eje Aeropuerto (Blvd. Aeropuerto-Emiliano Carranza street)
  • Mexico 15 (Plan Mar de Cortes-Mexican Federal Highway 15)
  • Primavera (Plan Mar de Cortes-La Primavera)
  • Eje El Trébol (Plan Mar de Cortes-Blvd. Jesús Kumate)
  • Eje Federalismo Tunnels (Gabriel Leyva Solano/Francisco I. Madero-Federalismo)
  • UdO (Blvd. Rolando Arjona-Blvd. Lola Beltrán) under construction
  • Gasolinera del Valle (Blvd. Jesús Kumate-Blvd. Emiliano Zapata) under construction
  • Japac Country (Blvd. Pedro Infante-Blvd. Rolando Arjona) spring 2013

On February 17, 2014, investigators from Mexico and the United States learned that Joaquín Guzmán Loera, or El Chapo, was using underground sewage tunnels in Culiacán by constructing hatches connecting to the drainage network in the bathtubs of his city "stash houses". [7] On at least one occasion, authorities chased Guzman into the tunnels, but lost him. An AP reporter said some of the tunnels were well lit, had wood paneling, and were air-conditioned. [7]

Highways and freeways

Culiacán is a rail junction and is located on the Panamerican Highway that runs north to the United States and south to Guadalajara and Mexico City, and the Benito Juárez Highway or Maxipista, which is a toll road that runs parallel to the toll-free federal highway. It is connected to the north with Los Mochis and to the south with Mazatlán, Tepic, and Guadalajara with the Federal Highway 15.

Culiacán is linked to the satellite city of Navolato by an excellent freeway that now reaches Altata, in the Pacific Ocean coast. Culiacán is also linked to Tamazula de Victoria in Durango state.

  • Freeway 280-30 (west: Navolato-Altata)
  • Freeway 3-225 (north: Melchor Ocampo-Guamuchil)
  • Freeway 5-325 (south: Costa Rica-El Dorado)
  • Tamazula Interstate Freeway (northeast: Sanalona-Tamazula de Victoria)

Airport

Culiacán is served by Federal de Bachigualato International Airport ( IATA : CUL, ICAO : MMCL), the most important domestic gateway in the state of Sinaloa, and the second in international operations after Mazatlán International Airport. It is located south of downtown; it is also the 10th Mexican Air Force base.

Entertainment

Tourism

Cathedral in Culiacan Culiacan Catedral.jpg
Cathedral in Culiacán
Las Riveras Park on Old Waterfront Parque las riveras.JPG
Las Riveras Park on Old Waterfront

Attractions

Sports

The city is home to three professional league sport teams: baseball with the Tomateros de Culiacán from the Liga Mexicana del Pacífico, two championships in Caribbean series in 1996 and 2002; and football with Dorados de Sinaloa, who play at the Estadio Banorte (Estadio Carlos González) and basketball with the Caballeros de Culiacan from the CIBACOPA. Duck, dove, and goose hunting season goes from early November through March. Culiacán also holds a yearly international marathon.

Notable people from Culiacán

Entertainment

Sports

Modeling

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. "Elevation of Culiacan,Mexico Elevation Map, Topography, Contour". www.floodmap.net.
  2. "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1951–2010" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
  3. "Extreme Temperatures and Precipitation for Culiacan (DGE) 1961–2011" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Archived from the original on January 30, 2016. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
  4. "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1981–2000" (PDF) (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 30, 2016. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
  5. "Klimatafel von Culiacán, Sinaloa / Mexiko" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
  6. "Mexico's Sinaloa gang grows empire, defies crackdown". Reuters. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  7. 1 2 "Officials: Wiretaps, aides led to drug lord arrest". Boston.com.
  8. "Julio Cesar Chavez - Boxrec Boxing Encyclopaedia". Boxrec.com. 2012-07-11. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  9. Elie Seckbach %BloggerTitle% (2010-06-17). "Julio Cesar Chavez Jr., Trainer Freddie Roach Workout". Boxing.fanhouse.com. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  10. "Omar Chavez - Boxrec Boxing Encyclopaedia". Boxrec.com. Retrieved 2013-03-15.

Coordinates: 24°48′N107°23′W / 24.800°N 107.383°W / 24.800; -107.383