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A Cultural Landscape (文化的景観, bunkateki keikan) is a landscape in Japan, which has evolved together with the way of life and geocultural features of a region, and which is indispensable for understanding the lifestyle of the Japanese people, and is recognized by the government of under article 2, paragraph 1, item 5 of the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties (1950). Cultural Landscapes of especially high value may be further designated as Important Cultural Landscapes (重要文化的景観, Jūyō bunkateki keikan); as of May 31, 2017 there are fifty-one such landscapes.
Local governments that are in charge of designated Cultural Landscapes can obtain financial assistance from the Agency for Cultural Affairs for surveys and other research, the preparation of preservation plans, maintenance, repair, landscaping, restoration, disaster prevention, and promotional and educational activities.
Research into cultural landscapes began before the Second World War with increasing concern about their disappearance. Historical research into shōen and rural engineering, the scientific investigation of geographic features, and studies for urban and countryside planning have since increased. The movement to protect cultural landscapes has also been influenced by the Law Concerning Special Measures for the Preservation of Historical Natural Features in Ancient Cities (1966), the international trend for recognising "cultural landscapes" under the World Heritage Convention, the designation in 1980 of Mount Hakusan, Mount Ōdaigahara & Mount Ōmine, Shiga Highland and Yakushima as UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Reserves, the designation of Monuments of Japan, and initiatives such as the 100 selected terraced rice fields of Japan.From 2000 to 2003 a study was made to define the concept of "cultural landscape" and identify their distribution, with 2,311 areas identified in the first phase and 502 selected for the second, 180 being of particular importance.
Important Cultural Landscapes are designated based on their type as:
An overview of what is included in the table and the manner of sorting is as follows: the columns (with the exceptions of Remarks and Pictures) are sortable by pressing the arrows symbols.
|Cultural Landscape along the Sarugawa River resulting from Ainu Tradition and Modern Settlement (アイヌの伝統と近代開拓による沙流川流域の文化的景観, ainu no dentō to kindai kaitaku ni yoru sarugawa ryūiki no bunkateki keikan)||2||Litigation over the Nibutani Dam saw the advocacy of Ainu rights in a landmark case (1997).||Biratori, Hokkaidō||2007|
|Farm Village of Hondera area, Ichinoseki (一関本寺の農村景観, ichinoseki hondera no nōson keikan)||1.1, 1.8, 2||Administered from the late Heian period to the early Muromachi period as the domain of the Sutra Repository Steward of Chuson-ji; in the Edo period it formed part of the Sendai domain.||Ichinoseki, Iwate||2006|
|Tono Arakawa Heights Livestock Farm and Tsuchibuchi Yamaguchi Village (遠野 荒川高原牧場 土淵山口集落, Tōno Arakawakōgen bokujō tsuchibuchi yamaguchi shūraku)||1.2||Important historic pasture.||Tōno, Iwate||2008/9|
|Landscape of Movements of Goods and People in Mogami River and the Aterazawa Townscape (最上川の流通・往来及び左沢町場の景観, mogamigawa no ryūtsū ōrai oyobi aterazawamachiba no keikan)||1.5, 1.7, 1.8, 2||Ōe, Yamagata||2013|
|Fluvial landscape at the confluence of the Tone and Watarase Rivers (利根川・渡良瀬川合流域の水場景観, Tonegawa-Watarasegawa gōryūiki mizuba keikan)||1.1, 1.8, 2||Itakura, Gunma||2011|
|Landscape of the rural villages where gold mining originated in Nishimikawa, Sado (佐渡西三川の砂金山由来の農山村景観, Sado Nishimikawa no sakin yurai no nōsanson keikan)||1.1, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2||Sado, Niigata||2011|
|Cultural Landscape of the Mining and Mining Town in Aikawa, Sado (佐渡相川の鉱山及び鉱山町の文化的景観, sado aikawa no kōzan oyobi kōzanmachi no bunkateki keikan)||1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 2||Sado, Niigata||2015|
|Cultural landscape in Kanazawa. Tradition and culture in the castle town (金沢の文化的景観 城下町の伝統と文化, Kanazawa no bunkateki keikan; jōkamachi no dentō to bunka)||1.5, 1.7, 1.8||Kanazawa is a renowned centre of Japanese crafts.||Kanazawa, Ishikawa||2010|
|Magaki (bamboo Fence) Village Landscape of Ōzawa and Kami Ōzawa (大沢・上大沢の間垣集落景観, Ōzawa Kami Ōzawa no magaki shūraku keikan)||1.1, 1.10, 2||Wajima, Ishikawa||2015|
|Rice terraces in Obasute (姨捨の棚田, Obasute no tanada)||1.1||Chikuma, Nagano||2010|
|Cultural Landscape of Kosuge Village and Mt. Kosuge (小菅の里及び小菅山の文化的景観, kosuge no sato oyobi kosugeyama no bunkateki keikan)||1.3, 1.5, 1.8, 2||Iiyama, Nagano||2015|
|Cultural Landscape of Gifu in the Central Basin of the Nagara River (長良川中流域における岐阜の文化的景観, nagara-gawa chūryūiki ni okeru gifu no bunkateki keikan)||1.3, 1.4, 1.7, 1.8, 2||Gifu, Gifu||2014|
|Wetland in Ōmi-hachiman (近江八幡の水郷, Ōmi Hachiman no suigō)||1.5, 1.8||Riverside district of the former castle town.||Ōmihachiman, Shiga||2006|
|Waterfront of Kaizu, Nishihama, and Chinai in Takashima City (高島市海津・西浜・知内の水辺景観, Takashima-shi Kaizu Nishihama Chinai no mizube keikan)||1.5, 1.7||Takashima, Shiga||2008|
|Waterfront of Harie and Shimofuri in Takashima City (高島市針江・霜降の水辺景観, Takashima-shi Harie Shimofuri no mizube keikan)||1.5, 1.8, 2||Takashima, Shiga||2010|
|Lakeshore landscape at Sugaura (菅浦の湖岸集落景観, sugaura no kogan shūraku keikan)||1.1, 1.3, 1.7, 1.8, 2||Nagahama, Shiga||2014|
|Mountain Village landscape of Higashi Kusano (東草野の山村景観, higashi kusano no sanson keikan)||1.5, 1.7, 1.8, 2||Maibara, Shiga||2014|
|Ōmizo Lakeside Landscape (大溝の水辺景観, Ōmizo no mizube keikan)||1.5, 1.7, 1.8, 2||Takashima, Shiga||2015|
|Cultural landscape in Uji (宇治の文化的景観, Uji no bunkateki keikan)||2||Uji, Kyoto||2009|
|Cultural landscape of Miyazu Amanohashidate (宮津天橋立の文化的景観, miyazu amanohashidate no bunkateki keikan)||1.4, 1.7, 1.8, 2||Miyazu, Kyoto||2014|
|Cultural Landscape of Okazaki in Kyoto (京都岡崎の文化的景観, Kyōto okazaki no bunkateki keikan)||1.5, 1.7, 2||Kyoto, Kyoto||2015|
|Rural landscape of Hinenosho Ōgi (日根荘大木の農村景観, Hinenosho Ōgi no nōson keikan)||1.1, 1.8, 2||Izumisano, Osaka||2013|
|Cultural landscape of Ikuno mine and townscape (生野鉱山及び鉱山町の文化的景観, ikuno kōzan oyobi kōzanmachi no bunkateki keikan)||1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 2||Asago, Hyōgo||2014|
|Cultural landscape of the Asuka hinterland (奥飛鳥の文化的景観, Oku-Asuka no bunkateki keikan)||1.1, 1.5, 1.8, 2||Asuka, Nara||2011|
|Aragijima Rice Terraces and Rural Mountain Village Landscape of Mita/Shimizu (蘭島及び三田・清水の農山村景観, aragijima oyobi Mita Shimizu no nōsanson keikan)||1.1, 1.8, 2||Aridagawa, Wakayama||2013|
|Cultural landscape of Tatara iron manufacturing and rice terraces in Okuizumo (奥出雲たたら製鉄及び棚田の文化的景観, okuizumo tatara seitetsu oyobi tanada no bunkateki keikan)||1.1, 1.2, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2||Okuizumo, Shimane||2014|
|Rice Terraces and Rural Landscape of Kashihara (樫原の棚田及び農村景観, Kashihara no tanada oyobi nōson keikan)||1.1, 1.8, 2||Kamikatsu, Tokushima||2010|
|Danbata (terraced fields) in Yusumizugaura (遊子水荷浦の段畑, Yusumizugaura no danbata)||1.1||Uwajima, Ehime||2007|
|Okuuchi rice terraces, agricultural and mountainous village landscape (奥内の棚田及び農山村景観, Okuuchi no tanada oyobi nōsanson keikan)||1.1||Matsuno, Ehime||2017|
|Kure port and fishing townscape (久礼の港と漁師町の景観, Kure no minato to ryōshi machi no keikan)||1.4, 1.5||Tosa, Kōchi||2011|
|Cultural landscape in the Shimantogawa River basin. Villages in the mountains to the headwater region (四万十川流域の文化的景観 源流域の山村, Shimantogawa ryūiki no bunkateki keikan genryūiki no sanson)||2||Tsuno, Kōchi||2009|
|Cultural landscape in the Shimantogawa River basin. Villages and rice terraces in the mountains at the upstream region (四万十川流域の文化的景観 上流域の山村と棚田, Shimantogawa ryūiki no bunkateki keikan jōryūiki no sanson to tanada)||2||Yusuhara, Kōchi||2009|
|Cultural landscape in the Shimantogawa River basin. Circulation and traffic among agricultural and mountainous villages at the upstream region (四万十川流域の文化的景観 上流域の農山村と流通・往来, Shimantogawa ryūiki no bunkateki keikan jōryūiki no nōsanson to ryūtsū ōrai)||2||Nakatosa, Kōchi||2009|
|Cultural landscape in the Shimantogawa River basin. Circulation and traffic among agricultural and mountainous villages at the middlestream region (四万十川流域の文化的景観 中流域の農山村と流通・往来, Shimantogawa ryūiki no bunkateki keikan chūryūiki no nōsanson to ryūtsū ōrai)||2||Shimanto, Kōchi||2009|
|Cultural landscape in the Shimantogawa River basin. Vocations, circulation and traffic in the downstream region (四万十川流域の文化的景観 下流域の生業と流通・往来, Shimantogawa ryūiki no bunkateki keikan karyūiki no nariwai to ryūtsū ōrai)||2||Shimanto, Kōchi||2009|
|Rural Landscape of Kubote (求菩提の農村景観, Kubote no nōson keikan)||1.1, 1.8, 2||Fukuoka||2012|
|Rice terraces in Warabino (蕨野の棚田, Warabino no tanada)||1.1||located on a north facing horseshoe shaped steep slope of Mount Hachiman (八幡岳, hachimandake); area: 34 ha (84 acres), average step height: 3–5 m (9.8–16.4 ft) (up to 8 m (26 ft) max)||Karatsu, Saga||2008|
|Cultural landscape of Hisaka Island , Gotō (五島市久賀島の文化的景観, Gotō-shi Hisakajima no bunkateki keikan)||1.3, 1.8, 2||Gotō, Nagasaki||2011|
|Cultural landscape of Kuroshima, Sasebo (佐世保市黒島の文化的景観, Sasebo-shi Kuroshima no bunkateki keikan)||1.1, 1.8, 2||Sasebo, Nagasaki||2011|
|Cultural landscape of the Ojika islands (小値賀諸島の文化的景観, Ojikashotō no bunkateki keikan)||1.7, 1.8||Ojika, Nagasaki||2011|
|Island landscape at Shinkamigoto (新上五島町崎浦の五島石集落景観, Shinkamigotō-chō Sakiura no gotōishi shūraku keikan)||1.6, 1.8, 2||Shinkamigotō, Nagasaki||2012|
|Cultural landscape of Kitauonome, Shinkamigotō (新上五島町北魚目の文化的景観, Shinkamigotō-chō Kitauonome no bunkateki keikan)||1.2||Shinkamigotō, Nagasaki||2012|
|Landscape with terraces retained by stonework at Sotome, Nagasaki (長崎市外海の石積集落景観, Nagasaki-shi sotome no ishizumi shūraku keikan)||1.1, 1.8, 2||Nagasaki, Nagasaki||2012|
|Cultural landscape in Hirado island (平戸島の文化的景観, Hiradoshima no bunkateki keikan)||1.1, 1.5, 1.8||Hirado, Nagasaki||2010|
|Landscape with Tsūjun irrigation channel and rice terraces in Shiraito Plateau (通潤用水と白糸台地の棚田景観, Tsūjun yōsui to Shiraito daichi no tanada keikan)||1.1, 1.5, 2||The discharge of water from the Tsūjun Bridge is one of the 100 Soundscapes of Japan||Yamato, Kumamoto||2008/9|
|Cultural Landscape of Sakitsu and Imatomi, Amakusa (天草市﨑津・今富の文化的景観, Amakusa-shi sakitsu imatomi no bunkateki keikan)||1.4, 1.7, 1.8||Amakusa, Kumamoto||2011|
|Cultural landscape of Misumi Bay (三角浦の文化的景観, musimuura no bunkateki keikan)||1.5, 1.7, 1.8, 2||Uki, Kumamoto||2015|
|Ontayaki Village (小鹿田焼の里, Ontayaki no sato)||2||Hita, Ōita||2008|
|Rural landscape of Tashibunoshō Osaki (田染荘小崎の農村景観, Tashibunoshō Osaki no nōson keikan)||1.1, 1.8, 2||Bungotakada, Ōita||2010|
|Steam and hot spring landscape in Beppu (別府の湯けむり・温泉地景観, Beppu no yukemuri onsenchi keikan)||1.5, 1.6, 2||Beppu, Ōita||2012|
|Sakamoto Rice Terraces and Rural Mountain Village Landscape of Sakatani (酒谷の坂元棚田及び農山村景観, sakatani no sakamoto tanada oyobi nōsanson keikan)||1.1, 1.3, 2||Nichinan, Miyazaki||2013|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cultural Landscapes of Japan .|
Iiyama is a city located in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 February 2019, the city had an estimated population of 20,118 in 7372 households, and a population density of 99 persons per km². The total area of the city is 202.43 square kilometres (78.16 sq mi). It markets itself as "Japan's Hometown" and is known as the "Little Kyoto of Snow Country".
Kanzeon-ji (観世音寺) is a seventh-century Buddhist temple in Dazaifu, Fukuoka, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. It was once the most important temple in Kyushu. Its bell, one of the oldest in the country, has been designated a National Treasure, and in 1996 the Ministry of the Environment designated its sound as one of the 100 Soundscapes of Japan. Many statues of the Heian period are Important Cultural Properties.
Asuka-Fujiwara: Archaeological sites of Japan’s Ancient Capitals and Related Properties is a cluster of archaeological sites from in and around the late sixth- to early eighth-century capitals of Asuka and Fujiwara-kyō, Nara Prefecture, Japan. In 2007, twenty eight sites were submitted jointly for future inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage List under the ii, iii, iv, v, and vi criteria. Currently, the submission is listed on the Tentative List.
The Historical Museum of the Saru River opened in the Nibutani area of Biratori, Hokkaidō, Japan in 1998, the year after Nibutani Dam was completed. The Museum documents the natural and cultural history of life along the Saru River and has information on nearby chashi. The collection includes 123 objects dating from the fifteenth to the seventeenth centuries that were excavated from the Nibutani Site (二風谷遺跡) and have been designated a Prefectural Cultural Property. The "Cultural Landscape along the Sarugawa River resulting from Ainu Tradition and Modern Settlement" has been designated an Important Cultural Landscape.
Nakagoshi, Nobukazu (2011). "How to Conserve Japanese Cultural Landscapes: The Registration System for Cultural Landscapes". In Sun-kee Hong (ed.). Landcape Ecology in Asian Cultures. Springer. pp. 249–276. ISBN 978-4-431-87798-1.