Cumberland

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Cumberland
Historic county
Cumberland flag.svg
Flag
Cumberland en 1851.svg
Area
  1831969,490 acres (3,923.4 km2)1831 Census cited in Vision of Britain – Ancient county data
  1911973,086 acres (3,937.94 km2)
  1961973,146 acres (3,938.18 km2)
Population
  1911265,746 Vision of Britain – Cumberland population (density and area)
  1961294,303
Density
  19110.27/acre (0.67/ha)
  19610.3/acre (0.74/ha)
History
  Origin Historic
  Created12th Century
  Abolished1974
  Succeeded by Cumbria
Status
Chapman code CUL
Government Cumberland County Council (1889–1974)
   HQ Carlisle
Arms of Cumberland County Council.svg
Arms of Cumberland County Council
Subdivisions
  Type Wards
  Units
  • Cumberland
  • Eskdale
  • Allerdale Above Derwent
  • Allerdale Below Derwent
  • Leath
Cumberland Wards.svg

Cumberland ( /ˈkʌmbərlənd/ KUM-bər-lənd) is a historic county in the far North West England. It covers part of the Lake District as well as the north Pennines and Solway Firth coast. Cumberland had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974. From 1974 until 2023, Cumberland lay within Cumbria, a larger administrative area which also covered Westmorland and parts of Yorkshire and Lancashire. In April 2023, Cumberland will be revived as an administrative entity when Cumbria County Council is abolished and replaced by two unitary authorities; one of these is to be named Cumberland and will include most of the historic county, with the exception of Penrith and the surrounding area.

Contents

Cumberland is bordered by the historic counties of Northumberland to the north-east, County Durham to the east, Westmorland to the south-east, Lancashire to the south, and the Scottish counties of Dumfriesshire and Roxburghshire to the north. [1]

Early history

In the Early Middle Ages, Cumbria was part of the Kingdom of Strathclyde in the Hen Ogledd, or "Old North", and its people spoke a Brittonic language now called Cumbric. The first record of the term 'Cumberland' appears in AD 945, when the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the area was ceded to Malcolm I, king of Alba (Scotland), by King Edmund I of England. As with 'Cymru', the native Welsh name for Wales, the names 'Cumberland' and 'Cumbria' are derived from kombroges in Common Brittonic, which originally meant "compatriots". [2] [3]

At the time of the Domesday Book (AD 1086) most of the future county was part of Scotland, although some villages around Millom, which were the possessions of the Earl of Northumbria, had been incorporated into Yorkshire. [4]

In AD 1092, King William Rufus of England invaded the Carlisle district, settling it with colonists. He created an Earldom of Carlisle, and granted the territory to Ranulf le Meschin. In 1133, Carlisle was made the see of a new diocese, largely identical with the area of the earldom. However, on the death of King Henry I of England in 1135, the area was regained by King David I of Scotland. He was able to consolidate his power and made Carlisle one of his chief seats of government, while England descended into a lengthy civil war. The Cumbric language is believed to have become extinct in the 12th century. [5]

The area returned to the English crown in 1157, when Henry II of England took possession of the area (from Malcolm IV of Scotland). Henry II formed two new counties from the former earldom: Westmorland and Carliol – originally an abbreviation of the Latin Carlioliensis '[bishop] of Carlisle'. Westmorland also included areas formerly part of the Earldom of Lancaster. The lead- and silver-mining area of Alston, previously associated with the Liberty of Tynedale was later also added to the new county of Carliol for financial reasons. [6] By 1177, Carliol had become known as Cumberland. [7] The border between England and Scotland was made permanent by the Treaty of York in 1237.

Geography

The boundaries formed in the 12th century were not changed substantially over the county's existence. There are four English historic counties and two Scottish counties that it borders: Northumberland and County Durham to the east; Westmorland to the south, the Furness part of Lancashire to the southwest; Dumfriesshire to the north and Roxburghshire to the northeast.

To the west the county is bounded by the Solway Firth and the Irish Sea. The northern boundary was formed by the Solway Estuary and the border with Scotland running east to Scotch Knowe at Kershope Burn. The boundary runs south from Scotch Knowe along the Cheviot Hills, then followed a tributary of the River Irthing and crossed Denton Fell to the River Tees. From Tees Head the boundary crosses the Pennines to descend Crowdundale Beck, from where it followed the rivers Eden and Eamont to the centre of Ullswater. The line follows Glencoin Beck to the top of Helvellyn ridge at Wrynose Pass and along the River Duddon (near Millom) to the sea .

The highest point of the county is Scafell Pike, at 3,208 feet (978 m), the highest mountain in England. Carlisle is the county town.

Sub-divisions

Map of Cumberland showing wards, 1824 Gray1824.cumberland.jpg
Map of Cumberland showing wards, 1824

The Earldom of Carlisle was partitioned into baronies. When the County of Cumberland was created, the baronies were subdivided as wards, a county sub-division also used in Durham, Northumberland and Westmorland. These originated as military subdivisions used to organise the male inhabitants for the county's defence from Scottish troop incursions. [8]

Each ward was composed of a number of parishes, areas originally formed for ecclesiastical administration. In common with other northern England counties, many ancient parishes in Cumberland were very large, often consisting of a number of distinct townships and hamlets. Many of these ancient parishes eventually became civil parishes and form the lowest level of local government.

Allerdale above Derwent

Parishes [9] Notes
Arlecdon
Beckermet St JohnIncluded part of township of Calder & Beckermet or Calderbridge
Beckermet St BridgetIncluded townships of Ennerdale & Kinniside, Eskdale & Wasdale
Bootle
Brigham Included townships of Blindbothel, Buttermere, Cockermouth, Eaglesfield, Embleton, Greysouthen, Mosser, Setmurthey, Whinfell
Cleator
Corney
Crosthwaite (part)Included township of Borrowdale
Dean
Drigg and Carlton
Egremont
Gosforth Included township of Bolton
Haile
Harrington
Irton with Santon Included township of Santon & Murthwaite
Lamplugh Included townships of Kelton & Winder, Murton
Lorton Included townships of Brackenthwaite, Wythop
Loweswater
Millom Included hamlet of Birker with Austhwaite, township of Ulpha
Moresby Included township of Parton
Muncaster
Ponsonby Included part of township of Calder & Beckermet or Calderbridge
St Bees Include townships of Hensingham, Lowside Quarter, Netherwasdale, Preston Quarter, Rottington, Sandwith, Wheddicarr, Whitehaven
Waberthwaite
Whicham
Whitbeck
Workington Included townships of Great Clifton, Little Clifton, Stainburn, Winscales

Allerdale below Derwent

Parishes [9] Notes
Allhallows
Aspatria Including townships of Hayton & Mealo, Oughterside & Allerby
Bassenthwaite
Bolton Including townships of Bolton Gate, Bolton Wood & Quarry Hill, Bolton Lowside, Isel Old Park, Sunderland
Bridekirk Including townships of Dovenby, Great Broughton, Little Broughton
Bromfield (part)Including townships of Allonby, Langrigg & Mealrigg, Papcastle, Tallentire, Westnewton
Caldbeck (part)
Cammerton Including township of Seaton
Crosscanonby Including townships of Birkby & Canonby, Blennerhasset & Kirkland, Crosby, Maryport
Crosthwaite (part)Included townships of Castlerigg St John's & Wythburn, Keswick, Ribton, Underskiddaw
Dearham Including township of Ellenborough & Ewanrigg
Flimby
Gilcrux
Holme Cultram Including townships of Abbey Quarter (or Holme Abbey), Holme East Waver Quarter, Holme St Cuthbert's Quarter, Holme Low Quarter
Ireby Including townships of High Ireby, Low Ireby
Isel Including township of Blindcrake and Redmain
Plumbland
Torpenhow Including townships of Bewaldeth and Snittlegarth, Bothel & Thrupland
Uldale
West Ward

Eskdale

Parishes [9] Notes
Arthuret Included townships of Braconhill, Lineside, Longtown, Netherby
Bewcastle
Brampton
Castlecarrock
Crosby High & Low
Cumrew Outside and Inside
Cumwhitton Included township of Northsceugh
East Farlam
Hayton Included townships of Little Crosby, Fenton & Faugh, Talkin
Irthington Included townships of Kingwater, Laversdale, Newby, Newtown
Kingmoor (hamlet)Extra-parochial liberty belonging to the Corporation of Carlisle
Kirkandrews upon Esk Included townships of Kirkandrews Moat, Kirkandrews Nether Quarter, Kirkandrews Upper Quarter, Nichol Forest
Kirklinton Included townships of Hethersgill, Westlinton (or Levington)
Lanercost Included townships of Askerton, Burtholme & Banks, Lineside
Nether Denton
Scaleby East and West
Stanwix
Stapleton Included townships of Belbank, Solport Quarter, Trough
Upper Denton
Walton High and Low
West Farlam

Leath

Parishes [9] Notes
Addingham Included townships of Gamblesby, Glassonby, Hunsonby & Winskill
Ainstable and Rushcroft
Alston with Garrigill Included the Chapelry of Garrigill
Caldbeck (part)Township of Mosedale
Carlisle, St Mary's (part)Township of Middlesceugh & Braithwaite
Castle Sowerby
Croglin
Dacre
Edenhall Included township of Langwathby
Great Salkeld
Greystoke Included townships of Berrier & Murrah, Bowscale, Hutton John, Hutton Roof, Hutton Soil, Matterdale, Mungrisdale, Threlkeld, Watermillock
Hesket in the Forest
Hutton in the Forest
Kirkland Included townships of Culgaith, Kirkland & Blencarn
Kirkoswald Included township of Staffield
Lazonby Included township of Plumpton Wall
Melmerby
Newton Reigny Included township of Catterlen
Ousby
Penrith
Renwick
Skirwith

Cumberland Ward

Cumberland Ward included Carlisle and Wigton as well as parts of Inglewood Forest. The parish of Stanwix just to the north of Carlisle was partly in both Eskdale and Cumberland wards.

Parishes [9] Notes
Aikton
Beaumont
Bowness Included townships of Anthorn, Drumburg, Fingland
Bromfield (part)Included townships of Blencogo, Dundraw
Burgh by Sands
Carlisle, St Mary's (part)*Townships of Caldewgate Quarter, Cummersdale Quarter, Wreay
Carlisle St Mary Within*Included township of Rickergate Quarter
Carlisle St Cuthbert's Within*
Carlisle St Cuthbert's Without*
Dalston
Eaglesfield Abbey*
Grinsdale
Kirkandrews upon Eden
Kirkbampton
Kirkbride
Orton Included township of Baldwinholme
Rockcliffe
Sebergham Low and High Quarters
Thursby
Warwick
Wetheral
Wigton Included townships of Oulton Water, Waverton High & Low, Woodside Quarter

* Parts or all of these parishes and townships constituted the City of Carlisle, and were largely outside the jurisdiction of Cumberland Ward.

Local government from the 19th century

During the 19th century a series of reforms reshaped the local government of the county, creating a system of districts with directly elected councils.

Poor law and municipal reform

Map of Cumberland in 1845 showing poor law unions and parliamentary divisions Cumberland Lewis.png
Map of Cumberland in 1845 showing poor law unions and parliamentary divisions

The first changes concerned the administration of the poor law, which was carried at parish level. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 provided for the grouping of parishes into poor law unions, each with a central workhouse and an elected board of guardians. Cumberland was divided into nine unions: Alston with Garrigill, Bootle, Brampton, Carlisle, Cockermouth, Longtown, Penrith, Whitehaven and Wigton.

In the following year the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 was passed, reforming boroughs and cities in England and Wales as municipal boroughs with a uniform constitution. The corporation of the City of Carlisle was accordingly remodelled with a popularly elected council consisting of a mayor, aldermen and councillors.

Local boards and sanitary districts

Outside of municipal boroughs, there was no effective local government until the 1840s. In response to poor sanitary conditions and outbreaks of cholera, the Public Health Act 1848 and the Local Government Act 1858 allowed for the formation of local boards of health in populous areas. Local boards were responsible inter alia for water supply, drainage, sewerage, paving and cleansing. Eleven local boards were initially formed at Brampton, Cleator Moor, Cockermouth, Egremont, Holme Cultram, Keswick, Maryport, Millom, Penrith, Whitehaven, Wigton and Workington.

Further reform under the Public Health Act 1875 saw the creation of sanitary districts throughout England and Wales. The existing municipal boroughs and local boards became "urban sanitary districts", while "rural sanitary districts" were formed from the remaining areas of the poor law unions.

Three more local boards were formed: Arlecdon and Frizington in 1882, Harrington in 1891 and Aspatria in 1892. In addition Workington and Whitehaven received charters of incorporation to become municipal boroughs in 1883 and 1894 respectively.

Local government acts of 1888 and 1894

In 1889, under the Local Government Act 1888, the Cumberland County Council was created as the county council for Cumberland, taking over administrative functions from the Court of Quarter Sessions. The Local Government Act 1894 reconstituted the existing sanitary districts as urban districts and rural districts, each with an elected council.

The Act of 1888 also allowed any municipal borough with a population of 50,000 people or more to become a "county borough", independent of county council control. In 1914, Carlisle successfully applied for this status, ceasing to form part of the administrative county, although remaining within Cumberland for the purposes such as Lieutenancy and shrievalty.

Reform in 1934

The Local Government Act 1929 imposed the duty on county councils of reviewing the districts within their administrative county so as to form more efficient units of local government. In general, this meant the merging of small or lightly populated areas into larger units. A review was carried in Cumberland in 1934. The following table lists the urban and rural districts before and after the changes.

District 1894–1934District 1934–1974
Alston with Garrigill RD
Arlecdon & Frizington UDPart of Ennerdale RD
Aspatria UDAbsorbed by Wigton RD
Bootle RDPart of Millom RD
Brampton RDPart of Border RD
Carlisle RDPart of Border RD
Cleator Moor UDPart of Ennerdale RD
Cockermouth RD
Cockermouth UD
Egremont UDPart of Ennerdale RD
Harrington UDAbsorbed by Workington MB
Holme Cultram UDAbsorbed by Wigton RD
Keswick UD
Longtown RDPart of Border RD
Maryport UD
Penrith RD
Penrith UD
Whitehaven RDPart of Ennerdale RD

The distribution of population in 1971 was as follows:1971 Census; Small Area Statistics

DistrictPopulation
County Borough of Carlisle 71,580
Cockermouth Urban District 6,366
Keswick Urban District 5,184
Maryport Urban District 11,612
Penrith Urban District 11,308
Municipal Borough of Whitehaven 26,721
Municipal Borough of Workington 28,431
Alston with Garrigill Rural District 1,917
Border Rural District 29,267
Cockermouth Rural District 21,520
Ennerdale Rural District 30,983
Millom Rural District 14,088
Penrith Rural District 11,380
Wigton Rural District 21,830

In 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, the administrative county and county borough were abolished and their former area was combined with Westmorland and parts of Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire to form the new county of Cumbria. The area from Cumberland went on to form the districts of Carlisle, Allerdale, Copeland and part of Eden. [10]

Legacy

The name continues in use as a geographical and cultural term, and it survives in Cumberland sausages; HMS Cumberland; the Cumberland Fell Runners Club; the Cumberland Athletics Club; and various organisations and companies, such as the local newspapers The Cumberland News, and The West Cumberland Times and Star, and the Cumberland Building Society. It is also mentioned in Macbeth as the kingdom given to Prince Malcolm.

In June 1994, during the 1990s UK local government reform, the Local Government Commission published draft recommendations, suggesting as one option a North Cumbria unitary authority (also including Appleby, the historic county town of Westmorland). It also suggested that Cumberland could be reinstated as an independent ceremonial county. The final recommendations, published in October 1994, did not include such recommendations, apparently due to lack of expression of support for the proposal to the commission.

The Grass-of-Parnassus was the county flower. It had been associated with the county since 1951, when it was included in the coat of arms granted to the Cumberland County Council. It subsequently featured in the arms granted to Cumbria County Council and Copeland Borough Council, in both cases to represent Cumberland. The flower was also attributed to Cumbria in 2002 as part of a national County flowers of the United Kingdom campaign by the charity Plantlife. In 2012, a flag based on the arms of the former Cumberland County Council was registered as the flag of Cumberland with the Flag Institute.

In 2013, the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government, Eric Pickles, formally recognised and acknowledged the continued existence of England's 39 historic counties, including Cumberland. [11] [12] [13]

In 2021, it was announced that in April 2023 local government in Cumbria will be reorganised into two unitary authorities, one of which is to be named Cumberland and would include most of the historic county, with the exception of Penrith and the surrounding area. [14]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cumbria</span> Ceremonial county of England

Cumbria is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England, bordering Scotland. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's county town is Carlisle, in the north of the county. Other major settlements include Barrow-in-Furness, Kendal, Whitehaven and Workington.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Westmorland</span> Historic county of England

Westmorland (, formerly also spelt Westmoreland; is a historic county in North West England. It had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974. Between 1974 and 2023 Westmorland lay within the administrative county of Cumbria. In April 2023, Cumbria County Council will be abolished and replaced with two unitary authorities, one of which will be named Westmorland and Furness, thereby reviving Westmorland as an administrative entity. The people of Westmorland are known as Westmerians.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Millom</span> Human settlement in England

Millom is a town and civil parish on the north shore of the estuary of the River Duddon in southwest Cumbria, historically part of Cumberland, England. It is situated just outside the Lake District National Park, about six miles north of Barrow-in-Furness and 26 mi (42 km) south of Whitehaven.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Appleby-in-Westmorland</span> Market town in Cumbria, England

Appleby-in-Westmorland is a market town and civil parish in the Eden District of Cumbria, England, with a population of 3,048 at the 2011 Census. Crossed by the River Eden, Appleby was the county town of the historic county of Westmorland. It was known just as Appleby until 1974–1976, when the council of the successor parish to the borough changed it to retain the name Westmorland, which was abolished as an administrative area under the Local Government Act 1972. It lies 14 miles (23 km) south-east of Penrith, 32 miles (51 km) south-east of Carlisle, 27 miles (43 km) north-east of Kendal and 45 miles (72 km) west of Darlington.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Borough of Copeland</span> Borough and Non-metropolitan district in England

The Borough of Copeland is a local government district and borough in western Cumbria, England. Its council is based in Whitehaven. It was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of the Borough of Whitehaven, Ennerdale Rural District and Millom Rural District. The population of the Non-Metropolitan district was 69,318 according to the 2001 census, increasing to 70,603 at the 2011 Census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Allerdale</span> Borough in England

Allerdale is a non-metropolitan district of Cumbria, England, with borough status. Its council is based in Workington and the borough has a population of 93,492 according to the 2001 census, increasing to 96,422 at the 2011 Census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Penrith, Cumbria</span> Market town in Cumbria, England

Penrith is a market town and civil parish in the county of Cumbria, England, about 17 miles (27 km) south of Carlisle. It is less than 3 miles (5 km) outside the Lake District National Park, in between the Rivers Petteril and Eamont and just north of the River Lowther. It had a population of 15,181 at the 2011 Census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">BBC Radio Cumbria</span> Radio station in Carlisle, England

BBC Radio Cumbria is the BBC's local radio station serving the county of Cumbria. It broadcasts on FM, AM, DAB, digital TV and via BBC Sounds from studios in Carlisle.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Civil parishes in Cumbria</span>

A civil parish in England is the lowest unit of local government. There are 284 civil parishes in the ceremonial county of Cumbria, with most of the county being parished, and Allerdale, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland being entirely parished. At the 2001 census, there were 359,692 people living in those 284 parishes, accounting for 73.8 per cent of the county's population.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Penrith and The Border (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1950 onwards

Penrith and The Border is a constituency in Cumbria represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2019 by Neil Hudson, a Conservative.

Penrith was a rural district within the administrative county of Cumberland, England that existed from 1894 to 1974 with slight boundary changes in 1934.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hesket, Cumbria</span> Parish in Cumbria, England

Hesket is a large civil parish in the Eden District of Cumbria, England, on the main A6 between Carlisle and Penrith. At the 2001 census it had a population of 2,363, increasing to 2,588 at the 2011 census, and estimated at 2,774 in 2019. The parish formed in 1894 with the passing of the Local Government Act 1894 and was enlarged to incorporate the parish of Plumpton Wall following a County Review Order in 1934. Hesket is part of the historic royal hunting ground of Inglewood Forest. Settlement in the parish dates back to the Roman occupation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hesket Newmarket</span> Human settlement in England

Hesket Newmarket is a small village in Cumbria, England, historically within Cumberland. It is on the opposite side of Skiddaw to Keswick within the Lake District National Park.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cumbria County Council</span>

Cumbria County Council is the county council for the non-metropolitan county of Cumbria in the North West of England. Established in April 1974, following its first elections held the previous year, it is an elected local government body responsible for the most significant local services in the area, including schools, roads, and social services.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cumberland County Council, England</span>

Cumberland County Council was the county council of Cumberland in the North West of England, an elected local government body responsible for most local services in the county. It was established in 1889 as a result of the Local Government Act 1888. Carlisle was initially within its area but became a separate county borough in 1914. In 1974, both authorities were merged along with parts of others into the new Cumbria County Council. In April 2023 local government in Cumbria will be reorganised into two unitary authorities, one of which is to be named Cumberland Council and would include most of the historic county, with the exception of Penrith and the surrounding area.

The Cumbria Rugby Union is the governing body for the sport of rugby union in the county of Cumbria in England. The union is the constituent body of the Rugby Football Union (RFU) for Cumbria, and administers and organises rugby union clubs and competitions in the county. It also administers the Cumbria rugby representative teams.

The Cumbria Cup is an annual rugby union knock-out club competition organized by the Cumbria Rugby Union. It was first introduced during the 1882-83 season, when it was known as the Cumberland Challenge Cup, and the inaugural winners were Aspatria. Originally it was open only to club sides in Cumberland, but in 1974, as a result of the 1972 Local Government Act, Cumberland, Westmorland and Furness merged to form what we now know as Cumbria, and the competition was renamed as the Cumbria Cup, although the Westmorland & Furness Cup continued intermittently up until 2008. It is the most important cup competition in the county ahead of the Cumbria League Cup and Cumbria Shield.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cumberland (unitary authority)</span> District and unitary authority in England

Cumberland is a future unitary local government area in north-west England. Together with Westmorland and Furness, it will be formally established on 1 April 2023 when Cumbria County Council is abolished. The district will consist of the areas covered by the current districts of Allerdale, Carlisle and Copeland, which will also cease to function. It will cover 75% of the area of, and 90% of the population of, the historic county of Cumberland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Westmorland and Furness</span> Future unitary authority area in England

Westmorland and Furness is a future unitary authority area in north-west England, which will come into being on 1 April 2023 on the abolition of Cumbria County Council, together with Cumberland. The council will cover the areas currently served by the districts of Barrow-in-Furness, Eden and South Lakeland, which will also cease to function. It will include all of the area of the historic county of Westmorland as well as the Furness district of historic Lancashire. It will also incorporate a very small part of historic Yorkshire together with about a quarter of the area of the historic county of Cumberland.

References

  1. "Names for two controversial Cumbria councils revealed". BBC News . 5 November 2021. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  2. "Cymric". Online Etymological Dictionary. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  3. Davies, John (2007) [1990]. A History of Wales. Penguin Books. pp. 68–69.
  4. Barrow, G. W. S. (2006). The Kingdom of the Scots: Government, Church and Society from the Eleventh to the Fourteenth Century (2nd ed.). Edinburgh University Press. ISBN   0-7486-1803-1.
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  6. "Carlisle Diocese: History and Description". Clergy of the Church of England database . Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  7. Marr, J. E. (1910). Cambridge County Geographies: Cumberland. Cambridge University Press.
  8. W L Warren (1984). "The Myth of Norman Administrative Efficiency: The Prothero Lecture". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Fifth Series. 34: 113–132. doi:10.2307/3679128. JSTOR   3679128. S2CID   162793914.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 The wards and their constituent parishes were as of 1821. Youngs, Frederic A Jr. (1991). Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England, Vol.2: Northern England. London: Royal Historical Society. pp. 648–649. ISBN   0-86193-127-0.Whillier, Thomas (1825). A General Directory to all the Counties, Hundreds, Ridings, Wapentakes, Divisions, Cities, Boroughs, Liberties, Parishes, Townships, Tythings, Hamlets, Precincts, Chapelries &c. &c. in England. London: Joseph Butterworth & Son. pp. 28–31.
  10. Local government in England and Wales: A Guide to the New System. London: HMSO. 1974. ISBN   0-11-750847-0.
  11. "Eric Pickles: celebrate St George and England's traditional counties". Department for Communities and Local Government. 23 April 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  12. Kelner, Simon (23 April 2013). "Eric Pickles's championing of traditional English counties is something we can all get behind". The Independent. London. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  13. Garber, Michael (23 April 2013). "Government 'formally acknowledges' the Historic Counties to Celebrate St George's Day". Association of British Counties. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  14. "Names for two controversial Cumbria councils revealed". BBC News . 5 November 2021. Retrieved 12 March 2022.

Further reading

Coordinates: 54°45′N3°00′W / 54.750°N 3.000°W / 54.750; -3.000