Cumbria

Last updated

Cumbria
Motto(s):  
"Ad Montes Oculos Levavi" ("I have lifted up mine eyes unto the hills")
Cumbria UK locator map 2010.svg
Coordinates: 54°30′N3°15′W / 54.500°N 3.250°W / 54.500; -3.250 Coordinates: 54°30′N3°15′W / 54.500°N 3.250°W / 54.500; -3.250
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region North West
Established1 April 1974
Established by Local Government Act 1972
Time zone UTC±00:00 (Greenwich Mean Time)
  Summer (DST) UTC+01:00 (British Summer Time)
Members of Parliament List of MPs
Police Cumbria Constabulary
Ceremonial county
Lord Lieutenant Claire Hensman
High Sheriff Julie Barton [1] (2020–21)
Area6,768 km2 (2,613 sq mi)
  Ranked 3rd of 48
Population (mid-2019 est.)498,888
  Ranked 41st of 48
Density74/km2 (190/sq mi)
Ethnicity97.5% White British
0.1% White Irish
0.1% White Gypsy or Irish Traveller
1.1% Other White
0.1% White & Black Caribbean
0.1% White & Black African
0.2% White & Asian
0.1% Other Mixed
0.2% Indian
0.1% Pakistani
0.1% Bangladeshi
0.2% Chinese
0.2% Other Asian
0.1% Black African
0.1% Other
Non-metropolitan county
County council Cumbria County Council
Executive Labour/Liberal Democrats
Admin HQ Carlisle
Area6,768 km2 (2,613 sq mi)
  Ranked 2nd of 26
Population500,012
  Ranked 25th of 26
Density74/km2 (190/sq mi)
ISO 3166-2 GB-CMA
ONS code 16
GSS code E10000006
NUTS UKD11, UKD12
Website www.cumbria.gov.uk
Districts
Cumbria numbered districts.svg
Districts of Cumbria
Districts
  1. City of Carlisle
  2. Allerdale
  3. Eden
  4. Copeland
  5. South Lakeland
  6. Barrow-in-Furness

Cumbria ( /ˈkʌmbriə/ KUM-bree-ə) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's county town is Carlisle, in the north of the county. The only other major urban area is Barrow-in-Furness on the south-western tip of the county.

Contents

The county of Cumbria consists of six districts (Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland) and, in 2019, had a population of just over 500,000 people. Cumbria is one of the most sparsely populated counties in England, with 73.4 people per km2 (190/sq mi).

Cumbria is the third largest county in England by area. It is bounded to the north-east by Northumberland, the east by County Durham, the south-east by North Yorkshire, the south by Lancashire, the west by the Irish Sea, the north-west by the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway, and the north by Scottish Borders.

Cumbria is predominantly rural and contains the Lake District National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered one of England's finest areas of natural beauty, serving as inspiration for artists, writers, and musicians. A large area of the south-east of the county is within the Yorkshire Dales National Park, while the east of the county fringes the North Pennines AONB. Much of Cumbria is mountainous and it contains every peak in England over 3,000 feet (910 m) above sea level, with the top of Scafell Pike at 3,209 feet (978 m) being the highest point in England. An upland, coastal and rural area, Cumbria's history is characterised by invasions, migration and settlement, as well as battles and skirmishes between the English and the Scots. Notable historic sites in Cumbria include Carlisle Castle, Furness Abbey, Hardknott Roman Fort, Brough Castle and Hadrian's Wall (also a World Heritage Site).

History

The Castlerigg stone circle dates from the late Neolithic age and was constructed by some of the earliest inhabitants of Cumbria Castlerigg2.JPG
The Castlerigg stone circle dates from the late Neolithic age and was constructed by some of the earliest inhabitants of Cumbria

The county of Cumbria was created in April 1974 through an amalgamation of the administrative counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, to which parts of Lancashire (the area known as Lancashire North of the Sands) and of the West Riding of Yorkshire were added. [2]

During the Neolithic period the area contained an important centre of stone axe production (the so-called Langdale axe factory), products of which have been found across Great Britain. [3] During this period stone circles and henges were built across the county and today 'Cumbria has one of the largest number of preserved field monuments in England'. [4]

While not part of the region conquered in the Romans' initial conquest of Britain in AD 43, most of modern-day Cumbria was later conquered in response to a revolt deposing the Roman-aligned ruler of the Brigantes in AD 69. [5] The Romans built a number of fortifications in the area during their occupation, the most famous being UNESCO World Heritage Site Hadrian's Wall which passes through northern Cumbria. [6]

At the end of the period of British history known as Roman Britain (c.AD 410) the inhabitants of Cumbria were Cumbric-speaking native Romano-Britons who were probably descendants of the Brigantes and Carvetii (sometimes considered to be a sub-tribe of the Brigantes) that the Roman Empire had conquered in about AD 85.[ citation needed ] Based on inscriptional evidence from the area, the Roman civitas of the Carvetii seems to have covered portions of Cumbria. The names Cumbria, Cymru (the native Welsh name for Wales), Cambria, and Cumberland are derived from the name these people gave themselves, *kombroges in Common Brittonic, which originally meant "compatriots". [7] [8]

Although Cumbria was previously believed to have formed the core of the Early Middle Ages Brittonic kingdom of Rheged, more recent discoveries near Galloway appear to contradict this. [9] For the rest of the first millennium, Cumbria was contested by several entities who warred over the area, including the Brythonic Celtic Kingdom of Strathclyde and the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria. Most of modern-day Cumbria was a principality in the Kingdom of Scotland at the time of the Norman conquest of England in 1066 and thus was excluded from the Domesday Book survey of 1086. In 1092 the region was invaded by William II and incorporated into England. [10] Nevertheless, the region was dominated by the many Anglo-Scottish Wars of the latter Middle Ages and early modern period and the associated Border Reivers who exploited the dynamic political situation of the region. [11] There were at least three sieges of Carlisle fought between England and Scotland, and two further sieges during the Jacobite risings.

After the Jacobite Risings of the 18th century, Cumbria became a more stable place and, as in the rest of Northern England, the Industrial Revolution caused a large growth in urban populations. In particular, the west coast towns of Workington, Millom and Barrow-in-Furness saw large iron and steel mills develop, with Barrow also developing a significant shipbuilding industry. [12] Kendal, Keswick and Carlisle all became mill towns, with textiles, pencils and biscuits among the products manufactured in the region. The early 19th century saw the county gain fame when the Lake Poets and other artists of the Romantic movement, such as William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, lived among, and were inspired by, the lakes and mountains of the region. Later, the children's writer Beatrix Potter also wrote in the region and became a major landowner, granting much of her property to the National Trust on her death. [13] In turn, the large amount of land owned by the National Trust assisted in the formation in 1951 of the Lake District National Park, which remains the largest National Park in England and has come to dominate the identity and economy of the county.

The historic counties shown within Cumbria
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
Boundary of Cumbria
Cumberland
Westmorland
Historic Lancashire
West Riding of Yorkshire Historic counties within Cumbria.svg
The historic counties shown within Cumbria
  Boundary of Cumbria
  Historic Lancashire

The Windscale fire of 10 October 1957 was the worst nuclear accident in Great Britain's history. [14] The county of Cumbria was created in 1974 from the traditional counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, the Cumberland County Borough of Carlisle, along with the North Lonsdale or Furness part of Lancashire, usually referred to as "Lancashire North of the Sands", (including the county borough of Barrow-in-Furness) and, from the West Riding of Yorkshire, the Sedbergh Rural District. [2] It is governed by Cumbria County Council.

On 2 June 2010, taxi driver Derrick Bird killed 12 and injured 11 in a spree killing that spanned over 24 kilometres (15 miles) along the Cumbrian coastline. [15]

Local newspapers The Westmorland Gazette and Cumberland and Westmorland Herald continue to use the name of their historic counties. Other publications, such as local government promotional material, describe the area as "Cumbria", as does the Lake District National Park Authority.

Geography

Topographic map of Cumbria Cumbria SRTM.png
Topographic map of Cumbria

Cumbria is the most northwesterly county of England. The northernmost and southernmost points in Cumbria are just west of Deadwater, Northumberland and South Walney respectively. Kirkby Stephen (close to Tan Hill, North Yorkshire) and St Bees Head are the most easterly and westerly points of the county. Most of Cumbria is mountainous, with the majority of the county being situated in the Lake District while the Pennines, consisting of the Yorkshire Dales and the North Pennines, lie at the eastern and south-east areas of the county. At 978 metres (3,209 ft) Scafell Pike is the highest point in Cumbria and in England. Windermere is the largest natural lake in England.

The Lancaster Canal runs from Preston into South Cumbria and is partly in use. The Ulverston Canal which once reached to Morecambe Bay is maintained although it was closed in 1945. The Solway Coast and Arnside and Silverdale AONB's lie in the lowland areas of the county, to the north and south respectively.

Boundaries and divisions

Cumbria is bordered by the English counties of Northumberland, County Durham, North Yorkshire, Lancashire, and the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders.

The boundaries are along the Irish Sea to Morecambe Bay in the west, and along the Pennines to the east. Cumbria's northern boundary stretches from the Solway Firth from the Solway Plain eastward along the border with Scotland to Northumberland.

It is made up of six districts: Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland. For many administrative purposes Cumbria is divided into three areas — East, West and South. East consists of the districts of Carlisle and Eden, West consists of Allerdale and Copeland, and South consists of Lakeland and Barrow.

In July 2021, the UK government announced that the county and district councils would be abolished and replaced by two new unitary authorities, one for the east (Barrow-in-Furness, Eden, and South Lakeland) and one for the west (Allerdale, Carlisle, and Copeland). [16]

The county returns six Members of Parliament to the House of Commons, representing the constituencies of Carlisle, Penrith & The Border, Workington, Copeland, Westmorland and Lonsdale and Barrow & Furness.

Economy

BAE Systems Submarine Solutions in Barrow-in-Furness has a workforce of around 5,000 people. DDH, Barrow-in-Furness.jpg
BAE Systems Submarine Solutions in Barrow-in-Furness has a workforce of around 5,000 people.

Many large companies and organisations are based in Cumbria. The county council itself employs around 17,000 individuals, while the largest private employer in Cumbria, the Sellafield nuclear processing site, has a workforce of 10,000. [17] Below is a list of some of the county's largest companies and employers (excluding services such as Cumbria Constabulary, Cumbria Fire and Rescue and the NHS in Cumbria), categorised by district.

East

Barrow-in-Furness

Eden

South Lakeland

West

Allerdale

Carlisle

Copeland

  • Sellafield is the largest private employer in the county; many West Cumbrians have links to the site. [33]

Tourism

The entrance to Whinlatter Forest Park Whinlatter Forest Park Sign.jpg
The entrance to Whinlatter Forest Park
Sizergh Castle Way in - geograph.org.uk - 406894.jpg
Sizergh Castle
Muncaster Castle Muncaster Castle morris edited.jpg
Muncaster Castle

The largest and most widespread industry in Cumbria is tourism. The Lake District National Park alone receives some 15.8 million visitors every year. [34] Despite this, fewer than 50,000 people reside permanently within the Lake District: mostly in Ambleside, Bowness-on-Windermere, Coniston, Keswick, Gosforth, Grasmere and Windermere. [34] Over 36,000 Cumbrians are employed in the tourism industry which adds £1.1 billion a year to the county's economy. The Lake District and county as a whole attract visitors from across the UK, [34] Europe, North America and the Far East (particularly Japan). [34] The tables below show the twenty most-visited attractions in Cumbria in 2009. (Not all visitor attractions provided data to Cumbria Tourism who collated the list. Notable examples are Furness Abbey, the Lakes Aquarium and South Lakes Safari Zoo, the last of which would almost certainly rank within the top five). [35]

RankAttractionLocationVisitors
1 Windermere Lake Cruises Bowness-on-Windermere1,313,807
2RhegedPenrith439,568
3 Ullswater Steamers Glenridding348,000
4 Whinlatter Forest Park and Visitor Centre Whinlatter252,762
5 Tullie House Museum and Art Gallery Carlisle251,808
6 Grizedale Forest Park and Visitor Centre Grizedale175,033
7 Carlisle Cathedral Carlisle166,141
8 Brockhole Lake District Visitor Centre Windermere135,539
9 Hill Top Hawkshead103,682
10 Sizergh Castle Sizergh Castle90,063
RankAttractionLocationVisitors
11 Cumberland Pencil Museum Keswick80,100
12 Muncaster Castle Ravenglass78,474
13 Dock Museum Barrow-in-Furness73,239
14The BeaconWhitehaven71,602
15 Holker Hall Cartmel58,060
16 Carlisle Castle Carlisle56,957
17 Beatrix Potter Gallery Hawkshead47,244
18Lake District Wildlife Park [36] Bassenthwaite45,559
19 The Homes of Football Ambleside49,661
20 Cartmel Priory Cartmel43,672

Economic output

This is a chart of the trend of regional gross value added (GVA) of East and West Cumbria at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by the Office for National Statistics

Gross value added by each sector (£millions)
YearEast CumbriaWest Cumbria
Regional GVA [37] Agriculture [38] Industry [39] Services [40] Regional GVA [37] Agriculture [38] Industry [39] Services [40]
19952,6791489021,6292,246631,294888
20002,8431208091,9142,415531,2121,150
20033,3881299242,3352,870601,4201,390

Politics

Local

Cumbria is administered by Cumbria County Council and six district councils: Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden, and South Lakeland.

The county and district councils are due to be abolished and replaced by two new unitary authorities. [41]

East

The eastern authority will cover the current districts of Barrow-in-Furness, Eden, and South Lakeland. The territory includes the former county of Westmorland and neighbouring areas. Its largest settlement will be Barrow-in-Furness.

West

The western authority will cover the current districts of Allerdale, Carlisle, and Copeland. The territory constitutes most of the former county of Cumberland. Its largest settlement will be Carlisle.

National

As of the 2019 general election, the Labour Party have zero Members of Parliament (MPs) from Cumbria for the first time since 1910.

Constituency1983198719921997200120052010201520172019
Barrow and Furness CON  Cecil Franks LAB  John Hutton LAB  John Woodcock CON Simon Fell
Carlisle LAB  Ronald Lewis LAB  Eric Martlew CON John Stevenson
Copeland LAB  Jack Cunningham LAB  Jamie Reed CON Trudy Harrison
Penrith and The Border CON  David Maclean CON  Rory Stewart CON Neil Hudson
Westmorland and Lonsdale CON  Michael Jopling CON  Tim Collins LD Tim Farron
Workington LAB  Dale Campbell-Savours LAB  Tony Cunningham LAB  Sue Hayman CON Mark Jenkinson
2019 General Election Results in Cumbria
PartyVotes%Change from 2017SeatsChange from 2017
Conservative 143,61552.4%Increase2.svg3.6%5Increase2.svg2
Labour 79,40228.9%Decrease2.svg7.3%0Decrease2.svg2
Liberal Democrats 39,42614.4%Increase2.svg2.6%10
Greens 4,2231.5%Increase2.svg0.8%00
Brexit 3,8671.4%new00
Others3,0441.1%Increase2.svg0.7%00
Total274,313100.06

Education

The University of Cumbria's Fusehill Campus in Carlisle Skiddaw Building, University of Cumbria - geograph.org.uk - 715574.jpg
The University of Cumbria's Fusehill Campus in Carlisle

Although Cumbria has a comprehensive system almost fully, there is one state grammar school in Penrith. There are 42 state secondary schools and 10 independent schools. The more rural secondary schools tend to have sixth forms (although in Barrow-in-Furness district, no schools have sixth forms due to the only sixth college in Cumbria being located in the town) and this is the same for three schools in Allerdale and South Lakeland, and one in the other districts. Chetwynde is also the only school in Barrow to educate children from nursery all the way to year 11.

Colleges of further education in Cumbria include:

The University of Cumbria is one of the UK's newest universities, having been established in 2007. It is at present the only university in Cumbria and has campuses across the county, together with Lancaster and London.

Transport

The M6 motorway and West Coast Main Line near Grayrigg Forest Lune Valley from Grayrigg Forest.jpg
The M6 motorway and West Coast Main Line near Grayrigg Forest

Road

The M6 is the only motorway that runs through Cumbria. Kendal and Penrith are amongst its primary destinations. Further north it becomes the A74(M) at the border with Scotland north of Carlisle. Major A roads within Cumbria include:

  • UK road A6.svg A6 (Luton, Bedfordshire to Carlisle via Kendal and Penrith)
  • UK road A66.svg A66 (Workington to Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire via Keswick and M6 Junction 40)
  • UK road A69.svg A69 (Carlisle to Newcastle upon Tyne via Brampton and Hexham)
  • UK road A590.svg A590 (M6 Junction 36 to Barrow-in-Furness via Ulverston)
  • UK road A591.svg A591 (Sizergh to Bothel via Kendal, Windermere, Ambleside, Grasmere and Keswick)
  • UK road A592.svg A592 (Penrith to Newby Bridge via M6 Junction 40, Windermere and Bowness)
  • UK road A595.svg A595 (Carlisle to Dalton-in-Furness via Whitehaven and Workington)
  • UK road A596.svg A596 (Carlisle to Workington)

Bus

Several bus companies run services in Cumbria serving the main towns and villages in the county, with some services running to neighbouring areas such as Lancaster. Stagecoach North West is the largest; it has depots in Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Kendal and Workington. Stagecoach's flagship X6 route connects Barrow-in-Furness and Kendal in south Cumbria.

Air

There are only two airports in the county: Carlisle Lake District and Barrow/Walney Island. Both airports formerly served scheduled passenger flights and both are proposing expansions and renovations to handle domestic and European flights in the near future. The nearest international airports to south Cumbria are Blackpool, Manchester and Liverpool John Lennon. North Cumbria is closer to Newcastle, Glasgow Prestwick and Glasgow International. Barrow-in-Furness is one of the country's largest shipbuilding centres, but the Port of Barrow is only minor, operated by Associated British Ports alongside the Port of Silloth in Allerdale. There are no ferry links from any port or harbour along the Cumbria coast.

Railway

The busiest railway stations in Cumbria are Carlisle, Barrow-in-Furness, Penrith and Oxenholme Lake District. The 399 miles (642 km) West Coast Main Line runs through the Cumbria countryside, adjacent to the M6 motorway. The Cumbrian Coast Line connects Barrow-in-Furness to Carlisle and is a vital link in the west of the county. Other railways in Cumbria are the Windermere Branch Line, most of the Furness Line and much of the Settle-Carlisle Railway.

Demography

Cumbria's largest settlement and only city is Carlisle, in the north of the county. The largest town, Barrow-in-Furness, in the south, is slightly smaller. The county's population is largely rural: it has the second-lowest population density among English counties, and has only five towns with a population of over 20,000. Cumbria is also one of the country's most ethnically homogeneous counties, with 95.1% of the population categorised as White British (around 470,900 of the 495,000 Cumbrians). [42] However, the larger towns have ethnic makeups that are closer to the national average. The 2001 census indicated that Christianity was the religion with the most adherents in the county.

2010 ONS estimates placed the number of foreign-born (non-United Kingdom) people living in Cumbria at around 14,000 and foreign nationals at 6,000. [43] The 2001 UK Census showed the following most common countries of birth for residents of Cumbria that year:

  • Flag of England.svg England, 454,137
  • Flag of Scotland.svg Scotland, 16,628
  • Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Wales, 3,471
  • Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Northern Ireland, 2,289
  • Flag of Germany.svg Germany, 1,438
  • Flag of Ireland.svg Republic of Ireland, 1,359
  • Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa, 603
  • Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada, 581
  • Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australia, 531
  • Flag of the United States.svg United States, 493
  • Flag of India.svg India, 476
  • Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong, 417
  • Flag of Italy.svg Italy, 249
  • Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand, 241
  • Flag of France.svg France, 197
  • Flag of Poland.svg Poland, 193
  • Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, 174
  • Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands, 167
  • Flag of Spain.svg Spain, 166
  • Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore, 160
Population totals for Cumbria
YearPop.±% p.a.
1801 173,017    
1811 193,139+1.11%
1821 225,555+1.56%
1831 242,320+0.72%
1841 255,603+0.54%
1851 274,957+0.73%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1861 320,257+1.54%
1871 365,556+1.33%
1881 410,856+1.18%
1891 434,867+0.57%
1901 437,364+0.06%
1911 440,485+0.07%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1921 441,483+0.02%
1931 442,693+0.03%
1941 456,833+0.31%
1951 471,897+0.32%
1961 473,706+0.04%
1971 475,669+0.04%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1981 471,693−0.08%
1991 489,191+0.36%
2001 487,607−0.03%
2011 499,900+0.25%
2014 499,800−0.01%
Pre-1974 statistics were gathered from local government areas that are now comprised by Cumbria
Source: Great Britain Historical GIS. [44] [45]

Settlements

Largest parishes by district

Borough or districtAdministrative centreSettlements
Allerdale UK locator map.svg
Allerdale
WorkingtonClock.jpg
Workington
Aspatria
Cockermouth
Harrington
Keswick
Maryport
Silloth
Wigton
Barrow-in-Furness UK locator map.svg
Barrow-in-Furness
Duke Street, Barrow-in-Furness.jpg
Barrow-in-Furness
Askam and Ireleth
Dalton-in-Furness
Walney Island
Carlisle UK locator map.svg
Carlisle
ScotchStreet-Carlisle.jpg
Carlisle
Brampton
Dalston
Longtown
Copeland UK locator map.svg
Copeland
Whitehaven - geograph.org.uk - 19798.jpg
Whitehaven
Arlecdon and Frizington
Cleator Moor
Egremont
Millom
St Bees
Eden UK locator map.svg
Eden
Market Square, Penrith.jpg
Penrith
Alston
Appleby-in-Westmorland
Kirkby Stephen
Shap
Kirkoswald
South Lakeland UK locator map.svg
South Lakeland
Kendal-Cumbria-6.jpg
Kendal
Ambleside
Bowness-on-Windermere
Coniston
Grasmere
Hawkshead
Kirkby Lonsdale
Milnthorpe
Sedbergh
Ulverston
Windermere

Twinnings

SettlementDistrictTwinned settlement
CarlisleCarlisle Flag of Germany.svg Flensburg, Germany
Flag of Poland.svg Słupsk, Poland
CockermouthAllerdale Flag of France.svg Marvejols, France
Dalton-in-FurnessBarrow-in-Furness Flag of the United States.svg Dalton, Pennsylvania, United States
KendalSouth Lakeland Flag of Ireland.svg Killarney, Ireland
Flag of Germany.svg Rinteln, Germany
PenrithEden Flag of Australia (converted).svg Penrith, New South Wales, Australia
SedberghSouth Lakeland Flag of Slovenia.svg Zreče, Slovenia
UlverstonSouth Lakeland Flag of France.svg Albert, France
WhitehavenCopeland Flag of Bulgaria.svg Kozloduy, Bulgaria [46]
WindermereSouth Lakeland Flag of Germany.svg Diessen am Ammersee, Germany
WorkingtonAllerdale Flag of Germany.svg Selm, Germany
Flag of France.svg Val-de-Reuil, France

Symbols and county emblems

The arms of Cumbria County Council were granted by the College of Arms on 10 October 1974. The arms represent the areas from which the new county council's area was put together; the shield's green border has Parnassus flowers representing Cumberland interspersed with roses; red for Lancashire (the Furness district) on white for Yorkshire (Sedbergh is from the West Riding). The crest is a ram's head crest, found in the arms of both Westmorland County Council and Barrow County Borough, with Cumberland's Parnassus flowers again. The supporters are the legendary Dacre Bull (Cumberland) and a red dragon, redolent of Cumbria's Brittonic origin.(Appleby in Westmorland). They stand on a base compartment representing Hadrian's Wall (in Cumberland), crossed with two red bars (from the Westmorland arms). [47]

The county council motto "Ad Montes Oculos Levavi" is Latin, from Psalm 121; ("I shall lift up mine eyes unto the hills"). [47]

The county flag of Cumbria is a banner of arms of Cumbria County Council. [48] [49]

Sport

Running

Fell running is a popular sport in Cumbria, with an active calendar of competitions taking place throughout the year. Cumbria is also home to several of the most active Orienteering clubs in the UK as well as the Lakes 5 Days competition that takes place every 4 years.

Football

Association

Brunton Park, the home of Carlisle United Brunton Park Welcome.jpg
Brunton Park, the home of Carlisle United

Barrow and Carlisle United are the only professional football teams in Cumbria and both currently play in EFL League Two. Carlisle United attract support from across Cumbria and beyond, with many Cumbrian "ex-pats" travelling to see their games, both home and away.[ citation needed ]

Workington—who are always known locally as "the reds"—are a well-supported non-league team,[ citation needed ] having been relegated from the Football League in the 1970s. Workington made a rapid rise up the non league ladder and in 2007/08 competed with Barrow in the Conference North. Barrow were then promoted to the Conference Premier in 2007/08. In 2020, Barrow were promoted to the Football League as a result of winning the National League.

Rugby league

Craven Park, home of Barrow Raiders Craven Park, Barrow.jpg
Craven Park, home of Barrow Raiders

Rugby league is a very popular sport in South and West Cumbria. Barrow, Whitehaven and Workington play in the Rugby League Championships.

Amateur teams; Wath Brow Hornets, Askam, Egremont Rangers, Kells, Barrow Island, Hensingham and Millom play in the National Conference.

Rugby union

Rugby union is popular in the east of the county with teams such as Furness RUFC & Hawcoat Park RUFC (South Cumbria), Workington RUFC (Workington Zebras), Whitehaven RUFC, Carlisle RUFC, Creighton RUFC, Aspatria RUFC, Wigton RUFC, Kendal RUFC, Kirkby Lonsdale RUFC, Keswick RUFC, Cockermouth RUFC, Upper Eden RUFC and Penrith RUFC.

Uppies and Downies

Workington is home to the ball game known as Uppies and Downies, [50] a traditional version of football, with its origins in Medieval football or an even earlier form. [51] Players from outside Workington do take part, especially fellow West Cumbrians from Whitehaven and Maryport. [52]

American

Cumbria is home to the Furness Phantoms, the county's sole American football team.

Cricket

Cumbria County Cricket Club is one of the cricket clubs that constitute the National Counties in the English domestic cricket structure. The club, based in Carlisle, competes in the National Counties Cricket Championship and the NCCA Knockout Trophy. The club also play some home matches in Workington, as well as other locations.

Cumbrian club cricket teams play in the North Lancashire and Cumbria League.

Wrestling

Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling is an ancient and well-practised tradition in the county with a strong resemblance to Scottish Backhold.

In the 21st century Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling along with other aspects of Lakeland culture are practised at the Grasmere Sports and Show, an annual meeting held every year since 1852 on the August Bank Holiday.

The origin of this form of wrestling is a matter of debate, with some describing it as having evolved from Norse wrestling brought over by Viking invaders, [53] while other historians associate it with the Cornish and Gouren styles [54] indicating that it may have developed out of a longer-standing Celtic tradition. [55]

Motor

Karting

Cumbria Kart Racing Club is based at the Lakeland Circuit, Rowrah, between Cockermouth and Egremont Lakeland Circuit. The track is currently a venue for rounds of both major UK national karting championships About Cumbria Kart Racing Club. Formula One world champions Lewis Hamilton and Jenson Button both raced karts at Rowrah many times in the formative stages of their motor sport careers, [56] while other F1 drivers, past and present, to have competed there include Johnny Herbert, Anthony Davidson, Allan McNish, Ralph Firman, Paul di Resta and David Coulthard, who hailed from just over the nearby Anglo-Scottish border and regarded Rowrah as his home circuit, becoming Cumbria Kart Racing Club Champion in 1985 in succession to McNish (di Resta also taking the CKRC title subsequently). [57]

Baseball

Cumbria is home to the Cartmel Valley Lions, an amateur baseball team based in Cartmel.

Speedway

Workington Comets were a Workington-based professional speedway team, [58] which competed in the British Speedway Championship. [59]

Food

Cumbria is the UK county with the highest number of Michelin starred restaurants, with seven in this classification in the Great Britain and Ireland Michelin Guide of 2021. Traditional Cumbrian cuisine has been influenced by the spices and molasses that were imported into Whitehaven in the 18th century. The Cumberland sausage (which has a protected geographical status) is a well-recognised result of this. Other regional specialities include Herdwick mutton and the salt-marsh raised lamb of the Cartmel peninsula. [60]

Dialect influences

Celtic

Anglo-Saxon/Viking

Scandinavian/Norse/Dane

Normans

Cumbric

Media

Two evening newspapers are published daily in Cumbria. The News and Star focuses largely on Carlisle and the surrounding areas of north and west Cumbria, and the North-West Evening Mail is based in Barrow-in-Furness and covers news from across Furness and the South Lakes. The Cumberland and Westmorland Herald and The Westmorland Gazette are weekly newspapers based in Penrith and Kendal respectively. The Egremont 2Day newspaper, formerly Egremont Today when affiliated with the Labour Party, was a prominent monthly publication - founded by Peter Watson (and edited by him until his death in 2014) in 1990 until July 2018. In February 2020 The Herdwick News, run by the last editor of The Egremont 2Day, was launched and is an independent online news publication covering the county of Cumbria and the North West.

Due to the size of Cumbria the county spans two television zones: BBC North East and Cumbria and ITV Tyne Tees & Border in the north and BBC North West and ITV Granada in the south. Heart North West, CFM Radio and Smooth Lake District are the most popular local radio stations throughout the county, with BBC Radio Cumbria being the only station that is aimed at Cumbria as a whole.

The Australian-New Zealand feature film The Navigator: A Medieval Odyssey (1988) is set in Cumbria during the onset of the Black Death in 14th-century Europe.

Cumbria is host to a number of festivals, including Kendal Calling (actually held in Penrith since 2009) [72] [73] and Kendal Mountain Festival.

Places of interest

Key
AP Icon.svg Abbey/Priory/Cathedral
UKAL icon.svg Accessible open space
Themepark uk icon.png Amusement/Theme Park
CL icon.svg Castle
Country parks.svg Country Park
EH icon.svg English Heritage
Forestry Commission
HR icon.svg Heritage railway
HH icon.svg Historic House
AP Icon.svg Mosques
Museum icon.svg
Museum icon (red).svg
Museum (free/not free)
NTE icon.svg National Trust
Drama-icon.svg Theatre
Zoo icon.jpg Zoo
Furness Abbey Furness Abbey 03.jpg
Furness Abbey
Lake Windermere Flat calm at dawn, Windermere, from below Claife Heights - geograph.org.uk - 559443.jpg
Lake Windermere
Thirlmere Thirleme 069.jpg
Thirlmere

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

Workington Coastal town in Cumbria, England

Workington is a coastal town and civil parish at the mouth of the River Derwent on the west coast of Cumbria, England, historically in Cumberland. At the 2011 census it had a population of 25,207.

Cumberland Historic county of England

Cumberland is a historic county of North West England that had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974. It is bordered by the historic counties of Northumberland to the northeast, County Durham to the east, Westmorland to the southeast, Lancashire to the south, and the Scottish counties of Dumfriesshire and Roxburghshire to the north. It formed an administrative county from 1889 to 1974 and now forms part of Cumbria.

Kendal Cumbrian town

Kendal, once Kirkby in Kendal or Kirkby Kendal, is a market town and civil parish, 8 miles (13 km) south-east of Windermere and 19 miles (31 km) north of Lancaster. Historically in Westmorland, it lies in the South Lakeland District of Cumbria, England, within the dale of the River Kent, from which comes its name. The 2011 census found a population of 28,586, making it the third largest town in Cumbria after Carlisle and Barrow-in-Furness. It has fame today mainly as a centre for shopping, for its festivals and historic sights, including Kendal Castle, and as the home of Kendal mint cake. The town's grey limestone buildings have earned it the nickname "Auld Grey Town".

BBC Radio Cumbria Radio station in Carlisle, England

BBC Radio Cumbria is the BBC's local radio station serving the county of Cumbria.

Cumbria Constabulary English territorial police force

Cumbria Constabulary is the territorial police force in England covering Cumbria. As of September 2017, the force had 1,108 police officers, 535 police staff, 93 police community support officers, 25 designated officers and 86 special constables. In terms of officer numbers, it is the 7th smallest of the 48 police forces of the United Kingdom. Conversely, its geographic area of responsibility is the 7th largest police area of a territorial police force in the United Kingdom. The force area's size and its population of just under 500,000 people makes it sparsely populated. The only major urban areas are Carlisle and Barrow-in-Furness.

Civil parishes in Cumbria

A civil parish in England is the lowest unit of local government. There are 284 civil parishes in the ceremonial county of Cumbria, with most of the county being parished, and Allerdale, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland being entirely parished. At the 2001 census, there were 359,692 people living in those 284 parishes, accounting for 73.8 per cent of the county's population.

Caldbeck Human settlement in England

Caldbeck is a village in Cumbria, England, historically within Cumberland, it is situated within the Lake District National Park. The village had 714 inhabitants according to the census of 2001.

Cumbria County Cricket Club

Cumbria County Cricket Club is one of twenty minor county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. Originally, it represented the historic counties of Cumberland and Westmorland. It now represents the ceremonial county of Cumbria, as defined by the Lieutenancies Act 1997. Cumbria was first created in 1974 as an administrative county by combining the traditional counties of Cumberland and Westmorland along with Furness and a small part of north-west Yorkshire.

Cumbrian dialect English dialect of northwestern England

The Cumberland dialect is a local Northern English dialect in decline, spoken in Cumberland, Westmorland and surrounding northern England, not to be confused with the area's extinct Celtic language, Cumbric. Some parts of Cumbria have a more North-East English sound to them. Whilst clearly spoken with a Northern English accent, it shares much vocabulary with Scots. A Cumbrian Dictionary of Dialect, Tradition and Folklore by William Rollinson exists, as well as a more contemporary and lighthearted Cumbrian Dictionary and Phrase Book.

History of Cumbria

The history of Cumbria as a county of England begins with the Local Government Act 1972. Its territory and constituent parts however have a long history under various other administrative and historic units of governance. Cumbria is an upland, coastal and rural area, with a history of invasions, migration and settlement, as well as battles and skirmishes between the English and the Scots.

Cumbria Fire and Rescue Service Fire and rescue service in north west England

Cumbria Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service for the Shire county of Cumbria, England. Since 2012, the headquarters for the service's 38 fire stations are at Penrith next to the headquarters of Cumbria Constabulary.

Demography of Cumbria

The English county of Cumbria is located in North West England and has a population of 496,200. Cumbria has an area of 6,768 km², making the county England's 3rd largest county. With only 73 inhabitants per km², it is the country's second least densely populated county. People from Cumbria are known as Cumbrians and they speak a variety of the Cumbrian dialect to the north, whilst a Lancashire accent is more prominent in the South. Along with Lancashire to the south, Cumbria is bordered with Scotland to the north, the Irish Sea to the west, Northumberland to the north-east, County Durham to the east and North Yorkshire to the south-east.

Stagecoach Cumbria & North Lancashire Bus operator

Stagecoach Cumbria & North Lancashire is a major operator of bus services in North West England. It is a subsidiary of the Stagecoach Group, and has its origins in the purchase of Cumberland in 1987 and Ribble in 1988 from the National Bus Company. The head office of Stagecoach Cumbria & North Lancashire is in Carlisle. It was previously known as Stagecoach North West until 1 September 2011, when Stagecoach Merseyside joined Preston and Chorley depots to form Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire.

History of medieval Cumbria

The history of medieval Cumbria has several points of interest. The region's status as a borderland coping with 400 years of warfare is one. The attitude of the English central government, at once uninterested and deeply interested, is another. As a border region, of geopolitical importance, Cumbria changed hands between the Angles, Norse, Strathclyde Brythons, Picts, Normans, Scots and English; and the emergence of the modern county is also worthy of study.

Rowrah railway station Disused railway station in Cumbria, England

Rowrah railway station was built by the Whitehaven, Cleator and Egremont Railway. It served the village of Rowrah, Cumbria, England.

The Cumbria Rugby Union is the governing body for the sport of rugby union in the county of Cumbria in England. The union is the constituent body of the Rugby Football Union (RFU) for Cumbria, and administers and organises rugby union clubs and competitions in the county. It also administers the Cumbria rugby representative teams.

The Cumbria Cup is an annual rugby union knock-out club competition organized by the Cumbria Rugby Union. It was first introduced during the 1882-83 season, when it was known as the Cumberland Challenge Cup, and the inaugural winners were Aspatria. Originally it was open only to club sides in Cumberland, but in 1974, as a result of the 1972 Local Government Act, Cumberland, Westmorland and Furness merged to form what we now know as Cumbria, and the competition was renamed as the Cumbria Cup, although the Westmorland & Furness Cup continued intermittently up until 2008. It is the most important cup competition in the county ahead of the Cumbria League Cup and Cumbria Shield.

References

  1. "No. 62943". The London Gazette . 13 March 2020. p. 5161.
  2. 1 2 "Local Government Act 1972". www.legislation.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 1 July 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  3. Castleden, Rodney (1992). Neolithic Britain: New Stone Age Sites of England, Scotland, and Wales. Routledge. ISBN   9780415058452. Archived from the original on 20 August 2018. Retrieved 20 August 2018.
  4. Barrowclough (2010), p. 105.
  5. Shotter (2014), p.5
  6. Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Frontiers of the Roman Empire". whc.unesco.org. Archived from the original on 20 August 2018. Retrieved 20 August 2018.
  7. "Cymric". Online Etymological Dictionary. Archived from the original on 27 April 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  8. Davies, John (2007) [1990]. A History of Wales. Penguin Books. pp. 68–69.
  9. Ronan, Toolis (31 January 2017). The lost Dark Age kingdom of Rheged : the discovery of a royal stronghold at Trusty's Hill, Galloway. Bowles, Christopher R. Oxford. ISBN   9781785703126. OCLC   967457029.
  10. 1954-, Sharpe, Richard (2006). Norman rule in Cumbria, 1092-1136. Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society. ISBN   978-1873124437. OCLC   122952827.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  11. Tuck, J.A. (January 1986). "The Emergence of a Northern Nobility, 1250–1400". Northern History. 22 (1): 1–17. doi:10.1179/007817286790616516. ISSN   0078-172X.
  12. Gill, Jepson (15 November 2017). Barrow-in-Furness at work : people and industries through the years. Stroud. ISBN   9781445670041. OCLC   1019605931.
  13. Sarah, Gristwood (9 June 2016). The story of Beatrix Potter. London. ISBN   9781909881808. OCLC   951610299.
  14. Richard Black (18 March 2011). "Fukushima - disaster or distraction?". BBC.
  15. Fresco, Adam (2 June 2010). "Police identify man wanted over drive-by shootings in Cumbria". The Times. London. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
  16. "Cumbria councils to be replaced by two authorities" . Retrieved 5 August 2021.
  17. "Cumbrian employers supporting staff after multiple shooting". Personneltoday. 3 June 2010. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
  18. "BAE Systems Barrow". BAE Systems. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
  19. "Port of Barrow". Associated British Ports Holdings. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
  20. "Kimberly-Clark Barrow". Kimberly-Clark. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
  21. "James Fisher & Sons Barrow". James Fisher & Sons. Archived from the original on 30 August 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
  22. "Stollers Barrow". Stollers. Archived from the original on 1 March 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  23. "Center Parcs". Center Parcs. Archived from the original on 12 July 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  24. "GlaxoSmithKline Ulverston". GlaxoSmithKline. Archived from the original on 28 June 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  25. "Lakeland Windermere". Lakeland. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  26. "Heinz Kendal". Applegate. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  27. "Associated British Ports | Silloth". www.abports.co.uk.
  28. "Pirelli Carlisle". Pirelli. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
  29. "Carr's Carlisle". Carr's. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
  30. "Stobart Carlisle". Stobart. Archived from the original on 22 July 2010. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
  31. "Nestlé Carlisle". ukbusinesspark. Archived from the original on 18 August 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
  32. "First minister 'disappointed' by EWM move". BBC News. 24 May 2018. Archived from the original on 19 September 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  33. "Sellafield". Sellafield. Archived from the original on 4 July 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  34. 1 2 3 4 "Lake District National Park". Lake District National Park. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  35. "Lake District National Park". Cumbria Tourism. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  36. "About Us - Lake District Wildlife Park" . Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  37. 1 2 Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  38. 1 2 includes hunting and forestry
  39. 1 2 includes energy and construction
  40. 1 2 includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
  41. "Cumbria councils to be replaced by two authorities" . Retrieved 5 August 2021.
  42. "Current Estimates – Population Estimates by Ethnic Group Mid-2009 (experimental)". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
  43. "Table 1.3: Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth, April 2009 to March 2010". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
  44. A Vision of Britain through time, Cumbria Modern (post 1974) County: Total Population, archived from the original on 6 September 2011, retrieved 10 January 2010
  45. "Ballet star shows off charity portraits". Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  46. Jovchev, Stanimir. "Побратимени градове". Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  47. 1 2 Cumbria County Council Archived 8 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine (Civic Heraldry) accessed 24 January 2010
  48. "Cumbria floods remembered at Department for Communities and Local Government - GOV.UK". Archived from the original on 15 March 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  49. "Cumbria flag flying outside Eland House". Department for Communities and Local Government. 2010. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  50. "Uppies and Downies website" . Retrieved 25 June 2009.[ dead link ]
  51. Henricks, Thomas S. (1991). Origins of Mass ball Games. ISBN   9780313274534. Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  52. "Times and Star". Archived from the original on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  53. "Kronos; A Chronology of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports". Archived from the original on 9 February 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2007.
  54. "Amateur Wrestling". Archived from the original on 30 December 2006. Retrieved 24 February 2007.
  55. "Kronos; A Chronology of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports". Archived from the original on 9 February 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2007.
  56. "About Cumbria Kart Racing Club". web.archive.org. 21 April 2012.
  57. "Rowrah Paves Way for Next Lewis Hamilton". Ergemont Today. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012.
  58. "Workington Speedway". Workington Comets. Archived from the original on 19 July 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  59. "British Speedway's Premier League". British Speedway. Archived from the original on 3 June 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  60. "Cumbria - the UK county with the most Michelin stars". Michelin Guide. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  61. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Wales, Katie (2006). Northern English . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp.  62.
  62. Strang, Barbara M, H (1970). A History of English. London: Methuen. p. 256.
  63. Elmes, Simon (1999). The Routes of English. London: BBC. p. 27.
  64. Tristram, Hildegard (2000). "Introduction: languages in contact; layer cake model or otherwise?". The Celtic Languages. 2: 1–8.
  65. Leith, Dick (1983). A Social History of English. London: Routledge. p. 106.
  66. Trudgill, Peter (1974). "Linguistic change and diffusion: description and explanation in sociolinguistic dialect geography". Language in Society. 3 (2): 215–2246. doi:10.1017/s0047404500004358.
  67. Werner, Otmar (1991). "The incorporation of Old Norse pronouns in Middle English: suppletion by loan". Language Contact in the British Isles: 369–401.
  68. Gordon, E, V (1923). "Scandinavian Influence in Yorkshire Dialects". Transactions of the Yorkshire Dialect Society. 4: 5–22.
  69. Jewell, Helen (1994). The North-South Divide: The Origins of Northern Consciousness in England. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 20.
  70. 1 2 3 Price, G (2000). Languages in Britain and Ireland. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 125.
  71. Jackson, Peter (1989). Maps of Meaning: An Introduction to Cultural Geography. London: Unwin Hyman. p. 72.
  72. "Travel - Kendal Calling". Kendal Calling. Archived from the original on 6 September 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  73. "Kendal Calling 2009 - have your say". The Westmorland Gazette. Archived from the original on 6 September 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2018.