Cumbria

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Cumbria
Ceremonial county
County Flag of Cumbria.svg Arms of Cumbria County Council.svg
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Ad Montes Oculos Levavi" ("I have lifted up mine eyes unto the hills")
Cumbria UK locator map 2010.svg
Coordinates: 54°30′N3°15′W / 54.500°N 3.250°W / 54.500; -3.250 Coordinates: 54°30′N3°15′W / 54.500°N 3.250°W / 54.500; -3.250
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region North West
Established1 April 1974
Established by Local Government Act 1972
Ceremonial county
Lord Lieutenant Claire Hensman
High Sheriff Julie Barton [1] (2020–21)
Area6,768 km2 (2,613 sq mi)
  Ranked 3rd of 48
Population (mid-2019 est.)498,888
  Ranked 41st of 48
Density74/km2 (190/sq mi)
Ethnicity97.5% White British
0.1% White Irish
0.1% White Gypsy or Irish Traveller
1.1% Other White
0.1% White & Black Caribbean
0.1% White & Black African
0.2% White & Asian
0.1% Other Mixed
0.2% Indian
0.1% Pakistani
0.1% Bangladeshi
0.2% Chinese
0.2% Other Asian
0.1% Black African
0.1% Other
Non-metropolitan county
County council Cumbria County Council
Executive Conservative / Labour / Independent
Admin HQ Carlisle
Area6,768 km2 (2,613 sq mi)
  Ranked 2nd of 26
Population498,888
  Ranked 26th of 26
Density74/km2 (190/sq mi)
ISO 3166-2 GB-CMA
ONS code 16
GSS code E10000006
NUTS UKD11, UKD12
Website www.cumbria.gov.uk
CumbriaNumbered.png
Districts of Cumbria
Districts
  1. Barrow-in-Furness
  2. South Lakeland
  3. Copeland
  4. Allerdale
  5. Eden
  6. City of Carlisle
Members of Parliament List of MPs
Police Cumbria Constabulary
Time zone Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
  Summer (DST) British Summer Time (UTC+1)

Cumbria ( /ˈkʌmbriə/ KUM-bree-ə) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's county town is Carlisle, in the north of the county; the only other major urban area is Barrow-in-Furness on the south-western tip of the county.

Contents

The county of Cumbria consists of six districts (Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland) and, in 2008, had a population of just under 500,000 people. Cumbria is one of the most sparsely populated counties in England, with 73.4 people per km2 (190/sq mi).

Cumbria is the second largest county in England by area. It is bounded to the north by the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders; to the west by the Irish Sea; to the south by Lancashire; to the south-east by North Yorkshire; and to the east by County Durham and Northumberland.

Cumbria is predominantly rural and contains the Lake District National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered one of England's finest areas of natural beauty, serving as inspiration for artists, writers, and musicians. A large area of the south-east of the county is within the Yorkshire Dales National Park, while the east of the county fringes the North Pennines AONB. Much of Cumbria is mountainous and it contains every peak in England over 3,000 feet (910 m) above sea level, with the top of Scafell Pike at 3,209 feet (978 m) being the highest point in England. An upland, coastal and rural area, Cumbria's history is characterised by invasions, migration and settlement, as well as battles and skirmishes between the English and the Scots. Notable historic sites in Cumbria include Carlisle Castle, Furness Abbey, Hardknott Roman Fort, Brough Castle and Hadrian's Wall (also a World Heritage Site).

History

The Castlerigg stone circle dates from the late Neolithic age and was constructed by some of the earliest inhabitants of Cumbria Castlerigg2.JPG
The Castlerigg stone circle dates from the late Neolithic age and was constructed by some of the earliest inhabitants of Cumbria

The county of Cumbria was created in April 1974 through an amalgamation of the administrative counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, to which parts of Lancashire (the area known as Lancashire North of the Sands) and the West Riding of Yorkshire were added. [2]

During the Neolithic period the area contained an important centre of stone axe production (the so-called 'Langdale Axe Factory'), products of which have been found across Great Britain. [3] During this period stone circles and henges were built across the county and today 'Cumbria has one of the largest number of preserved field monuments in England'. [4]

While not part of the region conquered in the Romans' initial conquest of Britain in AD 43, most of modern-day Cumbria was later conquered in response to a revolt deposing the Roman-aligned ruler of the Brigantes in AD 69. [5] The Romans built a number of fortifications in the area during their occupation, the most famous being UNESCO World Heritage Site Hadrian's Wall which passes through northern Cumbria. [6]

At the end of the period of British history known as Roman Britain (c.AD 410) the inhabitants of Cumbria were Cumbric-speaking native Romano-Britons who were probably descendants of the Brigantes and Carvetii (sometimes considered to be a sub-tribe of the Brigantes) that the Roman Empire had conquered in about AD 85.[ citation needed ] Based on inscriptional evidence from the area, the Roman civitas of the Carvetii seems to have covered portions of Cumbria. The names Cumbria, Cymru (the native Welsh name for Wales), Cambria, and Cumberland are derived from the name these people gave themselves, *kombroges in Common Brittonic, which originally meant "compatriots". [7] [8]

Although Cumbria was previously believed to have formed the core of the Early Middle Ages Brittonic kingdom of Rheged, more recent discoveries near Galloway appear to contradict this. [9] For the rest of the first millennium, Cumbria was contested by several entities who warred over the area, including the Brythonic Celtic Kingdom of Strathclyde and the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria. Most of modern-day Cumbria was a principality in the Kingdom of Scotland at the time of the Norman conquest of England in 1066 and thus was excluded from the Domesday Book survey of 1086. In 1092 the region was invaded by William II and incorporated into England. [10] Nevertheless, the region was dominated by the many Anglo-Scottish Wars of the latter Middle Ages and early modern period and the associated Border Reivers who exploited the dynamic political situation of the region. [11] There were at least three sieges of Carlisle fought between England and Scotland, and two further sieges during the Jacobite risings.

After the Jacobite Risings of the eighteenth century, Cumbria became a more stable place and, as in the rest of Northern England, the Industrial Revolution caused a large growth in urban populations. In particular, the west-coast towns of Workington, Millom and Barrow-in-Furness saw large iron and steel mills develop, with Barrow also developing a significant shipbuilding industry. [12] Kendal, Keswick and Carlisle all became mill towns, with textiles, pencils and biscuits among the products manufactured in the region. The early nineteenth century saw the county gain fame as the Lake Poets and other artists of the Romantic movement, such as William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, lived among, and were inspired by, the lakes and mountains of the region. Later, the children's writer Beatrix Potter also wrote in the region and became a major landowner, granting much of her property to the National Trust on her death. [13] In turn, the large amount of land owned by the National Trust assisted in the formation of the Lake District National Park in 1951, which remains the largest National Park in England and has come to dominate the identity and economy of the county.

The Windscale fire of 10 October 1957 was the worst nuclear accident in Great Britain's history. [14] The county of Cumbria was created in 1974 from the traditional counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, the Cumberland County Borough of Carlisle, along with the North Lonsdale or Furness part of Lancashire, usually referred to as "Lancashire North of the Sands", (including the county borough of Barrow-in-Furness) and, from the West Riding of Yorkshire, the Sedbergh Rural District. [2] It is governed by Cumbria County Council.

Local papers The Westmorland Gazette and Cumberland and Westmorland Herald continue to use the name of their historic county. Other publications, such as local government promotional material, describe the area as "Cumbria", as do the Lake District National Park Authority and most visitors.

Geography

Topographic map of Cumbria Cumbria SRTM.png
Topographic map of Cumbria

Cumbria is the most northwesterly county of England. The northernmost and southernmost points in Cumbria are just west of Deadwater, Northumberland and South Walney respectively. Kirkby Stephen (close to Tan Hill, North Yorkshire) and St Bees Head are the most easterly and westerly points of the county. Most of Cumbria is mountainous, with the majority of the county being situated in the Lake District while the Pennines, consisting of the Yorkshire Dales and the North Pennines, lie at the eastern and south-east areas of the county. At 978 metres (3,209 ft) Scafell Pike is the highest point in Cumbria and in England. Windermere is the largest natural lake in England.

The Lancaster Canal runs from Preston into South Cumbria and is partly in use. The Ulverston Canal which once reached to Morecambe Bay is maintained although it was closed in 1945. The Solway Coast and Arnside and Silverdale AONB's lie in the lowland areas of the county, to the north and south respectively.

Boundaries and divisions

Cumbria is bordered by the English counties of Northumberland, County Durham, North Yorkshire, Lancashire, and the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders.

The boundaries are along the Irish Sea to Morecambe Bay in the west, and along the Pennines to the east. Cumbria's northern boundary stretches from the Solway Firth from the Solway Plain eastward along the border with Scotland to Northumberland.

It is made up of six districts: Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland. For many administrative purposes Cumbria is divided into three areas — East, West and South. East consists of the districts of Carlisle and Eden, West consists of Allerdale and Copeland, and South consists of Lakeland and Barrow.

In January 2007, Cumbria County Council voted in favour of an official bid to scrap the current two-tier system of county and district councils in favour of a new unitary Cumbria Council, to be submitted for consideration to the Department for Communities and Local Government. [15] This was then rejected.

The county returns six Members of Parliament to the House of Commons, representing the constituencies of Carlisle, Penrith & The Border, Workington, Copeland, Westmorland and Lonsdale and Barrow & Furness.

Economy

BAE Systems Submarine Solutions in Barrow-in-Furness has a workforce of around 5,000 people. DDH, Barrow-in-Furness.jpg
BAE Systems Submarine Solutions in Barrow-in-Furness has a workforce of around 5,000 people.

Many large companies and organisations are based in Cumbria. The county council itself employs around 17,000 individuals, while the largest private employer in Cumbria, the Sellafield nuclear processing site, has a workforce of 10,000. [16] Below is a list of some of the county's largest companies and employers (excluding services such as Cumbria Constabulary, Cumbria Fire and Rescue and the NHS in Cumbria), categorised by district:

Allerdale

Barrow-in-Furness

Carlisle

Copeland

Eden

South Lakeland

Tourism

The entrance to Whinlatter Forest Park Whinlatter Forest Park Sign.jpg
The entrance to Whinlatter Forest Park
Sizergh Castle Way in - geograph.org.uk - 406894.jpg
Sizergh Castle
Muncaster Castle Muncaster Castle morris edited.jpg
Muncaster Castle

The largest and most widespread industry in Cumbria is tourism. The Lake District National Park alone receives some 15.8 million visitors every year. [33] Despite this, fewer than 50,000 people reside permanently within the Lake District – mostly in Ambleside, Bowness-on-Windermere, Coniston, Keswick, Grasmere and Windermere. [33] Over 36,000 Cumbrians are employed in the tourism industry which adds £1.1 billion a year to the county's economy. The Lake District and county as a whole attracts visitors from across the UK, [33] Europe, North America and the Far East (particularly Japan). [33] The tables below show the twenty most-visited attractions in Cumbria in 2009 (please note that not all visitor attractions provided data to Cumbria Tourism who collated the list. Notable examples are Furness Abbey, the Lakes Aquarium and South Lakes Safari Zoo, the latter of which would almost certainly rank within the top five). [34]

RankAttractionLocationVisitors
1 Windermere Lake Cruises Bowness-on-Windermere1,313,807
2RhegedPenrith439,568
3 Ullswater Steamers Glenridding348,000
4 Whinlatter Forest Park and Visitor Centre Whinlatter252,762
5 Tullie House Museum and Art Gallery Carlisle251,808
6 Grizedale Forest Park and Visitor Centre Grizedale175,033
7 Carlisle Cathedral Carlisle166,141
8 Brockhole Lake District Visitor Centre Windermere135,539
9 Hill Top Hawkshead103,682
10 Sizergh Castle Sizergh Castle90,063
RankAttractionLocationVisitors
11 Cumberland Pencil Museum Keswick80,100
12 Muncaster Castle Ravenglass78,474
13 Dock Museum Barrow-in-Furness73,239
14The BeaconWhitehaven71,602
15 Holker Hall Cartmel58,060
16 Carlisle Castle Carlisle56,957
17 Beatrix Potter Gallery Hawkshead47,244
18Lake District Wildlife Park [35] Bassenthwaite45,559
19 The Homes of Football Ambleside49,661
20 Cartmel Priory Cartmel43,672

Economic output

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added (GVA) of East Cumbria at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

YearRegional Gross Value Added [36] Agriculture [37] Industry [38] Services [39]
19952,6791489021,629
20002,8431208091,914
20033,3881299242,335

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of West Cumbria at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

YearRegional Gross Value Added [36] Agriculture [37] Industry [38] Services [39]
19952,246631,294888
20002,415531,2121,150
20032,870601,4201,390

Politics

As of the 2019 general election, the Labour Party have zero MPs from Cumbria for the first time since 1910.

Constituency1983198719921997200120052010201520172019
Barrow and Furness CON  Cecil Franks LAB  John Hutton LAB  John Woodcock CON Simon Fell
Carlisle LAB  Ronald Lewis LAB  Eric Martlew CON John Stevenson
Copeland LAB  Jack Cunningham LAB  Jamie Reed CON Trudy Harrison
Penrith and The Border CON  David Maclean CON  Rory Stewart CON Neil Hudson
Westmorland and Lonsdale CON  Michael Jopling CON  Tim Collins LD Tim Farron
Workington LAB  Dale Campbell-Savours LAB  Tony Cunningham LAB  Sue Hayman CON Mark Jenkinson
2019 General Election Results in Cumbria
PartyVotes%Change from 2017SeatsChange from 2017
Conservative 143,61552.4%Increase2.svg3.6%5Increase2.svg2
Labour 79,40228.9%Decrease2.svg7.3%0Decrease2.svg2
Liberal Democrats 39,42614.4%Increase2.svg2.6%10
Greens 4,2231.5%Increase2.svg0.8%00
Brexit 3,8671.4%new00
Others3,0441.1%Increase2.svg0.7%00
Total274,313100.06

Education

The University of Cumbria's Fusehill Campus in Carlisle Skiddaw Building, University of Cumbria - geograph.org.uk - 715574.jpg
The University of Cumbria's Fusehill Campus in Carlisle

Although Cumbria has a comprehensive system almost in toto, it has one state grammar school in Penrith. There are 42 state secondary schools and 10 independent schools. The more rural secondary schools tend to have sixth forms (although in Barrow-in-Furness district, no schools have sixth forms) and this is the same for three schools in Allerdale and South Lakeland, and one in the other districts. Chetwynde is also the only school in Barrow to educate children from nursery all the way to sixth form level.

Colleges of further education in Cumbria include:-

The University of Cumbria is one of the UK's newest universities having been established in 2007, it is at present the only university in Cumbria and has campuses across the county, together with Lancaster and London.

Transport

The M6 motorway and West Coast Main Line near Grayrigg Forest Lune Valley from Grayrigg Forest.jpg
The M6 motorway and West Coast Main Line near Grayrigg Forest

Road

The M6 is the only motorway that runs through Cumbria. Kendal and Penrith are amongst its primary destinations, before it becomes the A74(M) just north of Carlisle. Major A roads within Cumbria include:


Bus

Several bus companies run services in Cumbria serving the main towns and villages in the county, with some services running to neighbouring areas such as Lancaster. Stagecoach North West is the largest; it has depots in Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Kendal and Workington. Stagecoach's flagship X6 route connects Barrow-in-Furness and Kendal in south Cumbria.

Air

There are only two airports in the county: Carlisle Lake District and Barrow/Walney Island. Both airports formerly served scheduled passenger flights and both are proposing expansions and renovations to handle domestic and European flights in the near future. The nearest international airports to south Cumbria are Blackpool, Manchester and Liverpool John Lennon. North Cumbria is closer to Newcastle, Glasgow Prestwick and Glasgow International. Barrow-in-Furness is one of the country's largest shipbuilding centres, but the Port of Barrow is only minor, operated by Associated British Ports alongside the Port of Silloth in Allerdale. There are no ferry links from any port or harbour along the Cumbria coast.

Railway

The busiest railway stations in Cumbria are Carlisle, Barrow-in-Furness, Penrith and Oxenholme Lake District. The West Coast Main Line runs for 399 miles (642 km) through the Cumbria countryside, adjacent to the M6 motorway. The Cumbrian Coast Line connects Barrow-in-Furness to Carlisle and is a vital link in the west of the county. Other railways in Cumbria are the Windermere Branch Line, most of the Furness Line and much of the Settle-Carlisle Railway.

Demography

Cumbria's largest settlement and only city is Carlisle, in the north of the county. The largest town, Barrow-in-Furness, in the south, is slightly smaller. The county's population is largely rural: it has the second-lowest population density among English counties, and has only five towns with a population of over 20,000. Cumbria is also one of the country's most ethnically homogeneous counties, with 95.1% of the population categorised as White British (around 470,900 of the 495,000 Cumbrians). [40] However, the larger towns have ethnic makeups that are closer to the national average. The 2001 census indicated that Christianity was the religion with the most adherents in the county.

2010 ONS estimates placed the number of foreign-born (non-United Kingdom) people living in Cumbria at around 14,000 and foreign nationals at 6,000. [41] The 2001 UK Census showed the following most common countries of birth for Cumbrians that year:

Population totals for Cumbria
YearPop.±% p.a.
1801 173,017    
1811 193,139+1.11%
1821 225,555+1.56%
1831 242,320+0.72%
1841 255,603+0.54%
1851 274,957+0.73%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1861 320,257+1.54%
1871 365,556+1.33%
1881 410,856+1.18%
1891 434,867+0.57%
1901 437,364+0.06%
1911 440,485+0.07%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1921 441,483+0.02%
1931 442,693+0.03%
1941 456,833+0.31%
1951 471,897+0.32%
1961 473,706+0.04%
1971 475,669+0.04%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1981 471,693−0.08%
1991 489,191+0.36%
2001 487,607−0.03%
2011 499,900+0.25%
2014 499,800−0.01%
Pre-1974 statistics were gathered from local government areas that are now comprised by Cumbria
Source: Great Britain Historical GIS. [42] [43]

Settlements

The table below has divided the settlements into their local authority district. Each district has a centre of administration; for some of these correlate with a district's largest town, while others are named after the geographical area.

Administration borough/districtCentre of administrationOther towns, villages and settlements
Allerdale UK locator map.svg
Allerdale
Workington WorkingtonClock.jpg Aspatria
Cockermouth
Harrington
Keswick
Maryport
Silloth
Wigton
Barrow-in-Furness UK locator map.svg
Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness Duke Street, Barrow-in-Furness.jpg Askam and Ireleth
Dalton-in-Furness
Walney Island
Carlisle UK locator map.svg
Carlisle
Carlisle ScotchStreet-Carlisle.jpg Brampton
Dalston
Longtown
Copeland UK locator map.svg
Copeland
Whitehaven Whitehaven - geograph.org.uk - 19798.jpg Arlecdon and Frizington
Cleator Moor
Egremont
Millom
St Bees
Eden UK locator map.svg
Eden
Penrith Market Square, Penrith.jpg Alston
Appleby-in-Westmorland
Kirkby Stephen
Shap
Kirkoswald
South Lakeland UK locator map.svg
South Lakeland
Kendal Busy street - geograph.org.uk - 406931.jpg Ambleside
Bowness-on-Windermere
Coniston
Grasmere
Hawkshead
Kirkby Lonsdale
Milnthorpe
Sedbergh
Ulverston
Windermere

Town and city twinnings

SettlementDistrictTwinned settlement
CarlisleCarlisle Flag of Germany.svg Flensburg, Germany
Flag of Poland.svg Słupsk, Poland
CockermouthAllerdale Flag of France.svg Marvejols, France
Dalton-in-FurnessBarrow-in-Furness Flag of the United States.svg Dalton, Pennsylvania, United States
KendalSouth Lakeland Flag of Ireland.svg Killarney, Ireland
Flag of Germany.svg Rinteln, Germany
PenrithEden Flag of Australia (converted).svg Penrith, New South Wales, Australia
SedberghSouth Lakeland Flag of Slovenia.svg Zreče, Slovenia
UlverstonSouth Lakeland Flag of France.svg Albert, France
WhitehavenCopeland Flag of Bulgaria.svg Kozloduy, Bulgaria [44]
WindermereSouth Lakeland Flag of Germany.svg Diessen am Ammersee, Germany
WorkingtonAllerdale Flag of Germany.svg Selm, Germany
Flag of France.svg Val-de-Reuil, France

Symbols and county emblems

The arms of Cumbria County Council were granted by the College of Arms on 10 October 1974. The arms represent the areas from which the new county council's area was put together; the shield's green border has Parnassus flowers representing Cumberland interspersed with roses; red for Lancashire (the Furness district) on white for Yorkshire (Sedbergh is from the West Riding). The crest is a ram's head crest, found in the arms both of Westmorland County Council and Barrow County Borough, with Cumberland's Parnassus flowers again. The supporters are the legendary Dacre Bull (Cumberland) and a red dragon, redolent of Cumbria's Brittonic origin.(Appleby in Westmorland). They stand on a base compartment representing Hadrian's Wall (in Cumberland), crossed with two red bars (from the Westmorland arms). [45]

The county council motto "Ad Montes Oculos Levavi" is Latin, from Psalm 121; ("I shall lift up mine eyes unto the hills"). [45]

The county flag of Cumbria is a banner of arms of Cumbria County Council. [46] [47]

Sport

Brunton Park, the home of Carlisle United Brunton Park Welcome.jpg
Brunton Park, the home of Carlisle United
Craven Park, home of Barrow Raiders Craven Park, Barrow.jpg
Craven Park, home of Barrow Raiders

Running

Fell running is a popular sport in Cumbria, with an active calendar of competitions taking place throughout the year.

Football

Carlisle United are the only professional football team in Cumbria and currently play in League Two (4th Tier in the English football pyramid). They attract support from across Cumbria and beyond, with many Cumbrian "ex-pats" travelling to see their games, both home and away.[ citation needed ]

Barrow and Workington A.F.C.—who are always known locally as "the reds"—are well-supported non-league teams,[ citation needed ] having both been relegated from the Football League in the 1970s, with Barrow being one of the best supported non-league football teams in England. Recently Workington A.F.C. have made a rapid rise up the non league ladder and in 2007/08 competed with Barrow in the Conference North (Tier 6). Barrow were then promoted to the Blue Square Premier (Tier 5) in 2007/08.

Rugby league

Rugby league is a very popular sport in South and West Cumbria. Barrow, Whitehaven and Workington play in the Rugby League Championships.

Amateur teams; Wath Brow Hornets, Askam, Egremont Rangers, Kells, Barrow Island, Hensingham and Millom play in the National Conference.

Rugby union

Rugby union is popular in the east of the county with teams such as Furness RUFC & Hawcoat Park RUFC (South Cumbria), Workington RUFC (Workington Zebras), Whitehaven RUFC, Carlisle RUFC, Aspatria RUFC, Wigton RUFC, Kendal RUFC, Kirkby Lonsdale RUFC, Keswick RUFC, Cockermouth RUFC, Upper Eden RUFC and Penrith RUFC.

Cricket

Cumberland County Cricket Club is one of the cricket clubs that constitute the Minor Counties in the English domestic cricket structure. The club, based in Carlisle, competes in the Minor Counties Championship and the MCCA Knockout Trophy. The club also play some home matches in Workington, as well as other locations.

Cumbrian club cricket teams play in the North Lancashire and Cumbria League.

Speedway

Workington Comets were a Workington-based professional speedway team, [48] which competed in the British Speedway Championship. [49]

Other

Uppies and Downies

Workington is home to the ball game known as Uppies and Downies, [50] a traditional version of football, with its origins in Medieval football or an even earlier form. [51] Players from outside Workington do take part, especially fellow West Cumbrians from Whitehaven and Maryport. [52]

Wrestling

Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling is an ancient and well-practised tradition in the county with a strong resemblance to Scottish Backhold.

In the 21st century Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling along with other aspects of Lakeland culture are practised at the Grasmere Sports and Show, an annual meeting held every year since 1852 on the August Bank Holiday.

The origin of this form of wrestling is a matter of debate, with some describing it as having evolved from Norse wrestling brought over by Viking invaders, [53] while other historians associate it with the Cornish and Gouren styles [54] indicating that it may have developed out of a longer-standing Celtic tradition. [55]

American football
Cumbria is home to the Walney Terriers and the Carlisle Border Reivers, which are rival amateur American football teams, despite a relatively low level of interest in the sport throughout the county.

Karting
Cumbria Kart Racing Club is based at the Lakeland Circuit, Rowrah, between Cockermouth and Egremont . The track is currently a venue for rounds of both major UK national karting championships . Formula One world champions Lewis Hamilton and Jenson Button both raced karts at Rowrah many times in the formative stages of their motor sport careers, [56] while other F1 drivers, past and present, to have competed there include Johnny Herbert, Anthony Davidson, Allan McNish, Ralph Firman, Paul di Resta and David Coulthard, who hailed from just over the nearby Anglo-Scottish border and regarded Rowrah as his home circuit, becoming Cumbria Kart Racing Club Champion in 1985 in succession to McNish (di Resta also taking the CKRC title subsequently). [57]

Dialect influences

Celtic

Anglo-Saxon/Viking

Scandinavian/Norse/ Dane

Normans

Cumbric

Media

Two evening newspapers are published daily in Cumbria. The News and Star focuses largely on Carlisle and the surrounding areas of north and west Cumbria, and the North-West Evening Mail is based in Barrow-in-Furness and covers news from across Furness and the South Lakes. The Cumberland and Westmorland Herald and The Westmorland Gazette are weekly newspapers based in Penrith and Kendal respectively.

Due to the size of Cumbria the county spans two television zones: BBC North East and Cumbria and ITV Tyne Tees & Border in the north and BBC North West and ITV Granada in the south. Heart North West, CFM Radio and Smooth Lake District are the most popular local radio stations throughout the county, with BBC Radio Cumbria being the only station that is aimed at Cumbria as a whole.

The Australian-New Zealand feature film The Navigator: A Medieval Odyssey (1988) is set in Cumbria during the onset of the Black Death in 14th-century Europe.

Cumbria is host to a number of festivals, including Kendal Calling (actually held in Penrith since 2009) [69] [70] and Kendal Mountain Festival.

Places of interest

Key
AP Icon.svg Abbey/Priory/Cathedral
UKAL icon.svg Accessible open space
Themepark uk icon.png Amusement/Theme Park
CL icon.svg Castle
Country parks.svg Country Park
EH icon.svg English Heritage
Forestry Commission
HR icon.svg Heritage railway
HH icon.svg Historic House
AP Icon.svg Mosques
Museum icon.svg
Museum icon (red).svg
Museum (free/not free)
NTE icon.svg National Trust
Drama-icon.svg Theatre
Zoo icon.jpg Zoo
Furness Abbey Furness Abbey 03.jpg
Furness Abbey
Lake Windermere Flat calm at dawn, Windermere, from below Claife Heights - geograph.org.uk - 559443.jpg
Lake Windermere
Thirlmere Thirleme 069.jpg
Thirlmere

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous for its lakes, forests and mountains, and its associations with William Wordsworth and other Lake Poets and also with Beatrix Potter and John Ruskin. The Lake District National Park was established in 1951 and covers an area of 2,362 square kilometres. It was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2017.

Westmorland historic county of England

Westmorland is a historic county in north west England. It formed an administrative county between 1889 and 1974, after which the whole county was administered by the new administrative county of Cumbria. In 2013, the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government, Eric Pickles, formally recognised and acknowledged the continued existence of England's 39 historic counties, including Westmorland.

Kendal Human settlement in England

Kendal, once Kirkby in Kendal or Kirkby Kendal, is a market town and civil parish in the South Lakeland District of Cumbria, England. Historically in Westmorland, it lies 8 miles (13 km) south-east of Windermere, 19 miles (31 km) north of Lancaster, 23 miles (37 km) north-east of Barrow-in-Furness and 38 miles (61 km) north-west of Skipton, in the dale of the River Kent, from which comes its name. The 2011 census found a population of 28,586. making it the third largest town in Cumbria after Carlisle and Barrow. It is known today mainly as a centre for tourism, as the home of Kendal mint cake, and as a producer of pipe tobacco and snuff. Its local grey limestone buildings have earned it the nickname "Auld Grey Town".

BBC Radio Cumbria BBC local radio station

BBC Radio Cumbria is the BBC Local Radio service for the English county of Cumbria and broadcasts from studios in Carlisle.

Cumbria Constabulary English territorial police force

Cumbria Constabulary is the territorial police force in England covering Cumbria. As of September 2017, the force had 1,108 police officers, 535 police staff, 93 police community support officers, 25 designated officers and 86 special constables. In terms of officer numbers, it is the 7th smallest of the 48 police forces of the United Kingdom. Conversely, its geographic area of responsibility is the 7th largest police area of a territorial police force in the United Kingdom. The force area's size and its population of just under 500,000 people makes it sparsely populated. The only major urban areas are Carlisle and Barrow-in-Furness.

Barony of Kendal

The Barony of Kendal is a subdivision of the English historic county of Westmorland. It is one of two ancient baronies that make up the county, the other being the Barony of Westmorland. In 1974, the entire county became part of the modern county of Cumbria and ceased to have an administrative function. At the same time, Kendal borough along with some other rural and urban districts in Westmorland was merged with the neighbouring parts of Lancashire, Furness and Cartmel, and also the Sedbergh Rural District of the West Riding of Yorkshire into the new South Lakeland district of the new county.

Cumberland County Cricket Club english Cricket Club

Cumberland County Cricket Club is one of twenty minor county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. Originally, it represented the historic counties of Cumberland and Westmorland. It now represents the ceremonial county of Cumbria, as defined by the Lieutenancies Act 1997. Cumbria was first created in 1974 as an administrative county by combining the traditional counties of Cumberland and Westmorland along with Furness and a small part of north-west Yorkshire.

Cumbrian dialect

The Cumberland dialect is a local Northern English dialect in decline, spoken in Cumberland, Westmorland and surrounding northern England, not to be confused with the area's extinct Celtic language, Cumbric. Some parts of Cumbria have a more North-East English sound to them. Whilst clearly being a Northern English accent, it shares much vocabulary with Scots. A Cumbrian Dictionary of Dialect, Tradition and Folklore by William Rollinson exists, as well as a more contemporary and lighthearted Cumbrian Dictionary and Phrase Book.

History of Cumbria

The history of Cumbria as a county of England begins with the Local Government Act 1972. Its territory and constituent parts however have a long history under various other administrative and historic units of governance. Cumbria is an upland, coastal and rural area, with a history of invasions, migration and settlement, as well as battles and skirmishes between the English and the Scots.

The Cumberland Building Society was established on 16 April 1850 as the Cumberland Co-operative Land and Benefit Building Society. It has its headquarters in Carlisle, Cumbria, England. It is the 10th largest in the United Kingdom based on total assets of £2.5 billion as at 31 March 2018. The first branch was opened 100 miles south of Cumberland in Preston, Lancashire. It is a member of the Building Societies Association.

Cumbria Fire and Rescue Service

Cumbria Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service for the Shire county of Cumbria, England. Of the 38 fire stations, there are six wholetime. 2-day crewed and 30 retained. Since 2012 the headquarters are at Penrith next to the headquarters of Cumbria Constabulary.

Demography of Cumbria

The British county of Cumbria is located in North West England and has a population of 496,200. However, with an area of 6,768 km² it is England's 3rd largest county, with only 73 per km², it is the country's second least densely populated county. People from Cumbria are known as Cumbrians and they speak a variety of the Cumbrian dialect to the north, whilst a Lancashire accent is more prominent in the South. Along with Lancashire to the south, Cumbria is bordered with Scotland to the north, the Irish Sea to the west, Northumberland to the north-east, County Durham to the east and North Yorkshire to the south-east.

Stagecoach Cumbria & North Lancashire Bus operator

Stagecoach Cumbria & North Lancashire is a major operator of bus services in North West England. It is a subsidiary of the Stagecoach Group, and has its origins in the purchase of Cumberland in 1987 and Ribble in 1988 from the National Bus Company. The head office of Stagecoach Cumbria & North Lancashire is in Carlisle. It was previously known as Stagecoach North West until 1 September, when Stagecoach Merseyside joined Preston and Chorley depots to form Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire.

Cumbria 1 is a competitive rugby union league at tier 7 of the English rugby union system run by the English Rugby Football Union for club sides based in Cumbria. Promoted teams typically go up to North 1 West while relegated sides drop to Cumbria 2. Each season a team from Cumbria 1 is picked to take part in the RFU Intermediate Cup - a national competition for clubs at level 7.

The Cumbria Rugby Union is the governing body for the sport of rugby union in the county of Cumbria in England. The union is the constituent body of the Rugby Football Union (RFU) for Cumbria, and administers and organises rugby union clubs and competitions in the county. It also administers the Cumbria rugby representative teams.

The Cumbria Cup is an annual rugby union knock-out club competition organized by the Cumbria Rugby Union. It was first introduced during the 1882-83 season, when it was known as the Cumberland Challenge Cup, and the inaugural winners were Aspatria. Originally it was open only to club sides in Cumberland, but in 1974, as a result of the 1972 Local Government Act, Cumberland, Westmorland and Furness merged to form what we now know as Cumbria, and the competition was renamed as the Cumbria Cup, although the Westmorland & Furness Cup continued intermittently up until 2008. It is the most important cup competition in the county ahead of the Cumbria League Cup and Cumbria Shield.

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