Cumhuriyet

Last updated
Cumhuriyet
Cumhuriyet logo.svg
Type Up-market daily
Format Berliner
Owner(s)Cumhuriyet Foundation
Founder(s) Yunus Nadi Abalıoğlu
Editor-in-chiefAykut Karakaya
Founded7 May 1924;95 years ago (1924-05-07)
Political alignment Centre-left
Left-wing politics
Secularism/Laïcité
Social democracy
Language Turkish
Headquarters Şişli, Istanbul, Turkey
Circulation 43,791(as of May 2018)
Website www.cumhuriyet.com OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg

Cumhuriyet (Turkish pronunciation:  [dʒumhuːɾiˈjet] , The Republic) is the oldest up-market Turkish daily newspaper. Headquartered in Istanbul, the newspaper also has offices in Ankara and İzmir.

Quality press is a category of British newspapers in national circulation distinguished by their seriousness. The category used to be called "broadsheet" until several papers adopted a tabloid format. Both The Times and The Independent adopted a tabloid format in 2004. The Guardian adopted a Berliner format in 2005, before switching to tabloid in January 2018.

Turkish language Turkic language mainly spoken and used in Turkey

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, and sometimes known as Turkey Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around ten to fifteen million native speakers in Southeast Europe and sixty to sixty-five million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.

Newspaper Scheduled publication containing news of events, articles, features, editorials, and advertising

A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background.

Contents

Established on 7 May 1924 by journalist Yunus Nadi Abalıoğlu, a confidant of the Turkish Republic's founder Atatürk, the newspaper has subscribed to a staunchly secular, republican course. In the past closely affiliated with the Kemalist Republican People's Party (CHP), the center-left newspaper turned to a more independent course over time, advocating democracy, social liberal values and free markets.

Journalist person who collects, writes and distributes news and other information

A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public. A journalist's work is called journalism. A journalist can work with general issues or specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, and by cooperating with other journalists, produce journals that span many topics. For example, a sports journalist covers news within the world of sports, but this journalist may be a part of a newspaper that covers many different topics. It's closest relative is the vulture.

Yunus Nadi Abalıoğlu Turkish journalist and founder of the newspaper Cumhuriyet

Yunus Nadi Abalıoğlu was a renowned Turkish journalist and founder of the newspaper Cumhuriyet.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Founder of the Republic of Turkey

Kemal Atatürk, commonly referred to as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, was a Turkish field marshal (Mareşal), revolutionary statesman, author, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938. His dictatorship undertook sweeping liberal reforms, which modernized Turkey into a secular, industrial nation. Ideologically a secularist and nationalist, his policies and theories became known as Kemalism.

In 2015, it was awarded the Freedom of Press Prize by international NGO Reporters Without Borders for making a stand against the AKP government's mounting pressure. [1] Shortly thereafter, Cumhuriyet's former editor-in-chief Can Dündar and the newspaper's Ankara representative Erdem Gül were arrested facing sentences up to life imprisonment.

Non-governmental organization organization that is neither a part of a government nor a conventional for-profit business

Non-governmental organizations—also called nongovernmental or nongovernment organizations—commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives. They are thus a subgroup of all organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and other associations that provide services, benefits, and premises only to members. Sometimes the term is used as a synonym of "civil society organization" to refer to any association founded by citizens, but this is not how the term is normally used in the media or everyday language, as recorded by major dictionaries. The explanation of the term by NGO.org is ambivalent. It first says an NGO is any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group which is organized on a local, national or international level, but then goes on to restrict the meaning in the sense used by most English speakers and the media: Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.

Reporters Without Borders (RWB), also known under its original name Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization based in Paris that conducts political advocacy on issues relating to freedom of information and freedom of the press.

Justice and Development Party (Turkey) conservative political party in Turkey

The Justice and Development Party, abbreviated officially AK Parti in Turkish, is a conservative political party in Turkey. Developed from the conservative tradition of Turkey's Ottoman past and its Islamic identity, the party is the largest in Turkey. Founded in 2001 by members of a number of existing conservative parties, the party has won pluralities in the six most recent legislative elections, those of 2002, 2007, 2011, June 2015, November 2015, and 2018. The party held a majority of seats for 13 years, but lost it in June 2015, only to regain it in the snap election of November 2015 but then lose it again in 2018. Its electoral success has been mirrored in the three local elections held since the party's establishment, coming first in 2004, 2009 and 2014 respectively. The current party leader is Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, the incumbent President of Turkey.

During the last decade, the newspaper's staff has also been physically attacked, with the 2008 molotov attack against Cumhuriyet's headquarters in Istanbul's Şişli district being particularly significant. Also notable is the attempted assassination of Can Dündar in 2016.

Molotov cocktail incendiary weapon using flammable liquid in a bottle

A Molotov cocktail, also known as a petrol bomb, gasoline bomb, bottle bomb, poor man's grenade, Molotovin koktaili (Finnish), polttopullo (Finnish), fire bomb, fire bottle or just Molotov, sometimes shortened as Molly, is a generic name used for a variety of bottle-based improvised incendiary weapons. Due to the relative ease of production, Molotov cocktails have been used by street criminals, protesters, rioters, criminal gangs, urban guerrillas, terrorists, hard-line militants, anarchists, Anti-Communists, communists, irregular soldiers, or even regular soldiers short on equivalent military-issue weapons. They are primarily intended to ignite rather than completely destroy targets.

Şişli District in Istanbul Province, Turkey

Şişli is one of 39 districts of Istanbul, Turkey. Located on the European side of the city, it is bordered by Beşiktaş to the east, Sarıyer to the north, Eyüp and Kağıthane to the west, and Beyoğlu to the south. In 2009, Şişli had a population of 316,058.

Cumhuriyet contributors such as Uğur Mumcu, Bahriye Üçok, Ahmet Taner Kışlalı, Muammer Aksoy, Ümit Kaftancıoğlu, Onat Kutlar, and Cavit Orhan Tütengil had been assassinated in the past.

Uğur Mumcu Turkish journalist

Uğur Mumcu was a Turkish investigative journalist for the daily Cumhuriyet. He was assassinated by a bomb placed in his car outside his home.

Bahriye Üçok Turkish academic

Bahriye Üçok was a Turkish academic of theology, left-wing politician, writer, columnist, and women's rights activist whose assassination in 1990 remains unresolved.

Ahmet Taner Kışlalı Turkish journalist and academic

Ahmet Taner Kışlalı was a Turkish intellectual, political scientist, lawyer, commentator/author for the Cumhuriyet newspaper, academics and politician.

By the end of 2016, almost half of the paper's reporters, columnists and executives had been jailed by the Erdoğan government. [2]

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan 12th President of Turkey from 2014

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is a Turkish politician serving as the 12th and current President of Turkey since 2014. He previously served as Prime Minister from 2003 to 2014 and as Mayor of Istanbul from 1994 to 1998. He founded the Justice and Development Party (AKP) in 2001, leading it to general election victories in 2002, 2007 and 2011 before standing down upon his election as President in 2014. Coming from an Islamist political background and as a self-described conservative democrat, he has promoted socially conservative and liberal economic policies in his administration.

History

Cumhuriyet's 11 November 1938 issue announcing the death of President Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Cumhuriyet gazetesi (1938).jpeg
Cumhuriyet's 11 November 1938 issue announcing the death of President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Following the death of Yunus Nadi on 28 March 1945 in Geneva, Switzerland, Cumhuriyet was owned by his eldest son Nadir Nadi Abalıoğlu  [ tr ] until his death on 20 August 1991. Nadir Nadi's wife Berin then published the newspaper. Cumhuriyet has been owned by the Cumhuriyet Foundation since the death of Berin Nadi on 5 November 2001. One of its publishers was the renowned political columnist İlhan Selçuk, who was also chairman of the board of trustees and lead writer (from 1992) until he died in 2010.

During the Gulf War, Cumhuriyet suffered a collapse in advertising revenue, and following an unrelated dispute over editorial policy, nearly 40 journalists and commentators walked out in November 1991: "Circulation fell by half, and it was saved only by an extraordinary campaign by readers to buy extra copies and even pay money into a special account." [3] Hasan Cemal, chief editor since 1981, [4] resigned in January 1992 over the dispute: "I tried to widen the spectrum, to keep the balance. But they (old-guard intellectuals) always resisted, calling us plotters, tools of big business and the United States". [3]

Since 17 October 2005, the newspaper's headquarters have been located in Istanbul's Şişli district, after being the last newspaper to leave the traditional press district of Cağaloğlu.

The newspaper's advertisements before the 2007 Turkish presidential election and general election with the message "Are you aware of the danger?" were controversial. [5] [6]

Cumhuriyet's office in Istanbul was the site of a molotov attack in 2008. [7]

In 2010, the newspaper was one of the first up-market newspapers in Turkey to abandon the established broadsheet format for the midi-sized Berliner format. [8]

In January 2015, the newspaper reprinted cartoons from Charlie Hebdo , a French satirical magazine which had depicted the Islamic prophet Muhammad and been subject to a terror attack. As a result, Cumhuriyet received threats and was placed under police protection. [9]

The editor-in-chief of the online edition, Oğuz Güven, was arrested on 12 May 2017 in connection with an article on the "accidental" death of Mustafa Alper, the first public prosecutor to file an indictment about the Gülenist Terror Organization (FETÖ). Güven was released pending trial on 14 June 2017. [10]

MİT trucks scandal

Cumhuriyet's former editor-in-chief Can Dundar receiving the 2015 Reporters Without Borders Prize. Can Dundar prix RSF Strasbourg 17 novembre 2015.jpg
Cumhuriyet's former editor-in-chief Can Dündar receiving the 2015 Reporters Without Borders Prize.

Following the appointment of new editor-in-chief Can Dündar, the newspaper on 29 May 2015 released detailed footage depicting trucks of the Turkish National Intelligence Organization (MİT) carrying weapons to Islamist rebels in neighboring Syria. While the government faced calls to resign, an investigation began into Cumhuriyet for releasing the footage. [11] Turkish President Erdoğan publicly targeted Dündar, stating: "I suppose the person who wrote this as an exclusive report will pay a heavy price for this." [12]

In spite of the threats, on June 11 Cumhuriyet published further material, including photos and videos confirming that MİT trucks transported both weapons and militants between Turkey and various locations in neighboring Syria. [13] In November, the newspaper was awarded the 2015 Reporters Without Borders Prize for its "independent and courageous journalism." [14] Shortly thereafter, editor-in-chief Dündar and Ankara bureau chief Erdem Gül were arrested on charges of being members of a terror organization, espionage and revealing confidential documents, facing sentences up to life imprisonment. [15]

On 22 September 2016 the newspaper was awarded the Right Livelihood Award for its "fearless investigative reporting and standing up for freedom of speech and opinion despite being subject to death threats, censorship and state prosecution". [16]

Distribution

On 7 May 1998, the newspaper launched its online edition. The print circulation figure is around 40,000 copies as of May 2018. [17]

Notable contributors (past and present)

Columnists

World

Economics
Science-Politics
Media
Culture-Art
Sports

Deceased contributors

Supplements

Supplements of the newspaper:[ citation needed ][ needs update ]

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. Monde Prize ceremony [ permanent dead link ], Reporters without Borders, 19 November. 2015
  2. Basaran, Ezgi (2017-01-03). "Secular citizens of Turkey have never felt so alone". Washington Post. ISSN   0190-8286. Archived from the original on 2017-01-04. Retrieved 2018-05-07.
  3. 1 2 Hugh Pope, Los Angeles Times , 12 May 1992, Media: It's News Vs. Nudes in the Turkish Press: The glitzy Sabah daily and the respected Cumhuriyet reflect clashing cultures at a continental crossroads
  4. "Hasan Cemal Biyografisi". Sondakika (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
  5. "Cumhuriyet, 'Tehlikenin farkında mısınız!' demişti". ABC Gazetesi (in Turkish). 2016-10-01. Archived from the original on 2018-05-08. Retrieved 2018-05-07.
  6. "Geçmişten Bugüne Cumhuriyet Gazetesi Reklamlarının Perspektifinden Türkiye". Bigumigu (in Turkish). 2016-11-02. Archived from the original on 2018-05-07. Retrieved 2018-05-07.
  7. Mastermind behind Cumhuriyet attack under arrest Archived 2008-12-05 at the Wayback Machine , Today's Zaman , 1 April 2008
  8. Mustafa Köker (22 April 2010). "Cumhuriyet'le gelen 'değişim'". Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  9. Josh Levs et al (14 February 2015) Turkey bans Charlie Hebdo cover, newspaper gets death threats CNN
  10. "Cumhuriyet online's editor-in-chief Oğuz Güven released pending trial". 14 June 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  11. "Turkish daily faces terrorism probe after publishing alleged photos of arms on MİT trucks". 29 May 2015. Archived from the original on 29 November 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  12. "Erdoğan's lawyer demands aggravated life sentence for Turkish journalist over news story". Hürriyet Daily News . 2 June 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  13. "Turkey denies report of sending weapons, fighters to ISIL". 11 June 2015. Archived from the original on 29 November 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  14. "Cumhuriyet newspaper wins journalism prize from Reporters Without Borders". Today's Zaman . 18 November 2015. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  15. "Cumhuriyet daily's Dündar, Gül arrested over report on Syria arms transfer". Zaman. 2015-11-26. Archived from the original on 2016-03-08. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
  16. Regierungskritische türkische Zeitung - "Cumhuriyet" erhält Alternativen Nobelpreis . Spiegel Online, 2016-09-22 (German)
  17. "Gazete Tirajları". gazetetirajlari.com. 2018-05-06. Retrieved 2018-05-07.