|Houses||Magnum Concilium and the Royal Court|
|Succeeded by|| Parliament of England and privy council |
Parliament of Scotland
The Magnum Concilium political groups
The Royal Court political groups
Curia regis (Medieval Latin: [ˈkuː.ri.a ˈreː.d͡ʒis] ) is a Latin term meaning "royal council" or "king's court". It was the name given to councils of advisers and administrators in medieval Europe who served kings, including kings of France, Norman kings of England and Sicily, kings of Poland and the kings and queens of Scotland.
The Normans, following their conquest of England, used a council called the curia regis to conduct much of the business of state in England.It was similar to, but not the same as, the Witenagemot (or Witan) which advised the Anglo-Saxon kings of England, and the curia ducis which served the Dukes of Normandy.
This council existed in two forms, one large and one smaller form. The council in its smaller form, which was in continuous session, was made up of the king's officers of state and those magnates who were at court.This small council was known as the "lesser curia regis". The lesser curia regis was in essence the king's royal court and as such was an itinerant court that followed the king in all his travels. The king, when traveling throughout his realm and as an integral part of the court, often heard suitors in person.
On special occasions the king would summons others to the council including tenants-in-chief, the great officers of the king's court, and those ecclesiastics who held lands belonging to the king. The ecclesiastics included archbishops, bishops and certain abbots.This larger assembly was known as the "great curia regis", Magnum Concilium , or simply the Great Council.
The curia regis in either the large or small form did the business of state whether legislative, judicial, or diplomatic. These functions were executed seamlessly with no regard to specialised functions. Neither the greater or lesser curia regis was subservient to the other, as it was considered the same entity. Under the Norman kings the business of government was handled the same regardless of which curia was meeting at the time.
In judicial matters, the basis for the law remained the Anglo-Saxon laws of Edward the Confessor which both William the Conqueror and Henry I promised to uphold. The powers of the sheriffs were retained as well as those of the communal courts (hundred courts and shire courts). The curia regis attempted to maintain continuity with its predecessor as the Norman kings wanted to be seen as the lawful successors of Edward the Confessor.
Gradually the curia regis began to branch off into entities which formed into other institutions, including the Cabinet, the Star Chamber, Chancery, and others.One of the first was the exchequer, which specialised in the financial matters of government.
During the thirteenth century the two forms of the curia themselves began to separate.The great curia regis after taking on representative elements formed into Parliament. The first mention of a court of the king's bench (curia regis) being termed "Parliament" was in 1236 during the Michaelmas term (of the great curia regis). The small curia regis became the Privy Council.
Even after the split between them, both parts continued to involve themselves in all three functions of the original curia and only slowly began to specialise in one function over the others.Some judicial functions of the House of Lords persisted until 2009.
In France the King's Court, called the Curia Regis in Latin, functioned as an advisory body under the early Capetian kings. It was composed of a number of the king's trusted advisers but only a few travelled with the king at any time. By the later twelfth century it had become a judicial body with a few branching off to remain the king's council.
By the fourteenth century the term curia regis was no longer used.However, it was a predecessor to later sovereign assemblies: the Parlement, which was a judiciary body, the Chamber of Accounts, which was a financial body, and the King's Council.
The Royal Council of Polandin early medieval times was composed exclusively by King's will. Over time, in addition to King's appointments, certain higher dignitaries were assumed to belong to the Council owing to their functions. The following dignitaries were permanent members of the Coincil in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland:
By the end of the 15th century the Royal Council was transformed into the Senate of Poland.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries. The term is similar to the idea of a senate, synod or congress, and is commonly used in countries that are current or former monarchies, a form of government with a monarch as the head. Some contexts restrict the use of the word parliament to parliamentary systems, although it is also used to describe the legislature in some presidential systems, even where it is not in the official name.
The Witenaġemot, also known as the Witan, was a political institution in Anglo-Saxon England which operated from before the 7th century until the 11th century. The Witenagemot was an assembly of the ruling class whose primary function was to advise the king and whose membership was composed of the most important noblemen in England, both ecclesiastic and secular. The institution is thought to represent an aristocratic development of the ancient Germanic general assemblies, or folkmoots. In England, by the 7th century, these ancient folkmoots had developed into convocations of the land's most powerful and important people, including ealdormen, thegns, and senior clergy, to discuss matters of both national and local significance.
Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary, in various European countries, either current or historical. The female equivalent is baroness. Typically, the title denotes an aristocrat who ranks higher than a lord or knight, but lower than a viscount or count. Often, barons hold their fief — their lands and income — directly from the monarch. Barons are less often the vassals of other nobles. In many kingdoms, they were entitled to wear a smaller form of a crown called a coronet.
The Welsh Marches is an imprecisely defined area along the border between England and Wales in the United Kingdom. The precise meaning of the term has varied at different periods.
Curia in ancient Rome referred to one of the original groupings of the citizenry, eventually numbering 30, and later every Roman citizen was presumed to belong to one. While they originally likely had wider powers, they came to meet for only a few purposes by the end of the Republic: to confirm the election of magistrates with imperium, to witness the installation of priests, the making of wills, and to carry out certain adoptions.
Chancellor is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the cancellarii of Roman courts of justice—ushers, who sat at the cancelli or lattice work screens of a basilica or law court, which separated the judge and counsel from the audience. A chancellor's office is called a chancellery or chancery. The word is now used in the titles of many various officers in various settings. Nowadays the term is most often used to describe:
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest-ranking among the great officers of state in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking the prime minister. The lord chancellor is appointed by the sovereign on the advice of the prime minister. Prior to their Union into the Kingdom of Great Britain, there were separate lord chancellors for the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland; there were lord chancellors of Ireland until 1922.
Justiciar is the English form of the medieval Latin term justiciarius or justitiarius. During the Middle Ages in England, the Chief Justiciar was roughly equivalent to a modern Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, as the monarch's chief minister. Similar positions existed in continental Europe, particularly in Norman Italy and in the Carolingian Empire.
The Kingdom of France in the Middle Ages was marked by the fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and West Francia (843–987); the expansion of royal control by the House of Capet (987–1328), including their struggles with the virtually independent principalities that had developed following the Viking invasions and through the piecemeal dismantling of the Carolingian Empire and the creation and extension of administrative/state control in the 13th century; and the rise of the House of Valois (1328–1589), including the protracted dynastic crisis against the House of Plantagenet and their Angevin Empire, dominated by the Kingdom of England, cumulating in the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453), compounded by the catastrophic Black Death epidemic (1348), which laid the seeds for a more centralized and expanded state in the early modern period and the creation of a sense of French identity.
Government in medieval monarchies generally comprised the king's companions, later becoming the Royal Household, from which the officers of state arose, initially having household and government duties. Later some of these officers became two: one serving state and one serving household. They were superseded by new officers, or were absorbed by existing officers. Many of the officers became hereditary and thus removed from practical operation of either the state or the household.
The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, until 1 May 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. The Kingdom of England was among the most powerful states in Europe during the medieval period.
In the Kingdom of England, the Magnum Concilium, or Great Council, is an assembly that was historically convened at certain times of the year when church leaders and wealthy landowners were invited to discuss the affairs of the country with the king.
The Exchequer of Pleas, or Court of Exchequer, was a court that dealt with matters of equity, a set of legal principles based on natural law and common law in England and Wales. Originally part of the curia regis, or King's Council, the Exchequer of Pleas split from the curia in the 1190s to sit as an independent central court. The Court of Chancery's reputation for tardiness and expense resulted in much of its business transferring to the Exchequer. The Exchequer and Chancery, with similar jurisdictions, drew closer together over the years until an argument was made during the 19th century that having two seemingly identical courts was unnecessary. As a result, the Exchequer lost its equity jurisdiction. With the Judicature Acts, the Exchequer was formally dissolved as a judicial body by an Order in Council on 16 December 1880.
Henry of Bracton, also Henry de Bracton, also Henricus Bracton, or Henry Bratton also Henry Bretton was an English cleric and jurist.
The Privy Council of England, also known as HisMajesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, was a body of advisers to the sovereign of the Kingdom of England. Its members were often senior members of the House of Lords and the House of Commons, together with leading churchmen, judges, diplomats and military leaders.
The Court of Common Pleas, or Common Bench, was a common law court in the English legal system that covered "common pleas"; actions between subject and subject, which did not concern the king. Created in the late 12th to early 13th century after splitting from the Exchequer of Pleas, the Common Pleas served as one of the central English courts for around 600 years. Authorised by Magna Carta to sit in a fixed location, the Common Pleas sat in Westminster Hall for its entire existence, joined by the Exchequer of Pleas and Court of King's Bench.
De Iniusta Vexacione Willelmi Episcopi Primi is a late 11th-century historical work detailing the trial of William de St-Calais, a medieval Norman Bishop of Durham from 1081 to 1096. It is the first surviving detailed account of an English trial before the king, and as such is an important source for historians.
Government in medieval Scotland, includes all forms of politics and administration of the minor kingdoms that emerged after the departure of the Romans from central and southern Britain in the fifth century, through the development and growth of the combined Scottish and Pictish kingdom of Alba into the kingdom of Scotland, until the adoption of the reforms of the Renaissance in the fifteenth century.
In the Middle Ages, a familiaris, more formally a familiaris regis or familiaris curiae, was, in the words of the historian W. L. Warren, "an intimate, a familiar resident or visitor in the [royal] household, a member of the familia, that wider family which embraces servants, confidents, and close associates." Warren adds that the term "defies adequate translation", but is distinct from courtier, "for the king employed his familiares on a variety of administrative tasks."