Cyclades

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Cyclades

Νομός Κυκλάδων
Former prefecture
Nomos Kykladon.png
Location of Cyclades in Greece
Cyclades municipalities numbered.png
Location of municipalities within Cyclades Prefecture
Country Greece
Periphery South Aegean
Established1833
Disestablished2010
Capital Ermoupoli
Subdivisions
Area
  Total2,572 km2 (993 sq mi)
Area rank 23rd
Population
 (2005)
  Total119,549
  Rank 29th
  Density46/km2 (120/sq mi)
  Density rank34th
Postal codes
84x xx
Area codes 228x0
ISO 3166 code GR-82
Vehicle registration ΕΜ

The Cyclades ( /ˈsɪklədz/ ; Greek : Κυκλάδες [kikˈlaðes] ) are an island group in the Aegean Sea, southeast of mainland Greece and a former administrative prefecture of Greece. They are one of the island groups which constitute the Aegean archipelago. The name refers to the islands around ("cyclic", κυκλάς) the sacred island of Delos. The largest island of the Cyclades is Naxos, however the most populated one is Syros.

Contents

History

Harp player, example of Cycladic art, at the National Archeological Museum, Athens Harp player, Cycladic civilization - Greece.JPG
Harp player, example of Cycladic art, at the National Archeological Museum, Athens

The significant Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Cycladic culture is best known for its schematic, flat sculptures carved out of the islands' pure white marble centuries before the great Middle Bronze Age Minoan civilization arose in Crete to the south. (These figures have been looted from burials to satisfy a thriving Cycladic antiquities market since the early 20th century.)

A distinctive Neolithic culture amalgamating Anatolian and mainland Greek elements arose in the western Aegean before 4000 BCE, based on emmer and wild-type barley, sheep and goats, pigs, and tuna that were apparently speared from small boats (Rutter). Excavated sites include Chalandriani, Phylakopi, Skarkos, Saliagos and Kephala (on Kea) with signs of copperworking, Each of the small Cycladic islands could support no more than a few thousand people, though Late Cycladic boat models show that fifty oarsmen could be assembled from the scattered communities (Rutter), and when the highly organized palace-culture of Crete arose, the islands faded into insignificance, with the exception of Delos, which retained its archaic reputation as a sanctuary throughout antiquity and until the emergence of Christianity.

Archaeology

Ancient theatre, Delos Ancient Greek theatre in Delos 01.jpg
Ancient theatre, Delos

The first archaeological excavations of the 1880s were followed by systematic work by the British School at Athens and by Christos Tsountas, who investigated burial sites on several islands in 1898–1899 and coined the term "Cycladic civilization". Interest lagged, then picked up in the mid-20th century, as collectors competed for the modern-looking figures that seemed so similar to sculpture by Jean Arp or Constantin Brâncuși. Sites were looted and a brisk trade in forgeries arose. The context for many of these Cycladic figurines has been mostly destroyed and their meaning may never be completely understood.

Another intriguing and mysterious object is that of the Cycladic frying pans. More accurate archaeology has revealed the broad outlines of a farming and seafaring culture that had emigrated from Anatolia c. 5000 BCE. Early Cycladic culture evolved in three phases, between c. 3300 – 2000 BCE, when it was increasingly swamped in the rising influence of Minoan Crete. The culture of mainland Greece contemporary with Cycladic culture is known as the Helladic period.

In recent decades the Cyclades have become popular with European and other tourists, and as a result there have been problems with erosion, pollution, and water shortages.

Geography

The Cyclades encircle the sacred island of Delos Aegean Sea with island groups labeled.gif
The Cyclades encircle the sacred island of Delos

The Cyclades includes about 220 islands, the major ones being Amorgos, Anafi, Andros, Antiparos, Delos, Ios, Kea, Kimolos, Kythnos, Milos, Mykonos, Naxos, Paros, Folegandros, Serifos, Sifnos, Sikinos, Syros, Tinos, and Thira or Santoríni. There are also many minor islands including Donousa, Eschati, Gyaros, Irakleia, Koufonisia, Makronisos, Rineia, and Schoinousa. The name "Cyclades" refers to the islands forming a circle ("circular islands") around the sacred island of Delos. Most of the smaller islands are uninhabited.

Ermoupoli on Syros is the chief town and administrative center of the former prefecture.

The islands are peaks of a submerged mountainous terrain, with the exception of two volcanic islands, Milos and Santorini. The climate is generally dry and mild, but with the exception of Naxos the soil is not very fertile; agricultural produce includes wine, fruit, wheat, olive oil, and tobacco. Lower temperatures are registered in higher elevations and these areas do not usually see wintry weather.

The Cyclades are bounded to the south by the Sea of Crete. [1]

Administration

The Cyclades Prefecture (Greek : Νομός Κυκλάδων) was one of the prefectures of Greece. As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the prefecture was abolished, and its territory was divided into nine regional units of the South Aegean region:

Municipalities and communities

The prefecture was subdivided into the following municipalities and communities. These have been reorganised at the 2011 Kallikratis reform as well.

MunicipalityYPES codeSeat (if different)Postal codeArea code
Amorgos 3101840 0822850-2
Andros (town) 3103845 0022820-2
Ano Syros 3105841 0022810-8
Drymalia 3107 Chalkeio Naxou843 0222850
Ermoupoli 3109841 0022810-2
Exomvourgo 3108 Kampos 842 0022850-5
Ios 3112840 0122860-9
Kea 3113 Ioulis 840 0222880-2
Korthio 3115 Ormos Korthiou845 0222820-6
Kythnos 3117840 0622810-3
Milos 3118848 0022870-2
Mykonos 3119846 0022890-2
Naxos 3120843 0022850-2
Paros 3123844 0022840-2
Poseidonia 3124841 0022810-4
Santorini 3111847 0022860-2
Serifos 3125840 0222810-5
Sifnos 3127840 0322840-3
Tinos 3129842 0022830-2
Ydrousa 3130 Gavrio 845 0122820-7
CommunityYPES codeSeat (if different)Postal codeArea code
Anafi 3102840 0922860-6
Antiparos 3104840 0722840-6
Donousa 3106843 0022850-5
Folegandros 3131840 1122860
Irakleia 3110843 0022870-7
Kimolos 3114840 0422870-5
Koufonisia 3116843 0022870-7
Oia 3121847 0222860-7
Panormos 3122842 0122830-3
Schoinousa 3128843 0022870-7
Sikinos 3126840 1022860-5

Provinces

Note: Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece.

Cuisine

Local specialities of the Cyclades include:

See also

Notes

  1. Saundry, Hogan & Baum. 2011

Related Research Articles

Syros Place in South Aegean, Greece

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Duchy of the Archipelago former country

The Duchy of the Archipelago, also known as Duchy of Naxos or Duchy of the Aegean, was a maritime state created by Venetian interests in the Cyclades archipelago in the Aegean Sea, in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade, centered on the islands of Naxos and Paros. It included all the Cyclades. In 1537 it became a tributary of the Ottoman Empire, and was annexed by the Ottomans in 1579; however, Christian rule survived in islands such as Siphnos and Tinos.

Provinces of Greece

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Catholic Church in Greece

The Catholic Church in Greece is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome. Indigenous Roman Catholic Greeks number about 50,000-70,000 and are a religious and not an ethnic minority. Most of them are a reminiscence of Venetian and Genoese rule in southern Greece and many Greek islands from the early 13th until the late 18th century, or descendants of the thousands of Bavarians that came to Greece in the 1830s as soldiers and civil administrators, accompanying King Otto. One very old but still common term to refer to them is Φράγκοι, or "[[Franks#Legacy|]]", dating to the times of the Byzantine Empire, when medieval Greeks would use that term to describe all Catholics.

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History of the Cyclades Greek islands located in the Aegean Sea

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Hellenic Seaways Greek shipping company

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League of the Islanders

The League of the Islanders or Nesiotic League was a federal league (koinon) of ancient Greek city-states encompassing the Cyclades islands in the Aegean Sea. Organized under the auspices of Antigonus Monophthalmus in c. 314/3 BC, it remained under Antigonid control until c. 287 BC. It then passed under the aegis of the Ptolemaic Kingdom until Ptolemaic control over the central Aegean collapsed and the League was dissolved sometime in the mid-3rd century BC. The Cycladic islands reverted to independence, except for a few that passed under Macedonian control. The league was re-established under the leadership of Rhodes in c. 200 BC, and survived until c. 167 BC.

Seajets

Seajets is a Greek/Cypriot ferry company operating passenger and freight ferry services in the Aegean Sea.

Golden Star Ferries is a Greek ferry company operating from the Greek mainland to the Cyclades islands in the Aegean Sea. Golden Star Ferries was founded in 2011 by Andriot brothers Giorgos and Dimitris Stephanou, who also own the Bright Navigation shipping freight company.

References

Coordinates: 37°00′N25°10′E / 37.000°N 25.167°E / 37.000; 25.167