Cycle polo

Last updated

Cycle polo
Bike Polo AUT-HUN.jpg
Bike polo match in Budapest
Highest governing body International Bicycle Polo Federation, North American Bike Polo Association, European Hardcourt Bike Polo Association
First playedOctober 1891 - County Wicklow, Ireland. (Rathclaren Rovers V Ohne Hast Cycling Club)
Characteristics
Team membersFive or Three
Type Team sport
Equipment Bicycle, Mallet, Ball
Presence
Olympic London, 1908. (Demonstration Game – Ireland 3-v-1 Germany)

Cycle polo (or bicycle polo or bike polo, polo-vélo in French, Radpolo in German) is a team sport, similar to traditional polo, except that bicycles are used instead of horses. There are two versions of the sport: grass and Hardcourt Bike Polo. The hardcourt game saw a sharp spike in interest in the first decade of the 21st century [1] and new teams are sprouting up across the world in China, Canada, Ireland, Switzerland, France, India, Germany, Pakistan,Ukraine, Russia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Hungary, Australia, New Zealand, Sweden, England, Scotland, Argentina, Italy, Spain, USA, Poland, Croatia, Slovenia, Lithuania, Nepal, Brazil and Cuba.

Contents

The grass game

There are two versions of the grass games: the four-player game and the five-player game.

In the four-player game, cycle polo is played in a rectangular grass field, 150 by 100 metres (490 ft × 330 ft) officially, unofficially whatever field is big enough. Moreover, official dimensions can vary between 120 by 150 metres (390 ft × 490 ft) in length on 80 by 100 metres (260 ft × 330 ft) in width. The ball used approximately 2.5 inches (64 mm) in diameter and the mallet is of maximum length 1 metre (3 ft 3 in).

Goals are four metres wide and made with two goal posts without any crossbar.

There are six members in a team, of which four are on field at any one time. The other two are used as substitutes. International matches are played for a duration of 30 minutes, divided into periods of 7.5 minutes known as chukkars. Extra time can be used to determine the winner in the event of the scores being tied at normal time.

A player following the ball on its exact line and taking it on his off side will be entitled to the right of way over all other players.

If a deliberate severe foul is committed at the vicinity of the goal, the team that is fouled is automatically given a goal. Less severe fouls are awarded 15-metre and 25-metre free hits. In the event of deliberate fouls or dangerous fouls, the umpire can issue a yellow card (warning) and in case of repeated or severe fouls a red card (ejection). The ejected player can be replaced by a substitute after the end of the current chukkar if the umpire allows it. [2]

In the 5 player game (mostly used in Europe), bicycle polo is played in a rectangular grass field, 100 by 60 metres (330 ft × 200 ft) officially, such as a football or a rugby field. Moreover, official dimensions can vary between 80–110 metres (260–360 ft) in length and 40–70 metres (130–230 ft) in width. The ball shall be round and may not be less than 32 cm (12.6 inches) or greater than 38 cm (15.0 inches) in circumference when inflated and the mallet is of maximum length 1 metre (3 ft 3 in).

Goals are 4 meters wide (5 meters in the national French rules) and made with 2 goal posts and a 2.75 meter (3 yards) high crossbar.

There are eight members in a team of which five are on the field at any one time, including a goalkeeper. The other three are used as substitutes. Matches are played for a duration of 60 minutes divided into 4 periods of 15 minutes each. Extra time can be used to determine the winner in case the scores are tied at normal time.

In order for a player to touch the ball or attack an opponent, the player must be holding the mallet in his right hand, the handlebar in his left hand, and must not be touching the ground with any part of his body.

In order to attack an opponent who is playing the ball on their right side, a player shall attack the opponent on the right side of the opponent with the ball in the middle of both players (i.e. the ball shall be on the left side of the attacking player).

In order to attack an opponent who is playing the ball on their left side, a player shall attack the opponent on the left side of the opponent with the ball in the middle of both players (i.e. the ball shall be on the right side of the attacking player).

The right of way is given to the player who follows or possesses the ball. In the penalty area, the right of way is lost in favour of the goalkeeper. [3]

The hardcourt game

Video of cycle polo

In recent years, an alternate form of the game known as "Hardcourt Bike Polo" has grown in popularity. [1] In this variation, teams composed of three players compete on tennis courts, street hockey rinks, or whatever other surfaces are available. The rules vary slightly by city.

Generally this is a faster game with three members on a team and no substitutions, and with all members on the court at all times. A street hockey ball is used and matches are played until one team scores five points or time has expired, without playing chukkars. During tournament play, a time limit, such as 10 minutes, may be used to maximise the number of tournament rounds possible during the day.

There are three core rules of play:

In the case of a 'foot down' or 'dab' (touching the ground with one's foot) the player must "tap out" by riding to mid-court and hitting a designated area with their mallet. There is usually a tap-out located on either side of the court.

In order to score, the offensive player must hit the ball across the goal line using the narrow end of the mallet, called a "shot" or "hit." Hitting the ball across the goal line with the wide end of the mallet is called a "shuffle".

When a team scores a goal, the opposing team must retreat to their half and wait for the other team (player or ball, whichever comes first) to cross the halfway line before engaging in play again.

The North American Hardcourt Bike Polo Association has created an official ruleset, [4] which has helped standardise rules across the globe.

History

The game was invented in County Wicklow, Ireland, in 1891 by retired champion cyclist Richard J. Mecredy, editor of The Irish Cyclist magazine. [5] In October of that year the first cycle polo match was played at the Scalp (County Wicklow) between Rathclaren Rovers and the Ohne Hast Cycling Club. [6] Towards the end of the 19th century the game reached Great Britain, France, and the United States where the American Star Bicycle was a popular mount. [7] An exhibition match by Hanegan & Hazelton vs. Brady & Murphy, members of "The Original Champion American Bicycle Polo Team", riding Cleveland cycles, was played at the Empire Theatre in London every night during the week of 8 May 1899, claimed in the programme to be the first such exhibition "on any stage". [8] The first international match was played between Ireland and England in 1901. Cycle polo was a demonstration sport at the 1908 London Olympics with Ireland winning, beating Germany. [6] [9] [10]

The sport reached its peak of popularity in Great Britain during the 1930s with the introduction of the regional leagues. Cycle polo also flourished in France during this period with the establishment of the French league. Internationals between France and Great Britain were held regularly. However the Second World War marked the beginning of the demise of cycle polo in Britain. The sport remained in France though, with league championships held regularly until today.

The 1980s saw the rise of two new powers in cycle polo, India and the United States. The Bicycle Polo Association of America was created in 1994. International cycle polo matches staged a comeback in the 1990s with the first world championship organized in 1996 in the USA. Today there is organized cycle polo being played in Brazil, Argentina, Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, India, Ireland, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland and USA. Cycle polo was officially recognized by the Union Cycliste Internationale in 2001.

Cycle Polo in India

A Traditional Cycle Polo game in CC&FC, Kolkata Cycle Polo 18 3.jpg
A Traditional Cycle Polo game in CC&FC, Kolkata

The Cycle Polo Association of India was officially created in 1966 it has its office in Jaipur, Rajasthan. The first men's nationals were played in 1970 in New Delhi, with the team from Rajasthan emerging victorious.

In the 2016–17 season, the men's nationals were held in Jodhpur, Rajasthan from 13–16 January 2017. Indian Air Force was the champion and the Indian Army the runners-up. The 2016-17 women's nationals were held at Dundlod, Rajasthan from 21–24 February 2017. Chhattisgarh defeated Karnataka in the finals. [11]

The Calcutta Cricket & Football Club hosted the first Merchant’s Cup Cycle Polo tournament in 1973. In 2012, the CC&FC had organised a Cycle Polo Legend's Tournament where great players of yesteryear such as Vijai Singh, Lakshman Singh and Bikram Das participated. [12] Currently, the CC&FC plays host to the March Mug, the Swaroop Bhanjdeo Memorial Tournament and the CC&FC Trophy. Since 2015 onwards, CC&FC has been hosting the CC&FC All India Invitation Cycle Polo Cup which is organised jointly by the CC&FC along with the Cycle Polo Association of Bengal.

In 2017, the CC&FC All India Invitation Cycle Polo Cup had seven teams in the men's section and five in the women's section. Territorial Army were the eventual champions in the men's section. They defeated Indian Air Force 14:6 in the final. In the women section Chhattisgarh defeating in Bengal in the final. 15:3 was the score line. [13]

In 2018, in the men's section, the defending champions Territorial Army successfully defended their title by defeating Bengal 12:10 in the final. In the women's section, Bengal easily overcame their opponents Uttar Pradesh 15:0 in the final.

International Bicycle Polo Championships [14]

YearHostGoldSilverBronze
1996 Flag of the United States.svg
Richland,
United States
Flag of India.svg
India (national team)
Flag of the United States.svg
United States (A.B.P.A. Richland 1)
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Canada (Jericho C.P.A.)
1999 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Vancouver,
Canada
Flag of India.svg
India (national team)
Flag of the United States.svg
United States (A.B.P.A Richland)
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Canada (Jericho C.P.A. 1)
2000 Flag of India.svg
New Delhi,
India
Flag of India.svg
India (national team)
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Canada (Jericho C.P.A.)
Flag of the United States.svg
United States (A.B.P.A Richland 1)
2001 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
London,
United Kingdom
Flag of India.svg
India (national team)
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Canada (Jericho C.P.A.)
Flag of France.svg
France (national team)
2002 Flag of France.svg
Paris,
France
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Canada (Jericho C.P.A.)
Flag of France.svg
France (national team A)
Flag of India.svg
India (national team A)
2003 Flag of the United States.svg
Vero Beach,
United States
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Canada (Jericho C.P.A.)
Flag of the United States.svg
United States (A.B.P.A Richland)
Flag of France.svg
France (national team)
2004 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Vancouver,
Canada
Flag of the United States.svg
United States (A.B.P.A Richland)
Flag of France.svg
France (national team)
Flag of India.svg
India (national team)
2005 Flag of the United States.svg
Aiken,
United States
Flag of France.svg
France (national team)
Flag of the United States.svg
United States (Aiken "green" B.P.)
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Canada (Jericho C.P.A.)
2006 Flag of the United States.svg
Kennewick,
United States
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Canada (Jericho C.P.A.)
Flag of the United States.svg
United States (Unionville B.P.)
Flag of France.svg
France (national team)
2015 Flag of the United States.svg
Aiken,
United States
Flag of the United States.svg
United States (Aiken B.P.)
Flag of France.svg
France
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Canada (Jericho C.P.A.)
2016 Flag of India.svg
Jaipur,
India
Flag of India.svg
India (national team)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
United Kingdom of Great Britain (England)
Flag of Malaysia.svg
Malaysia

The UK based Pukka Chukkas won the 2012 Acumen Energy Bicycle Polo Cup held at Tiger Tops Karnali on the fringes of the Bardia National Park in Nepal, beating EFG Switzerland in a thrilling final in front of a crowd of over 5,000. The bicycles used in the tournament were donated to local schools and social clubs, and money was raised for the prevention and cure of elephant tuberculosis.

European Championships [15]

The European Championships is an annual Bicycle Polo competition for European club teams. It is held over three legs each year in France, Germany, Ireland or United Kingdom of Great Britain. The competition began in 2007 following the compromise between French and British/Irish traditional rules.

YearGoldSilverBronze4th5th6th7th8th9th10th
2007V.C. Frileuse-Sanvic (France)Pédales Varengevillaises 1 (France)E.S. Gervais-Lilas (France)A.S.C. Pessac Alouette (France)Johnstone W.C.C. (U.K.)Oakenden P. (U.K.)Dublin Phoenix (Ireland)Barbarians (Ireland & U.K.)Pédales Varengevillaises 2 (France)Dublin Obelisk (Ireland)
2008Pédales Varengevillaises 1 (France)V.C. Frileuse-Sanvic (France)Dublin Phoenix (Ireland)Oakenden P. "Oakenden" (U.K.)E.S. Gervais-Lilas (France)Oakenden P. "Amazons" (U.K.)Turtle B.P. (Ireland)Johnstone W.C.C. (U.K.)Pédales Varengevillaises 2 (France)A.S.C. Pessac Alouette (France)
2009V.C. Frileuse-Sanvic (France)Pédales Varengevillaises 1 (France)Oakenden P. "Oakenden" (U.K.)Oakenden P. "Amazons" (U.K.)Dublin Phoenix (Ireland)E.S. Gervais-Lilas (France)Dublin Obelisk (Ireland)Johnstone W.C.C. (U.K.)Pédales Varengevillaises 2 (France)
2010V.C. Frileuse-Sanvic (France)Pédales Varengevillaises 1 (France)E.S. Gervais-Lilas (France)Oakenden B.P. "Oakenden" (U.K.)Dublin Phoenix (Ireland)Oakenden B.P. "Amazons" (U.K.)Dublin Obelisk (Ireland), Johnstone W.C.C. (U.K.) & Pédales Varengevillaises 2 (France)Chelsea P. (U.K.)
2011Pédales Varengevillaises 1 (France)V.C. Frileuse-Sanvic (France)E.S. Gervais-Lilas (France)Oakenden B.P. "Oakenden" (U.K.)Pédales Varengevillaises 2 (France)Oakenden B.P. "Amazons" (U.K.)Chelsea P. (U.K.)Oakenden B.P. "Vigo" (U.K.)
2012Pédales Varengevillaises 1 (France)V.C. Frileuse-Sanvic (France)Oakenden B.P. "Oakenden" (U.K.)Oakenden B.P. "Team Pink" (U.K.) & E.S. Gervais-Lilas (France)Johnstone W.C.C. (U.K.) & Pédales Varengevillaises 2 (France)Oakenden B.P. "Vigo" (U.K.)Chelsea P. (U.K.)
2014Pédales Varengevillaises 1 (France)V.C. Frileuse-Sanvic (France)Oakenden B.P. "Oakenden" (U.K.)Entente d'Ile-de-France (France)Rebréchien Loiret Cyclisme (France)Pédales Varengevillaises 2 (France)Oakenden B.P. "Amazons" (U.K.)Oakenden B.P. "Tigers" (U.K.)E.S. Gervais-Lilas (France)
2015Pédales Varengevillaises 1 (France)V.C. Frileuse-Sanvic (France)Oakenden B.P. "Oakenden" (U.K.)Pédales Varengevillaises 2 (France)Parisis Athletic Club 95 (France)E.S. Gervais-Lilas (France)Oakenden B.P. "Amazons" (U.K.)Radler-Club 1913 Wendelstein e.V. (Germany)Entente d'Ile-de-France (France)Oakenden B.P. "Tigers" (U.K.)
2016Pédales Varengevillaises 1 (France)Oakenden B.P. "Oakenden" (U.K.)V.C. Frileuse-Sanvic (France)Pédales Varengevillaises 2 (France)Parisis Athletic Club 95 (France)Radler-Club 1913 Wendelstein e.V. (Germany)Oakenden B.P. "Amazons" (U.K.)Barbarians (France, Ireland & U.K.)Oakenden B.P. "Tigers" (U.K.) & les Gaulois (France)
2017Pédales Varengevillaises 1 (France)V.C. Frileuse-Sanvic (France)Oakenden B.P. "Oakenden" (U.K.)Pédales Varengevillaises 2 (France)Oakenden B.P. "Amazons" (U.K.)Parisis Athletic Club 95 (France)Radler-Club 1913 Wendelstein e.V. "Polonauten" (Germany)Radler-Club 1913 Wendelstein e.V. "Wendelstein" (Germany) & Oakenden B.P. "Belles" (U.K.)
2018Pédales Varengevillaises 1 (France)V.C. Frileuse-Sanvic (France)Oakenden B.P. "Oakenden" (U.K.)Pédales Varengevillaises 2 (France)Parisis Athletic Club 95 (France)Oakenden B.P. "Amazons" (U.K.)Radler-Club 1913 Wendelstein e.V. (Germany)Entente d'Ile-de-France (France)North Devon B.P. - CIrencester B.P. (U.K.)Oakenden B.P. "Belles" (U.K.)

See also

Related Research Articles

Polo Equestrian team sport

Polo is a horseback ball game, a traditional field sport and one of the world's oldest known team sports. The game is played by two opposing teams with the objective of scoring using a long-handled wooden mallet to hit a small hard ball through the opposing team's goal. Each team has four mounted riders, and the game usually lasts one to two hours, divided into periods called chukkas or "chukkers".

Gaelic football Irish team sport, form of football

Gaelic football, commonly referred to as football or Gaelic, is an Irish team sport. It is played between two teams of 15 players on a rectangular grass pitch. The objective of the sport is to score by kicking or punching the ball into the other team's goals or between two upright posts above the goals and over a crossbar 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) above the ground.

Water polo Ballgame-team sport played in water by teams competing to put the ball into the opponents goal

Water polo is a competitive team sport played in water between two teams of 7 players each. The game consists of four quarters in which the two teams attempt to score goals by throwing the ball into the opposing team's goal. The team with the most goals at the end of the game wins the match. Each team is made up of six field players and one goalkeeper. Excluding the goalkeeper, players participate in both offensive and defensive roles. Water polo is typically played in an all-deep pool so that players cannot touch the bottom.

Futsal Ballgame-team sport, variant of association football

Futsal is a football game played on a hard court, smaller than a football pitch, and mainly indoors. It has similarities to five-a-side football.

Canoe polo, also known as kayak polo, is one of the competitive disciplines of kayaking, known simply as "polo" by its aficionados.

Goal (sports)

In sport, a goal may refer to either an instance of scoring, or to the physical structure or area where an attacking team must send the ball or puck in order to score points. The structure of a goal varies from sport to sport, and one is placed at or near each end of the playing field for each team to defend. For many sports, each goal structure usually consists of two vertical posts, called goal posts, supporting a horizontal crossbar. A goal line marked on the playing surface between the goal posts demarcates the goal area. Thus, the objective is to send the ball or puck between the goal posts, under or over the crossbar, and across the goal line. Other sports may have other types of structures or areas where the ball or puck must pass through, such as the basketball hoop.

Polocrosse

Polocrosse is a team sport that is a combination of polo and lacrosse. It is played outside, on a field, on horseback. Each rider uses a cane or fibreglass stick to which is attached a racquet head with a loose, thread net, in which the ball is carried. The ball is made of sponge rubber and is approximately four inches across. The objective is to score goals by throwing the ball between the opposing team's goal posts.

Cycle ball

Cycle-ball, also known as "radball", is a sport similar to association football played on bicycles. The two people on each team ride a fixed gear bicycle with no brakes or freewheel. The ball is controlled by the bike and the head, except when defending the goal.

Rules of basketball

The rules of basketball are the rules and regulations that govern the play, officiating, equipment and procedures of basketball. While many of the basic rules are uniform throughout the world, variations do exist. Most leagues or governing bodies in North America, the most important of which are the National Basketball Association and NCAA, formulate their own rules. In addition, the Technical Commission of the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) determines rules for international play; most leagues outside North America use the complete FIBA ruleset.

Throw-in Method of restarting play in association football

A throw-in is a method of restarting play in a game of association football when the ball has exited the side of the field of play. It is governed by Law 15 of The Laws Of The Game.

Underwater football Underwater team sport using snorkeling equipment and an American football

Underwater football is a two-team underwater sport that shares common elements with underwater hockey and underwater rugby. As with both of those games, it is played in a swimming pool with snorkeling equipment.

Gateball

Gateball is a mallet team sport inspired by croquet. It is a fast-paced, non-contact, highly strategic team game, which can be played by anyone regardless of age or gender.

Hardcourt Bike Polo

Hardcourt Bike Polo is a variation of traditional Bicycle Polo in which teams of players ride bicycles and use mallets to strike a small ball into a goal. It may also be referred to as "Hardcourt", "Urban Bike Polo" or simply "Bike Polo".

Cowboy polo is a variation of polo played mostly in the western United States. Like regular polo, it is played in chukkas (periods) with two teams on horses who use mallets to hit a ball through a goal. It differs from traditional polo in that five riders make up a team instead of four, western saddles and equipment are used, and the playing field is usually a simple rodeo arena or other enclosed dirt area, indoors or out. Also, instead of the small ball used in traditional polo, the players use a large red rubber medicine ball and use mallets with long fiberglass shafts and hard rubber heads.

Auto polo

Automobile polo or auto polo was a motorsport invented in the United States with rules and equipment similar to equestrian polo but using automobiles instead of horses. The sport was popular at fairs, exhibitions and sports venues across the United States and several areas in Europe from 1911 until the late 1920s; it was, however, dangerous and carried the risk of injury and death to the participants and spectators, and expensive damage to vehicles.

Hobby horse polo is a mixed team sport played on hobby horses. It is similar to other polo variants, such as canoe polo, cycle polo, camel polo, elephant polo, golfcart polo, Segway polo, auto polo, and yak polo in that it uses the basic polo rules, but it has its own specialities.

Rules of water polo

The rules of water polo are the rules and regulations which cover the play, procedure, equipment and officiating of water polo. These rules are similar throughout the world, although slight variations do occur regionally and depending on the governing body. Governing bodies of water polo include FINA, the international governing organization for the rules; the NCAA, which govern the rules for collegiate matches in the United States; the NFHS, which govern the rules in high schools in the USA; and the IOC, which govern the rules at Olympic events.

Free kick (association football) Method of restarting play in association football

A free kick is a method of restarting play in association football. It is awarded after an infringement of the laws by the opposing team.

Baseball5

Baseball5 (B5) is a variation of the game of baseball which does not involve bats or gloves. There is no pitcher, with the batter instead starting each play with possession of the rubber ball, which they hit with their bare hand. There are five players on each team and each team has five innings. The World Baseball Softball Confederation proposed the game in 2018.

References

  1. 1 2 "Polo's young punk cousin". BBC. 31 July 2009. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  2. "International 4 player rules of bicycle polo". www.polo-velo.net. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  3. "Rules of bicycle polo - international 5 player set". www.polo-velo.net. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  4. Official North American ruleset
  5. Mahey, Arun; Brand, Jessica (23 July 2010). "Could a lost Olympic sport find its way back to London?". BBC. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  6. 1 2 polovelo. "Cycle polo story". Polo-velo.net. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
  7. Herlihy, David V. (2004). Bicycle, The History. Yale University Press. pp.  372. ISBN   0-300-10418-9.
  8. Theatre programme: Empire Theatre London, w/c 8 May 1899.
  9. "Welcome to rediff.com : Sports - Athens 2004 History". Rediff.com. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
  10. "BBC SPORT | Olympics 2004 | History | London 1908". BBC News. 9 July 2004. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
  11. Cycle Polo Federation of India. "Official Website" . Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  12. Dey, Sreyoshi (12 June 2012). "The wheels of a royal sport were a turnin' at CC&fc" (The Telegraph). ABP. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  13. Sarkar, Brinda (1 June 2017). "A power-packed cycle polo tourney at CC&FC" (The Telegraph). ABP. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  14. "Bike polo's history". www.polo-velo.net. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  15. "Bike polo's history". www.polo-velo.net. Retrieved 30 April 2019.