Cyclone Olivia

Last updated

Severe Tropical Cyclone Olivia
Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Aus scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Olivia Apr 10 1996 1123Z.png
Olivia near peak intensity off the coast of Western Australia
Formed3 April 1996
Dissipated12 April 1996
Highest winds 10-minute sustained:195 km/h (120 mph)
1-minute sustained:230 km/h (145 mph)
Lowest pressure925 hPa (mbar); 27.32 inHg
FatalitiesNone reported
DamageAt least $47.5 million (1996 USD)
Areas affected Northern Territory and Western Australia
Part of the 1995–96 Australian region cyclone season

Severe Tropical Cyclone Olivia was a powerful cyclone that produced the highest non-tornadic winds on record on Barrow Island, 408 kilometres per hour (254 mph), breaking the record of 372 km/h (231 mph) on Mount Washington in the United States in April 1934. The 13th named storm of the 1995–96 Australian region cyclone season, Olivia formed on 3 April 1996 to the north of Australia's Northern Territory. The storm moved generally to the southwest, gradually intensifying off Western Australia. On 8 April, Olivia intensified into a severe tropical cyclone and subsequently turned more to the south, steered by a passing trough. On 10 April, Olivia produced the worldwide record strongest gust on Barrow Island, and on the same day the cyclone made landfall near Varanus Island. The storm quickly weakened over land, dissipating over the Great Australian Bight on 12 April.


While in its formative stages, Olivia produced light rainfall in the Northern Territory. While offshore Western Australia, the cyclone forced oil platforms to shut down, and the combination of high winds and waves caused heavy damage to oil facilities. Onshore, Olivia's high winds damaged several small mining towns, halting operations. Every house in Pannawonica sustained some damage. One person in the town was injured by flying glass and had to be flown to receive treatment, and nine others were lightly injured. The cyclone also produced heavy rainfall and a localized storm surge. Damage was estimated "in the millions". While the storm was dissipating, rough seas in South Australia killed A$60 million (US$47.5 million) worth of farm-raised tuna at Port Lincoln. The name Olivia was retired after the season.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Olivia 1996 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

In early April 1996, a surge in the trade winds interacted with the monsoon trough to produce an area of convection. [1] On 2 April, the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) first identified the system as a low to mid-level low pressure area over Indonesia north of Darwin, Australia. Despite strong wind shear, the system slowly became better organized as it moved southward, [2] aided by improving upper-level outflow. [1] Early on 5 April, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) classified the system as Tropical Cyclone 25S as the system began a westward track, [3] steered by a building mid-level ridge to the south. [2] Shortly thereafter, the BoM upgraded the system to a Category 1 cyclone, designating the storm as Tropical Cyclone Olivia. [2] [4]

In the days following Olivia's development, persistent wind shear prevented convection from developing around the center of circulation. By 8 April, an upper-level trough passed to the south of the nascent cyclone, leading to lower shear. [2] Following this, the system had developed sufficiently for the JTWC to upgrade it to a Category 1 equivalent on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale (SSHS), estimating 1 minute sustained winds of 120 km/h (75 mph). [3] Around the same time, the BoM upgraded Olivia to a severe tropical cyclone, assessing similar wind speeds but sustained over 10 minutes. [2] [4] After the storm reached this intensity, the mid-level ridge south of the cyclone began to weaken, turning Olivia toward the southwest. By 9 April, the system attained Category 4 intensity according to the BoM as it continued to strengthen. [2] During the afternoon of 9 April, the BoM estimated that Olivia attained its lowest barometric pressure of 925  hPa (mbar), along with 10 minute sustained winds of 195 km/h (120 mph). [2] [4] Around 00:00  UTC on 10 April, the JTWC assessed the cyclone to have attained 1 minute winds of 230 km/h (145 mph), equivalent to a Category 4 on the SSHS. [3] By this time, another trough bypassed the cyclone, causing Olivia to turn to the south and accelerate to the southeast. Early on 10 April, data from a nearby weather radar at the Learmonth Airport near Exmouth, Western Australia, showed that the storm had developed a 65 km (40 mi) wide eye. [2]

Late on 10 April, the center of Olivia passed near Barrow Island at peak intensity. Shortly thereafter, the storm passed near Varanus Island as a high-end Category 4 or low-end Category 5 cyclone. [4] [5] Within several hours of passing by Varanus Island, Olivia made landfall near Mardie at peak intensity. [2] Shortly thereafter, the storm began to weaken overland. Accelerating to the southeast, the storm became disorganized and winds decreased below hurricane-force. [4] During the afternoon of 11 April, Olivia weakened to a tropical low over southern Australia. It moved over the Great Australian Bight and lost its identity as a gale-force low on 12 April, [2] after it was absorbed by a trough. [6]

Impact and aftermath

As a minimal cyclone in the Timor Sea, Olivia brought minor rainfall and gusty winds to parts of the Northern Territory. [7] On 9 April, the fringes of the storm dropped 84 mm (3.3 in) in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. [8] An oil rig in the Timor Sea recorded a wind gust of 127 km/h (79 mph) during the storm's passage. [7] Offshore, Olivia affected the southern portion of Australia's Northwest Shelf, which had 24 oil and gas facilities. [9] The storm produced large swells up to 21 m (69 ft), in conjunction with extreme wind gusts 265 km/h (165 mph). [2] Waves toppled an oil drilling structure about 40 km (25 mi) northeast of Barrow Island, the first of its kind to fail since the 1980s. The waves also wrecked several anchors for underwater pipelines, although no lines were ruptured. On Barrow Island, the winds knocked over 30  pumpjacks, [9] and several buildings and instruments were damaged, while high waves incurred beach erosion. [8] Damage to offshore platforms was estimated in the millions of dollars. [2]

A group of 17 people, initially considered missing, [10] rode out the storm on the offshore Mackerel Island. Onshore, officials closed a portion of Highway 1 as well as other roads in the area. [11] Ahead of the storm, hundreds of residents in older structures and mobile homes, as well as an aborigine village near Onslow, were ordered to evacuate to safer locations. [12] [13] Five iron mines were closed during the storm's passage, forcing the 1,500 workers to return home. [14] The disruptions from the cyclone affected about 340,000 tonnes of lost production. [15] About 800,000  barrels of lost oil production resulted from closed offshore platforms. Oil fields reopened by 14 April. [16]

Moving ashore Western Australia, Olivia produced peak gusts of 257 km/h (160 mph) in Mardie Station, [14] the station's second-highest wind gust from a tropical cyclone. [2] Olivia also produced gusts of 267 km/h (166 mph) at Varanus Island, which was the highest wind gust on record in Australia, [2] until the higher reading on Barrow Island during the storm was confirmed. [17] It broke the previous peak of 259 km/h (161 mph) set by Cyclone Trixie in 1975, [18] and was later matched by Cyclone Vance in 1999. [5] The high winds at Mardie Station damaged the local airport hangar and several windmills. [14] Farther inland, Olivia still produced wind gusts of 158 km/h (98 mph) in Pannawonica, which damaged many roofs, trees, and power lines. The town's police station and medical center lost their roofs during the storm, [19] and every house sustained some damage. [20] Of the 82 houses in the small town, 55 lost their roof. It was estimated that Pannawonica would remain without power for three weeks. One person in town was injured by flying broken glass, who had to be airlifted to Karratha for medical attention. In nearby Yarraloola, nearly every building was damaged, and the roofs of several farm buildings were ripped off. Several other small towns in the region sustained damage to roofs, power lines, and trees, [21] and a 24 year old roadhouse was destroyed along the Fortescue River. [22] Olivia also dropped heavy rainfall, peaking at 167 mm (6.6 in) in Red Hill, although flooding was not significant. [6] The storm also produced a 2 m (6.6 ft) storm surge in localized areas. [7] At the port of Dampier, the storm sank three boats, although no one was aboard. [21] Damage was estimated in the "millions of dollars", according to a local newspaper, [14] and overall, 10 people were injured. [23]

As the remnants of Olivia moved through Australia, they dropped heavy rainfall and brought gusty winds to South Australia. Cape Willoughby recorded gusts of 106 km/h (66 mph) on 12 April, strong enough to knock down tree branches on nearby Kangaroo Island. [8] At Port Lincoln, sediment stirred up by Olivia's remnants killed 60,000 farmed tuna, worth about A$60 million (US$47.5 million). The fish were in cages and died due to abnormally high oxygen levels in the water, caused by Olivia's high winds and rough waves. [24] The remnants of Olivia later brought rainfall to the states of Victoria and Tasmania. [8]

The name "Olivia" was later retired from the list of tropical cyclone names for the Australian region. [25] After the storm's passage, the Royal Australian Air Force flew six generators to Pannawonica after the town was out of power for two nights, [26] and the Western Australian government sent another 13 generators. [27] Residents in the town received counseling to cope with the stress of the storm's aftermath. [21]


At 10:55 UTC on 10 April 1996 along the offshore Barrow Island, an automatic privately operated anemometer recorded a three-second wind gust of 408 km/h (253 mph), at a position 10 m (33 ft) above sea level. The BoM was initially unsure of the veracity of the reading, although a team at the 1999 Offshore Technology Conference presented the reading as the highest wind gust on Earth. [17] In 2009, the World Meteorological Organization Commission for Climatology researched whether Hurricane Gustav in 2008 produced a record 340 km/h (211 mph) gust on Pinar del Rio, Cuba; [28] one committee member recalled the gust set during Olivia, which spurred the investigation. The reading occurred along the western edge of the eyewall, possibly related to mesovortices. Based on other similarly high wind gusts during Olivia 369 km/h (229 mph) and 374 km/h (232 mph) observed within five minutes of the record gust the team confirmed that the instrument was observing properly during the storm. The same anemometer also recorded five-minute sustained winds of 178 km/h (111 mph), causing a much greater than normal ratio of gusts to sustained winds. The team confirmed that the instrument was regularly inspected and calibrated, and that the reading was during the passage of the eyewall. [17]

On 26 January 2010, nearly 14 years later, the World Meteorological Organization announced that the wind gust was the highest recorded worldwide. This gust surpassed the previous non-tornadic wind speed of 372 km/h (231 mph) on Mount Washington in the United States in April 1934. [29] The long delay was partly due to the anemometer not being owned by the BoM, and as a result the agency did not enact a follow-up investigation. Despite the high winds, the anemometer and a nearby building were not damaged due to the winds occurring over a very short time. [17]

See also

Related Research Articles

Typhoon Gay (1989) Pacific typhoon and North Indian cyclone in 1989

Typhoon Gay, also known as the Kavali Cyclone of 1989, was a small but powerful tropical cyclone that caused more than 800 fatalities in and around the Gulf of Thailand in November 1989. The worst typhoon to affect the Malay Peninsula in 35 years, Gay originated from a monsoon trough over the Gulf of Thailand in early-November. Owing to favorable atmospheric conditions, the storm rapidly intensified, attaining winds of more than 120 km/h (75 mph) by 3 November. Later that day, Gay became the first typhoon since 1891 to make landfall in Thailand, striking Chumphon Province with winds of 185 km/h (115 mph). The small storm emerged into the Bay of Bengal and gradually reorganized over the following days as it approached southeastern India. On 8 November, Gay attained its peak intensity as a Category 5–equivalent cyclone with winds of 260 km/h (160 mph). The typhoon then moved ashore near Kavali, Andhra Pradesh. Rapid weakening ensued inland, and Gay dissipated over Maharashtra early on 10 November.

1992 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 1992 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was unofficially the most active year on record for the basin, with 10 tropical storms developing, according to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC). There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean – the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent – and the Arabian Sea to the west of India. The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the JTWC releases unofficial advisories. An average of four to six storms form in the North Indian Ocean every season with peaks in May and November. Cyclones occurring between the meridians 45°E and 100°E are included in the season by the IMD.

1995–96 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the South-West Indian ocean

The 1995–96 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was a moderately active season that included Cyclone Bonita, which was the first known tropical cyclone to cross from the southern Indian Ocean into the southern Atlantic Ocean. Tropical activity lasted for about six months from the middle of November 1995 to early May 1996. The first storm, Intense Tropical Cyclone Agnielle, formed in the adjacent Australian basin on November 16 and later reached peak winds in the south-west Indian Ocean. The next named storm after Agnielle was Bonita, which formed in early January and killed 42 people. The basin was most active in February, with two tropical cyclones, or the equivalent of a minimal hurricane, as well as a severe tropical storm. The first of these three was Doloresse, which killed 67 people due to a shipwreck in the Comoros. The next storm was Cyclone Edwige, which caused heavy crop damage on Mauritius before looping along the east coast of Madagascar. In March, both Cyclone Flossy and Tropical Storm Guylianne passed near the Mascarene Islands, producing heavy rainfall and gusty winds.

Typhoon Maemi Pacific typhoon in 2003

Typhoon Maemi, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Pogi, was the most powerful typhoon to strike South Korea since record-keeping began in the country in 1904. Maemi formed on September 4, 2003 from a disturbance in a monsoon trough in the western Pacific Ocean. It slowly intensified into Tropical Storm Maemi while moving northwestward, becoming a typhoon on September 8. That day, favorable conditions facilitated more rapid strengthening; the storm developed a well-defined eye and reached peak maximum sustained winds of 195 km/h (120 mph). While near peak intensity, Maemi decelerated and began turning to the north-northeast. Soon after, the eyewall passed over the Japanese island of Miyako-jima on September 10 and produced an air pressure reading of 912 mbar (26.9 inHg), the fourth-lowest recorded in the nation. Due to warm waters, Maemi was able to maintain much of its intensity before it made landfall just west of Busan, South Korea, on September 12. The typhoon became extratropical in the East Sea(Sea of Japan) the next day, although its remnants persisted for several days, lashing northern Japan with strong winds.

1995–96 Australian region cyclone season cyclone season in the Australian region

The 1995–96 Australian region cyclone season was an active Australian cyclone season, with Western Australia experiencing a record number of landfalling intense storms in the Pilbara region. The season produced a total of 19 tropical cyclones, of which 14 developed into named storms and 9 reached severe tropical cyclone status. The strongest of the season was Severe Tropical Cyclone Olivia, which also produced the highest recorded wind gust on record of 408 km/h (253 mph). Though several systems impacted land, the general sparsity of population centres in Australia limits the scale of damage. One person was confirmed to have been killed and cumulative losses were estimated at A$77 million (US$58.5 million).

Cyclone Orson Category 5 Australian region cyclone in 1989

Severe Tropical Cyclone Orson was the fourth most intense cyclone ever recorded in the Australian region. Forming out of a tropical low on 17 April 1989, Orson gradually intensified as it tracked towards the west. After attaining Category 5 intensity on 20 April, the storm began to track southward and accelerated. The following day, the cyclone reached its peak intensity with winds of 250 km/h and a barometric pressure of 904 hPa (mbar). Orson maintained this intensity for nearly two days before making landfall near Dampier. The cyclone rapidly weakened after landfall as it accelerated to the southeast. After moving into the Great Australian Bight on 24 April, the storm dissipated.

1988–89 Australian region cyclone season cyclone season in the Australian region

The 1988–89 Australian region cyclone season was a slightly above average tropical cyclone season. It officially started on 1 November 1988, and officially ended on 30 April 1989. The regional tropical cyclone operational plan defines a "tropical cyclone year" separately from a "tropical cyclone season"; the "tropical cyclone year" began on 1 July 1988 and ended on 30 June 1989.

Typhoon Clara (1981)

Typhoon Clara, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Rubing, left flooding in the northern Philippines and southern China during September 1981. An area of disturbed weather was first detected on September 11 near Ponape. After moving westward, the system gradually became better organized and thunderstorm activity increased. On September 16, the system attained tropical storm status. Two days later, Clara attained typhoon intensity and subsequently began to deepen at a faster rate. On September 19, Clara reached maximum intensity, before making landfall along the northern tip of Luzon. Clara steadily weakened after interacting with land, but by late on September 20, Clara leveled off in intensity over the South China Sea. The next day, Clara moved ashore to the east-northeast of Hong Kong while still at typhoon intensity before rapidly dissipating over land.

Cyclone Nina

Severe Tropical Cyclone Nina was a significant tropical cyclone, which impacted six island nations and caused several deaths. The system was first noted as a tropical low over the Cape York Peninsula on December 21. Over the next few days the system moved south-westwards and moved into the Gulf of Carpentaria where it was named Nina, after it had developed into a tropical cyclone during December 23. The system was subsequently steered south-eastwards by an upper level trough of low pressure, before it made landfall as a Category 2 tropical cyclone on the Cape York Peninsula near Cape Keerweer during December 25. Over land the system weakened into a tropical low before it regenerated into a tropical cyclone over the Coral Sea during December 28. The system subsequently moved north-eastwards, under the influence of Severe Tropical Cyclone Kina and an upper level ridge of high pressure. During January 1, 1993, Nina peaked with sustained wind speeds of 140 km/h (85 mph), as it affected Rennell, Bellona and Temotu provinces in the Solomon Islands. The system subsequently gradually weakened as it accelerated eastwards and affected Rotuma, Wallis and Futuna, Tonga and Niue. Nina was subsequently absorbed by Kina, while both systems were located near the Southern Cook Islands during January 5.

Typhoon Sinlaku (2002) Pacific typhoon in 2002

Typhoon Sinlaku was a damaging typhoon that affected Okinawa, Taiwan, and eastern China in September 2002. The 16th named storm of the 2002 Pacific typhoon season, Sinlaku formed on August 27 northeast of the Northern Marianas Islands. After initially moving to the north, it began a generally westward motion that it maintained for the rest of its duration. Sinlaku strengthened into a typhoon and attained its peak winds on August 31. Over the next few days, it fluctuated slightly in intensity while moving over or near the Ryukyu Islands. On September 4, the typhoon's eye crossed over Okinawa. It dropped heavy rainfall and produced strong winds that left over 100,000 people without power. Damage on the island was estimated at $14.3 million.

Typhoon Higos (2002) Pacific typhoon in 2002

Typhoon Higos was considered the fifth strongest typhoon to affect Tokyo since World War II. The 21st named storm of the 2002 Pacific typhoon season, Higos developed on September 25 east of the Northern Marianas Islands. It tracked west-northwestward for its first few days, steadily intensifying into a powerful typhoon by September 29. Higos subsequently weakened and turned to the north-northeast toward Japan, making landfall in that country's Kanagawa Prefecture on October 1. It weakened while crossing Honshu, and shortly after striking Hokkaidō, Higos became extratropical on October 2. The remnants passed over Sakhalin and dissipated on October 4.

Typhoon Rammasun (2002) Pacific typhoon in 2002

Typhoon Rammasun, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Florita, was the first of four typhoons to contribute to heavy rainfall and deadly flooding in the Philippines in July 2002. The fifth tropical cyclone of the 2002 Pacific typhoon season, Rammasun developed around the same time as Typhoon Chataan, only further to the west. The storm tracked northwestward toward Taiwan, and on July 2 it attained its peak intensity with winds of 160 km/h (100 mph). Rammasun turned northward, passing east of Taiwan and China. In Taiwan, the outer rainbands dropped rainfall that alleviated drought conditions. In China, the rainfall occurred after previously wet conditions, resulting in additional flooding, although damage was less than expected; there was about $85 million in crop and fishery damage in one province.

Cyclone Rusty

Severe Tropical Cyclone Rusty was a strong, slow-moving tropical cyclone that produced record duration gale-force winds in Port Hedland, Western Australia in late February 2013. Originating as an area of low pressure on 22 February well to the northwest of the Kimberley region of Western Australia, the precursor to Rusty steadily developed within a favourable environment. Gradually decreasing surface pressures in the region signaled intensification and the low was classified as Tropical Cyclone Rusty on 23 February. Although a large, sprawling system, near-record high sea surface temperatures enabled Rusty to quickly deepen. Becoming essentially stationary on 25 February, the system acquired hurricane-force winds as its core improved in structure. The cyclone achieved its peak intensity two days later with maximum ten-minute sustained winds of 165 km/h (105 mph) and a barometric pressure of 944 hPa. Thereafter, interaction with land caused its core to collapse before the system made landfall near Pardoo Station. Rusty weakened below cyclone strength on 28 February. Its remnants persisted over Western Australia for several more days before being absorbed into an extratropical cyclone on 5 March.

Cyclone Joy struck Australia in late 1990

Severe Tropical Cyclone Joy struck Australia in late 1990, causing the third highest floods on record in Rockhampton, Queensland. This cyclone began as a weak tropical low near the Solomon Islands, and initially moved westward. On 18 December, it was named Joy, becoming the 2nd named storm of the 1990–91 Australian region cyclone season. After turning southwest, Joy developed a well-defined eye and strengthened to maximum sustained winds of 165 km/h (103 mph) while approaching Cairns in Far North Queensland. Brushing the city with strong winds, the cyclone soon weakened and turned southeast. Joy later curved back southwest, making landfall near Townsville, Queensland on 26 December. It dissipated the next day; remnant moisture continued as torrential rainfall over Queensland for two weeks.

Cyclone Forrest

Cyclone Forrest, also referred to as Tropical Storm Forrest, was a powerful tropical cyclone that prompted the evacuation of 600,000 people in Bangladesh in late November 1992. Originating from an area of disturbed weather near the Caroline Islands on November 9, Forrest was classified as a tropical depression three days later over the South China Sea. Tracking generally west, the system steadily organized into a tropical storm, passing Vietnam to the south, before striking Thailand along the Malay Peninsula on November 15. Once over the Bay of Bengal, Forrest turned northward on November 17 and significantly intensified. It reached its peak intensity on November 20 as a Category 4-equivalent cyclone on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale with winds of 230 km/h (145 mph). Hostile environmental conditions soon affected the cyclone as it turned abruptly east-northeastward. Forrest made landfall in northwestern Myanmar as a weakening system on November 21 before dissipating early the next day.

Cyclone Bobby

Severe Tropical Cyclone Bobby set numerous monthly rainfall records in parts of the Goldfields-Esperance regions of Western Australia, dropping up to 400 mm (16 in) of rain in February 1995. The fourth named storm of the 1994–95 Australian region cyclone season, Bobby developed as a tropical low embedded within a monsoon trough situated north of the Northern Territory coastline on 19 February. The storm gradually drifted southwestward and later southward under low wind shear, strengthening enough to be assigned the name Bobby by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM). The storm rapidly deepened as it approached the coast of Western Australia, and attained its peak intensity of 925 mbar at 0900 UTC on 24 February with 10-minute maximum sustained winds of 195 km/h (120 mph). After making landfall as a somewhat weaker cyclone near Onslow, the remnants of Bobby drifted southeastward, gradually weakening, before dissipating over the southern reaches of Western Australia.

Tropical Storm Tess (1988)

Tropical Storm Tess known in the Philippines as Tropical Storm Welpring was the second of three tropical cyclones to directly impact the Philippines in a two-week time frame in 1988. An area of disturbed weather near the Philippines was first observed on November 1. Following an increase in organization, the disturbance was designated as a tropical cyclone on November 4. Moving west, Tess steadily strengthened due to favorable conditions aloft. During the evening of November 5, Tess was estimated to have achieved its highest intensity, with winds of 115 km/h (70 mph). Rapid weakening then ensured as Tess neared Vietnam, and after making landfall in the country on November 6, Tess dissipated the next day.

Cyclone Fergus

Cyclone fergus was a tropical cyclone, later becoming an extratropical cyclone, that affected islands in the south-west Pacific Ocean. It lasted from December 23, 1996, to January 1, 1997, and reached speeds of up to 165 kilometers per hour, or 90 miles per hour. In additions to its winds, the storm caused heavy rains and severe flooding, causing significant damage to property in some areas.

Typhoon Dinah (1987)

Typhoon Dinah, known as Typhoon Luding in the Philippines, was the fourth typhoon to form during August 1987. An area of low pressure developed near Guam on August 19, and two days later, the low reached tropical storm intensity as it moved generally west. Intensification was initially gradual, with Dinah becoming a typhoon early on August 24, before it subsequently intensified at a faster pace. Dinah reached its highest strength on August 26 before turning northward on August 28 and into a less favorable conditions aloft, which prompted weakening. Dinah entered the Sea of Japan after passing near Okinawa on August 29, where Dinah leveled off in intensity. The system then began to recurve towards southwestern Japan, and after tracking through the area, Dinah transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on August 31, although the remnants could be traced for four more days as it approached the International Date Line.

1994 Bangladesh cyclone

The 1994 Bangladesh cyclone was a powerful and tropical cyclone in the Bay of Bengal. The cyclone closely followed the path, strength, and time of year of a deadly cyclone in 1991 that killed more than 138,000 people. The 1994 cyclone formed on April 29 as a depression, which organized and intensified significantly over the subsequent few days. On May 2, the cyclone attained winds of 215 km/h (130 mph), according to the India Meteorological Department (IMD). That day, the storm made landfall in southeastern Bangladesh, and rapidly weakened over land, before dissipating on May 3.


  1. 1 2 Darwin Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre (April 1996). "Darwin Tropical Diagnostic Statement" (PDF). 15 (4). Bureau of Meteorology: 2. Retrieved 13 January 2016.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Jeff Callaghan (August 1997). "The South Pacific and southeast Indian Ocean tropical cyclone season 1995-96" (PDF). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 27 January 2010.
  3. 1 2 3 Joint Typhoon Warning Center (1997). "Cyclone 25S Best Track". United States Navy. Retrieved 27 January 2010.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 "The Australian Tropical Cyclone Database" (CSV). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A guide on how to read the database is available here.
  5. 1 2 "Tropical Cyclones in Western Australia - Extremes". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 2010. Retrieved 27 January 2010.
  6. 1 2 "Tropical Cyclone Olivia". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
  7. 1 2 3 "Northern Territory Cyclones: Tropical Cyclone Olivia". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 1997. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
  8. 1 2 3 4 "Severe Weather Summary - April 1996". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  9. 1 2 S.J. Buchan; P.G. Black; R.L. Cohen (1999). The Impact of Tropical Cyclone Olivia on Australia's Northwest Shelf (PDF). Offshore Technology Conference. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  10. "Small boats in path of cyclone". The Advertiser. 11 April 1996.  via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  11. Nigel Wilson; Natalie O'Brien (11 April 1996). "Cyclone tears into Pilbara". The Australian.  via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  12. "International news". Associated Press. 10 April 1996.  via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  13. Natalie O'Brien; Nigel Wilson (11 April 1996). "Cyclone tears into Pilbara". The Australian. Associated Press.  via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  14. 1 2 3 4 "Cyclone flattens town". The Daily Telegraph. 11 April 1996.  via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  15. Kate Askew (12 April 1996). "Cyclone hits output from major mines". The Advertiser.  via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  16. "Some Australian fields set to reopen". Platt's Oilgram Price Report. 15 April 1996.  via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  17. 1 2 3 4 J. Courtney; et al. (2012). "Documentation and verification of the world extreme wind gust record: 113.3 m s–1 on Barrow Island, Australia, during passage of tropical cyclone Olivia" (PDF). Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal (62). Retrieved January 13, 2016.
  18. Penelope Green (12 April 1996). "Mop-up begins after near-record cyclone". The Australian.  via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  19. "Cyclone hits Western Australia". Agence France-Presse. 11 April 1996.  via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  20. Steve Newman (April 14, 1996). "Earthweek: Diary of a Planet". The Daily Gazette. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
  21. 1 2 3 Kirsten Stoney (April 12, 1996). "Havoc as cyclone moves inland". The Advertiser.  via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  22. "Devastation as Olivia rips into roadhouse". Hobart Mercury. 12 April 1996.  via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  23. John Miller (2007). Australia's Greatest Disasters. Exisle Publishing Limited. p. 80.
  24. Huw Morgan (19 April 1996). "$60 Million Harvest Lost at Sea". The Advertiser.  via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  25. RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee (May 5, 2015). List of Tropical Cyclone Names withdrawn from use due to a Cyclone's Negative Impact on one or more countries (PDF) (Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-East Indian Ocean and the Southern Pacific Ocean 2014). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 2B-1 - 2B-4 (23 - 26). Archived (PDF) from the original on May 9, 2015. Retrieved May 9, 2015.
  26. "RAAF lights town". Daily Telegraph. April 13, 1996.  via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  27. "Supplies on way". Courier Mail. April 13, 1996.  via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  28. Beven II, John L; Kimberlain, Todd B; National Hurricane Center (22 January 2009). Hurricane Gustav (PDF) (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
  29. "Highest surface wind speed - Tropical Cyclone Olivia sets world record". World Record Academy. 26 January 2010. Archived from the original on 17 October 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2010.