Czechs

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Czechs
Czech: Češi
Total population
c.10–12 million
(including Moravians and Czech Silesians)
Czech people around the world.svg
Regions with significant populations
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic   
6,732,104
[1] [nb 1] 9,246,784 [2]
Significant diasporic populations in:
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 1,462,000 [3]
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 294,805 [4]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 145,000 [5]
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 50,000 [6]
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 50,220 [7] [ circular reference ]
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 36,153 [8]
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 21,196 [9]
Flag of France.svg  France 15,000 [10]
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 9,641 [11]
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 5,451 [12]
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 5,000 [13]
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 4,958 [14]
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 1,824 (2011) [15]
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 1,000 [16]
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina 600–1,000 [17]
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 4,000
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 2,000
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 436
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 1,000
Languages
Czech
Religion
Traditionally Christian
(Majority Roman Catholic, [18] Minority Protestant)
Mostly irreligious [19]
Related ethnic groups
Other West Slavs (Moravians, Slovaks, Poles, Silesians, Sorbs and Kashubs)

The Czechs (Czech : Češi, pronounced [ˈtʃɛʃɪ] ; singular masculine: Čech [ˈtʃɛx] , singular feminine: Češka [ˈtʃɛʃka] ), or the Czech people (Český lid), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic [20] in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history, and the Czech language.

Contents

Ethnic Czechs [21] were called Bohemians in English until the early 20th century, referring to the medieval land of Bohemia which in turn was adapted from late Iron Age tribe of Celtic Boii. During the Migration Period, West Slavic tribes of Bohemians settled in the area, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations", and formed a principality in the 9th century, which was part of Great Moravia, in form of Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia, the predecessors of the modern republic.

The Czech diaspora is found in notable numbers in the United States, Canada, Israel, Austria, Germany, Slovakia, Ukraine, Switzerland, Italy, the United Kingdom, Australia, France, Chile, Russia, Argentina and Brazil, among others.

Ethnology

The Czech ethnic group is part of the West Slavic subgroup of the larger Slavic ethno-linguistical group. The West Slavs have their origin in early Slavic tribes which settled in Central Europe after East Germanic tribes had left this area during the migration period. [22] The West Slavic tribe of Czechs settled in the area of Bohemia during the migration period, and assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations. [23] In the 9th century the Duchy of Bohemia, under the Přemyslid dynasty, was formed, which had been part of Great Moravia under Svatopluk I. According to mythology, the founding father of the Czech people was Forefather Čech, who according to legend brought the tribe of Czechs into its land.

The Czech are closely related to the neighbouring Slovaks (with whom they constituted Czechoslovakia 1918–1993). The Czech–Slovak languages form a dialect continuum rather than being two clearly distinct languages. [24] Czech cultural influence in Slovak culture is noted as having been much higher than the other way around. [25] Czech (Slavic) people have a long history of coexistence with the Germanic people. In the 17th century, German replaced Czech in central and local administration; upper classes in Bohemia and Moravia were Germanized, and espoused a political identity (Landespatriotismus), while Czech ethnic identity survived among the lower and lower-middle classes. [26] The Czech National Revival took place in the 18th and 19th centuries aiming to revive Czech language, culture and national identity. The Czech were the initiators of Pan-Slavism. [27]

The Czech ethnonym (archaic Čechové) was the name of a Slavic tribe in central Bohemia that subdued the surrounding tribes in the late 9th century and created the Czech/Bohemian state. The origin of the name of the tribe itself is unknown. According to legend, it comes from their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia. Research regards Čech as a derivative of the root čel- (member of the people, kinsman). [28] The Czech ethnonym was adopted by the Moravians in the 19th century. [29]

Genetics

Distribution of populations in selected nations according to their Haplogroup frequencies, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2007
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Czech samples
German samples
Polish samples
Italian samples
Balkan samples Correspondence Analysis of Y-chromosomal variation in the Czech Republic Am J Phys Anthropol 2007.png
Distribution of populations in selected nations according to their Haplogroup frequencies, American Journal of Physical Anthropology , 2007
  Czech samples
  German samples
  Polish samples
  Italian samples
  Balkan samples

The population of the Czech lands has been influenced by different human migrations that wide-crossed Europe over time. In their Y-DNA haplogroups, which are inherited along the male line, Czechs have shown a mix of Eastern and Western European traits. According to a 2007 study, 34.2% of Czech men belong to R1a. Within the Czech Republic, the proportion of R1a seems to gradually increase from west to east [31] According to a 2000 study, 35.6% of Czech men have haplogroup R1b, which is very common in Western Europe among Germanic and Celtic nations, but rare among Slavic nations. [32] A mtDNA study of 179 individuals from Western Bohemia showed that 3% had East Eurasian lineages that perhaps entered the gene pool through admixture with Central Asian nomadic tribes in the early Middle Ages. [33] A group of scientists suggested that the high frequency of a gene mutation causing cystic fibrosis in Central European (including Czech R.) and Celtic populations supports the theory of some Celtic ancestry among the Czech population. [34]

Y-DNA studies
Populationn R1b R1a I   E1b1b J G N T OthersReference
Czech R.25734.218.35.84.75.11.6Luca et al. 2007 [30]
Czech R. ?35.6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?Semino et al. 2000 [32]
Czech R.81729.426.78.64.95.66.83.21.0Czech DNA Project 2001–2018 [35]

History

Duchy of Bohemia, the early form of the Czech state pictured in the 11th century within the Holy Roman Empire Duchy of Bohemia and the Holy Roman Empire in 11th century.svg
Duchy of Bohemia, the early form of the Czech state pictured in the 11th century within the Holy Roman Empire

The population of the Czech Republic descends from diverse peoples of Slavic, Celtic and Germanic origin. [36] [23] [37] [38] Presence of West Slavs in the 6th century during the Migration Period has been documented on the Czech territory. [23] Slavs settled in Bohemia, Moravia and Austria sometime during the 6th or 7th centuries, [39] and "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations". [23] [40] According to a popular myth, the Slavs came with Forefather Čech who settled at the Říp Mountain.

During the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo, supporting the Slavs fighting against nearby settled Avars, became the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe, Samo's Empire. The principality Great Moravia, controlled by the Moymir dynasty, arose in the 8th century and reached its zenith in the 9th (during the reign of Svatopluk I of Moravia) when it held off the influence of the Franks. Great Moravia was Christianized, the crucial role played Byzantine mission of Cyril and Methodius. The Duchy of Bohemia emerged in the late 9th century. In 880, Prague Castle was constructed by Prince Bořivoj, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty and the city of Prague was established. Vratislav II was the first Czech king in 1085 and the duchy was raised to a hereditary kingdom under Ottokar I in 1198.

The second half of the 13th century was a period of advancing German immigration into the Czech lands. The number of Czechs who have at least partly German ancestry today probably runs into hundreds of thousands. [41] The Habsburg Monarchy focused much of its power on religious wars against the Protestants. While these religious wars were taking place, the Czech estates revolted against Habsburg from 1546 to 1547 but were ultimately defeated. [42]

Czech traditional costumes Ottuv slovnik naucny - 17 Ceske kroje - 2.jpg
Czech traditional costumes

Defenestrations of Prague in 1618, signaled an open revolt by the Bohemian estates against the Habsburgs and started the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of White Mountain in 1620, all Czech lands were declared hereditary property of the Habsburg family. The German language was made equal to the Czech language.

Czech patriotic authors tend to call the following period, from 1620 to 1648 until the late 18th century, the "Dark Age". It is characterized by devastation by foreign troops; Germanization; and economic and political decline. It is estimated that the population of the Czech lands declined by a third. [43]

The 18th and 19th century is characterized by the Czech National Revival, focusing to revive Czech culture and national identity.

Since the turn of the 20th century, Chicago is the city with the third largest Czech population, after Prague and Vienna. [44] [45]

During World War I, Czechoslovak Legions fought in France, Italy and Russia against the Central Powers. In 1918 the independent state of Czechoslovakia was proclaimed. Czechs formed the leading class in the new state emerging from the remnants of the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy.

After 1933, Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in central and eastern Europe. However, in 1938 the Munich Agreement severed the Sudetenland, with a considerable Czech minority, from Czechoslovakia, and in 1939 the German Nazi regime established the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia for Resttschechei (the rump Czech state [46] [47] [48] ). Emil Hácha became president of the protectorate under Nazi domination, which only allowed pro-Nazi Czech associations and tended to stress ties of the Czechs with the Bohemian Germans and other parts of the German people, in order to facilitate assimilation by Germanization. In Lidice, Ležáky and Javoříčko the Nazi authorities committed war crimes against the local Czech population. On 2 May 1945, the Prague Uprising reached its peak, supported by the Russian Liberation Army. The post-war expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia and the immediate reprisals against Germans and Nazi collaborators by Czech resistance and the Czechoslovak state authorities, made Czechs—especially in the early 1950s—settle alongside Slovaks and Romani people in the former lands of the Sudeten Germans, who had been deported to East Germany, West Germany and Austria according to the Potsdam Conference and Yalta Conference.

The Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 was followed by a wave of emigration, unseen before and stopped shortly after in 1969 (estimate: 70,000 immediately, 300,000 in total), [49] typically of highly qualified people.

Tens of thousands of Czechs had repatriated from Volhynia and Banat after World War II. Since the 1990s, the Czech Republic has been working to repatriate Romania and Kazakhstan's ethnic Czechs. [50] [51]

Following the Czech Republic's entry into the European Union in May 2004, Czechs gradually gained the right to work in EU countries without a work permit. [52]

Notable people

Areas where Czech language is spoken Idioma checo.PNG
Areas where Czech language is spoken

Historical figures

The last five Přemyslids were kings: Ottokar I of Bohemia, Wenceslaus I of Bohemia, Ottokar II of Bohemia, Wenceslaus II of Bohemia and Wenceslaus III of Bohemia. The most successful and influential of all Czech kings was Charles IV, who also became the Holy Roman Emperor. [53] The Luxembourg dynasty represents the heights of Czech (Bohemian) statehood territorial and influence as well as advancement in many areas of human endeavors. [54]

Many people are considered national heroes and cultural icons, many national stories concern their lives. Jan Hus was a religious reformist from the 15th century and spiritual father of the Hussite Movement. [55] Jan Žižka and Prokop the Great were leaders of hussite army, George of Poděbrady was a hussite king. Albrecht von Wallenstein was a notable military leader during the Thirty Years' War. The teacher of nations Jan Amos Komenský is also considered a notable figure in Czech history. [56] Joseph Radetzky von Radetz was an Austrian general staff during the later period of the Napoleonic Wars. Josef Jungmann is often credited for expanding the modern Czech language, and preventing its extinction. [57] The most famous Czech historian was František Palacký, often called "father of nation".

Modern politicians

One of the most notable figures are founders of Czechoslovakia, modern state of independence of Czech and Slovak nations, Presidents Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk and Edvard Beneš, who was also leader of exile government in World War II. Ludvík Svoboda was a head of the Czechoslovak military units on the Eastern Front during the World War II (later president of Czechoslovakia). The key figures of the Communist regime were Klement Gottwald, Antonín Zápotocký, Antonín Novotný (and Slovak Gustáv Husák), the most famous victims of this regime were Milada Horáková and Rudolf Slánský. Jan Palach committed self-immolation as a political protest against the end of the Prague Spring resulting from the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Warsaw Pact armies.

Another notable politician after the fall of the communist regime is Václav Havel, last President of Czechoslovakia and first President of the Czech Republic. [58] The current first directly elected president is Miloš Zeman. [59]

The Czech Republic has had multiple Prime Ministers the first of which was latter Presidents Václav Klaus and Miloš Zeman. [60] Another Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic were conservative politicians such as Mirek Topolánek, Petr Nečas and social democratic such as Vladimír Špidla, Jiří Paroubek, Bohuslav Sobotka. [61]

Diplomat Madeleine Albright is of Czech origin and fluent in Czech. Other well-known Czech diplomats were Jan Masaryk or Jiří Dienstbier.

Science

Czechs established themselves mainly in Biology, Chemistry, Philology and Egyptology.

Sports

Sports have also been a contributor to famous Czechs especially tennis, football, hockey, and athletics:

The arts

Music

Bedrich Smetana Among his Friends, 1865; oil painting by Frantisek Dvorak Dvorak Bedrich Smetana and friends in 1865.jpg
Bedřich Smetana Among his Friends, 1865; oil painting by František Dvořák

Czech music had its first significant pieces created in the 11th century. [65] The great progress of Czech artificial music began with the end of the Renaissance and the early Baroque era, concretely in works of Adam Václav Michna z Otradovic, where the specific character of Czech music was rising up by using the influence of genuine folk music. This tradition determined the development of Czech music and has remained the main sign in the works of great Czech composers of almost all eras – Jan Dismas Zelenka and Josef Mysliveček in Baroque, Bedřich Smetana and Antonín Dvořák in Romanticism, Leoš Janáček, Bohuslav Martinů and Josef Suk in modern classical or Petr Eben and Miloslav Kabeláč in contemporary classical music.

Czech musicians also played an important role in the development of European music. Jan Václav Antonín Stamic in 18th-century contributed to the creation of Classicism in music [66] by innovations of compositional forms and the founding of the Mannheim school. Similarly, Antonín Rejcha's experiments prefigured new compositional techniques in the 19th century. [67] The influence of Czech musicians expanded beyond the borders of the European continent, when Antonín Dvořák created a new American classical music style, using the richness of ethnic music of that country during his mission in the US. The contribution of Alois Hába to microtonal music in the 20th century must be also mentioned.

Czech music reached as far as Qing China. Karel Slavíček was a Jesuit missionary, scientist and sinologist who was introduced to the Kangxi Emperor on 3 February 1717, in Beijing. The emperor favored him and employed him as court musician. (Slavíček was a Spinet player). [68]

Some notable modern Czech musicians are US-based composer and guitarist Ivan Král, musician and composer Jan Hammer and the rock band The Plastic People of the Universe which played an important part in the underground movement during the communist regime.

The Czech Republic first entered the Eurovision Song Contest in 2007. Czech performer qualified for the grand final for the first time in 2016 when singer Gabriela Gunčíková finished in 25th place. In 2018 the singer Mikolas Josef reached the 6th place in the contest being the best result of the Czech Republic until today.

Other important names: Franz Benda, Rafael Kubelík, Jan Ladislav Dussek, Vítězslav Novák, Zdeněk Fibich, Jan Kubelík, Jiří Antonín Benda, Julius Fučík, Karel Svoboda, Karel Kryl, Václav Neumann, Václav Talich, František Xaver Richter, Jan Křtitel Vaňhal, Vojtěch Živný, Josef Bohuslav Foerster, Magdalena Kožená, Karel Ančerl, Ema Destinnová, Maria Jeritza, František Xaver Brixi, Jiří Bělohlávek, Oskar Nedbal, Karel Gott. [69]

Literature

Jaroslav Seifert was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his poetry. [62] Božena Němcová has become a cultural icon and gained much fame for her book Babička (The Grandmother). [70] Other important Czech writers include Milan Kundera, Karel Čapek, Jaroslav Hašek, Jan Neruda, Franz Kafka, Bohumil Hrabal, Viktor Dyk, Kosmas, Pavel Kohout, Alois Jirásek, Josef Škvorecký, Karel Jaromír Erben, Jiří Wolker, Karel Hynek Mácha, Vítězslav Nezval, Arnošt Lustig, Jaroslav Vrchlický, Karel Havlíček Borovský, Ivan Klíma, Egon Erwin Kisch, Vladimír Holan, Julius Zeyer or Svatopluk Čech. From contemporary Czech writers can be mentioned Jáchym Topol, Patrik Ouředník, Michal Viewegh or Daniela Hodrová. Important playwrights were Karel Čapek, František Langer or Josef Kajetán Tyl. Strong was also the theatrical avant-garde (Jan Werich, Jiří Voskovec, Emil František Burian). Known journalists were Julius Fučík, Milena Jesenská or Ferdinand Peroutka.

Visual Arts

The Slav Epic by Alfons Mucha Slovane v pravlasti 81x61m.jpg
The Slav Epic by Alfons Mucha

Mikoláš Aleš was a painter, known for redesigning the Prague National Theatre. [71] Alphonse Mucha was an influential artist in the Art Nouveau movement of the Edwardian period. František Kupka was a pioneer and co-founder of the abstract art movement. Other well-known painters are Josef Čapek, Josef Lada, Theodoric of Prague, Wenceslaus Hollar, Toyen, Jan Kupecký, Petr Brandl, Vladimír Vašíček, Václav Brožík, Josef Mánes, Karel Škréta or Max Švabinský. Renowned sculptors were Josef Václav Myslbek or Matyáš Bernard Braun, photographers Jan Saudek, Josef Sudek, František Drtikol or Josef Koudelka, illustrators Zdeněk Burian or Adolf Born, architects Jan Kotěra or Josef Gočár. Jiří Kylián was an important ballet choreographer.

Film

Film director Miloš Forman, known best for his movie, One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest is of Czech origin and started his career in Czechoslovakia. [72] Forman was a member of the so-called Czech New Wave. Other members included Jiří Menzel (Oscar 1967), Ivan Passer, Věra Chytilová and Elmar Klos (Oscar 1965). Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film has also Jan Svěrák (1996). The influential surrealist filmmaker and animator Jan Švankmajer was born in Prague and has resided in the Czech Republic throughout his life. In the field of animation and puppet film made famous Zdeněk Miler, Karel Zeman and Jiří Trnka.

Actors Zdeněk Svěrák, Vlastimil Brodský, [73] Vladimír Menšík, [74] Libuše Šafránková or Karel Roden have also made a mark in modern Czech history. The most successful Czech erotic actress is Silvia Saint.

Modeling

The first Czech models have made a breakthrough in the international modeling were Paulina Porizkova or Ivana Trump. After the fall of communism in Czechoslovakia many other models succeeded: Karolína Kurková, Eva Herzigová, Taťána Kuchařová, Petra Němcová and Daniela Peštová.

Saints

St. John of Nepomuk (Jan Nepomucky) St. John of Nepomuk in Divina.jpg
St. John of Nepomuk (Jan Nepomucký)

Czech culture involves many saints, [75] most notably St. Wenceslaus (Václav), patron of the Czech nation, [76] St. John of Nepomuk (Jan Nepomucký), [77] St. Adalbert (Vojtěch), [78] Saint Procopius or St. Agnes of Bohemia (Anežka Česká). [79] Although not a Christian, rabbi Judah Loew ben Bezalel of Prague, a 16th Century scholar and one of the most influential figures of Jewish history, is considered to be part of the country's religious legacy as well. [80] [81]

Natives

Modern Czech nation was formed in process of Czech national revival. In it, he pushed linguistic concept of the nation (particularly promoted by Jungmann), i.e. "Czech = one who has Czech language as their first language – naturally or by choice." (That is why they are often considered the Czechs, Slovaks who have chosen the Czech language as their literary language, such as Ján Kollár or Pavel Jozef Šafařík). Like other nations, the Czechs also discuss two alternative concepts – land concept (Czech is one who is born in the historic Czech territory), which in times of Jungmann success primarily nobility, and ethnic concept. Definition by the territory is still discussed alternative, [82] [83] from time to time is indicated for Czechs number of natives (speaking mostly German, English or otherwise) – these include US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, film director Karel Reisz, actor Herbert Lom, the founder of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud, the founder of genetics Gregor Mendel, logician and mathematician Kurt Gödel, the philosopher Edmund Husserl, scientists Gerty Cori, Carl Cori and Peter Grünberg (all Nobel Prize winners) and Ernst Mach, economists Joseph Schumpeter and Eugen Böhm von Bawerk, philosophers Bernard Bolzano, Ernest Gellner, Vilém Flusser and Herbert Feigl, Marxist theoretician Karl Kautsky, astronomer Johann Palisa, legal theorist Hans Kelsen, inventors Alois Senefelder and Viktor Kaplan, automotive designer Ferdinand Porsche, psychologist Max Wertheimer, a geologist Karl von Terzaghi, musicologists Eduard Hanslick and Guido Adler, chemist Johann Josef Loschmidt, biologists Heinrich Wilhelm Schott and Georg Joseph Kamel, the founder of the dermatology Ferdinand Ritter von Hebra, peace activist Bertha von Suttner (Nobel Peace Prize), the composers Gustav Mahler, Heinrich Biber, Viktor Ullmann, Ervin Schulhoff, Pavel Haas, Erich Wolfgang Korngold and Ralph Benatzky, writers Franz Kafka, Reiner Maria Rilke, Max Brod, Karl Kraus, Franz Werfel, Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach, Leo Perutz, Tom Stoppard and Egon Erwin Kisch, painters Anton Raphael Mengs and Emil Orlik, architects Adolf Loos, Peter Parler, Josef Hoffmann, Jan Santini Aichel and Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer, cellist David Popper, violist Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst, pianists Alice Herz-Sommer and Rudolf Serkin, president of Austria Karl Renner, Prime Minister of Poland Jerzy Buzek, industrialist Oskar Schindler, or chess player Wilhelm Steinitz.

Czech ancestry

People with Czech ancestry include the astronauts Eugene Cernan and Jim Lovell, film directors Chris Columbus and Jim Jarmusch, swimmer Katie Ledecky, politicians John Forbes Kerry and Caspar Weinberger, chemist and Nobel Prize laureate Thomas Cech, physicist Karl Guthe Jansky, economist Friedrich Hayek, painters Jan Matejko, Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele and Oskar Kokoschka, actors Ashton Kutcher, Sissy Spacek and Kim Novak, tennis players Richard Krajicek, Jakob Hlasek and Stan Wawrinka, singer Jason Mraz, Brazil president Juscelino Kubitschek, founder of McDonald's company Ray Kroc, writers Georg Trakl and Robert Musil, mayor of Chicago Anton Cermak and Ivanka Trump and her brother Donald Trump Jr.

Geography

Greater coat of arms of the Czech Republic shows symbols of historical lands Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia Coat of arms of the Czech Republic.svg
Greater coat of arms of the Czech Republic shows symbols of historical lands Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia

The Czechs live in three historical lands: Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia; [84] these regions make up the modern Czech Republic. However, the country is now divided into 14 administrative regions. [85] The local culture varies somewhat in each of the historical regions. [86] Moravians are usually more nationalistic regional patriots of Moravia, but they also speak Czech. Local dialects (such as Central Bohemian, the Chod dialect, Moravian dialects, Cieszyn Silesian, etc.) are found in various parts of the country. [87]

Czech language

The Czech language is spoken by approximately 12 million people around the world, but the vast majority are in the Czech Republic. [88] It developed from the Proto-Slavic language in the 10th century [88] [89] and is mutually intelligible with the Slovak language. [90]

Religion

Predecessor to Protestantism, Jan Hus Stimmer Jan Hus.jpg
Predecessor to Protestantism, Jan Hus

In 1977, Richard Felix Staar described Czechs as "tolerant and even indifferent towards religion as a rule". [91]

After the Bohemian Reformation, most Czechs (about 85%) became followers of Jan Hus, Petr Chelčický and other regional Protestant Reformers. Bohemian Estates' defeat in the Battle of White Mountain brought radical religious changes and started a series of intense actions taken by the Habsburgs in order to bring the Czech population back to the Roman Catholic Church. After the Habsburgs regained control of Bohemia, Czech people were forcibly converted to Roman Catholicism. All kinds of Protestant communities including the various branches of Hussites, Lutherans and Reformed were either expelled, killed, or converted to Catholicism. The Catholic Church lost the bulk of its adherents during the Communist era.

As of 2015, Pew Research Center found in that 72% of the population of Czech Republic declared to be irreligious, a category which includes atheists, agnostics and those who describe their religion as "nothing in particular", 26% were Christians (vast majority Catholics), [18] while 2% belonged to other faiths.

Demographics

In the Czech Republic, the nation state of the Czech people, 6,732,104 (63.7%) declared as ethnic Czech according to the 2011 census. Notably, another 2,742,669 (26%) were undeclared, and 522,474 (4.9%) declared as Moravians. [1] There is a large Czech diaspora, which includes 1,703,930 Americans of Czech/Czechoslovak ancestry, [92] 94,805 Canadians of Czech ancestry, [93] an estimated 45,000 Czech-born residents in the United Kingdom, [5] and ca. 31,000 in Australia. [94] There are smaller communities throughout Europe. Number of Israelis of Czech-Jewish ancestry is estimated to be about 50,000 to 100,000, with notable individuals such as Max Brod, Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld or Yehuda Bauer.

See also

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<i>Největší Čech</i>

Největší Čech is the Czech spin-off of the BBC Greatest Britons show; a television poll of the populace to name the greatest Czech in history. The series was broadcast by the national public-service broadcaster, Česká televize. The presenter of the programme was Marek Eben, who was also nominated to be in the Top 100; however, since he was presenting the show he was not eligible to be included in the final list.

The Czechoslovakia men's national ice hockey team was the national ice hockey team of Czechoslovakia, and competed from 1920 until 1992. The successor to the Bohemia national ice hockey team, which was a European power prior to World War I, the Czechoslovak national team first appeared at the 1920 Summer Olympics, two years after the creation of the state. In the 1940s, they established themselves as the best team in Europe, becoming the first team from the continent to win two World Championships. After the arrival of the Soviet Union on the international hockey scene in the 1950s, the Czechoslovaks regularly fought Sweden and Canada for silver and bronze medals, and sometimes beat the Soviets. In total, they won the gold medal six times.

The Czech Republic's official formal and short names at the United Nations are Česká republika and Česko in Czech, and the Czech Republic and Czechia in English. All these names derive from the name of the Czechs, the West Slavic ethnic group native to the Czech lands. Czechia, the official English short name specified by the Czech government, is used by many international organisations and attested as early as 1841. However, most English speakers use [the] Czech Republic in all contexts. Other languages generally have greater official use of a short form analogous to Česko or Czechia although forms equivalent to "Czech Republic" are not uncommon.

Czech–Slovak languages

The Czech and Slovak languages form the Czech–Slovak subgroup within the West Slavic languages.

Theatre of the Czech Republic

The theatre of the Czech Republic has a rich tradition in all genres, including drama, opera, ballet and dance, puppet theatre, black light theatre etc.

Czechoslovak language

The Czechoslovak language was a political sociolinguistic concept used in Czechoslovakia in 1920–1938 for the definition of the state language of the country which proclaimed its independence as the republic of two nations, i.e. ethnic groups, Czechs and Slovaks.

Academy of Arts, Architecture and Design in Prague

The Academy of Arts, Architecture and Design in Prague is a public university located in Prague, Czech Republic. University is offering the study disciplines of painting, illustration and graphics, fashion design, product design, graphic design, ceramics and porcelain, photography and architecture.

Bulgarians in Czechoslovakia

The Czech-Bulgarian relations date as far back as to the times of the Great Moravia.

Music of the Czech Republic

Music of the Czech Republic comprises the musical traditions of that state or the historical entities of which it is compound, i.e. the Czech lands. Czech music also constitutes a substantial part of the music culture of its direct predecessor, Czechoslovakia.

National symbols of the Czech Republic

The national symbols of the Czech Republic are flags, heraldry, cultural expressions and other symbols that represent the Czech Republic, Czech people and their history, culture and nationhood. There are six official symbols which are declared in the Constitution of the Czech Republic. However many other historical, cultural and geographical symbols of the Czech republic and Czech people do exist.

References

Notes

  1. This number is a lower estimate, as 2,742,669 people opted out declaring ethnicity in 2011, vast majority of whom were ethnic Czechs as the figure from the 2001 census would suggest, where were 9.25 million Czechs, excluding Moravians (9.8 million with them included).

Citations

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Sources

Further reading