# D

Last updated

D
D d
(See below)
Usage
Writing system Latin script
Type Alphabet ic
Language of origin Latin language
Phonetic usage []
[]
[]
[~j]
[]
[]
Unicode valueU+0044, U+0064
Alphabetical position 4
Numerical value: 4
History
Development
Time period ~-700 to present
Descendants  Ď
ǅ
ǲ
Đ
Ð
Ƌ

Sisters Д
ד
د
ܕ

Դ դ

Variations (See below)
Other
Other letters commonly used with d(x)
Associated numbers 4

D (named dee [1] ) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

A letter is a grapheme in an alphabetic system of writing. It is a visual representation of the smallest unit of spoken sound. Letters broadly correspond to phonemes in the spoken form of the language, although there is rarely a consistent, exact correspondence between letters and phonemes.

The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an upper- and lower-case form. The same letters constitute the ISO basic Latin alphabet. The alphabet's current form originated in about the 7th century from the Latin script. Since then, various letters have been added, or removed, to give the current Modern English alphabet of 26 letters:

The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in various national and international standards and used widely in international communication. They are the same letters that comprise the English alphabet.

## History

Egyptian hieroglyph
door, fish
Phoenician
daleth
Greek
Delta
Etruscan
D
Roman
D

The Semitic letter Dāleth may have developed from the logogram for a fish or a door. There are many different Egyptian hieroglyphs that might have inspired this. In Semitic, Ancient Greek and Latin, the letter represented /d/; in the Etruscan alphabet the letter was superfluous but still retained (see letter B). The equivalent Greek letter is Delta, Δ.

In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase. Chinese characters are logograms; some Egyptian hieroglyphs and some graphemes in cuneiform script are also logograms. The use of logograms in writing is called logography, and a writing system that is based on logograms is called a logographic system.

B or b is the second letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It represents the voiced bilabial stop in many languages, including English. In some other languages, it is used to represent other bilabial consonants.

Delta is the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 4. It was derived from the Phoenician letter dalet 𐤃, Letters that come from delta include Latin D and Cyrillic Д.

The minuscule (lower-case) form of 'd' consists of a loop and a tall vertical stroke. It developed by gradual variations on the majuscule (capital) form. In handwriting, it was common to start the arc to the left of the vertical stroke, resulting in a serif at the top of the arc. This serif was extended while the rest of the letter was reduced, resulting in an angled stroke and loop. The angled stroke slowly developed into a vertical stroke.

In typography, a serif is a small line or stroke regularly attached to the end of a larger stroke in a letter or symbol within a particular font or family of fonts. A typeface or "font family" making use of serifs is called a serif typeface, and a typeface that does not include them is a sans-serif one. Some typography sources refer to sans-serif typefaces as "grotesque" or "Gothic", and serif typefaces as "roman".

## Use in writing systems

In most languages that use the Latin alphabet, and in the International Phonetic Alphabet, d generally represents the voiced alveolar or voiced dental plosive /d/. However, in the Vietnamese alphabet, it represents the sound /z/ in northern dialects or /j/ in southern dialects. (See D with stroke and Dz (digraph).) In Fijian it represents a prenasalized stop /nd/. [2] In some languages where voiceless unaspirated stops contrast with voiceless aspirated stops, d represents an unaspirated /t/, while t represents an aspirated /tʰ/. Examples of such languages include Icelandic, Scottish Gaelic, Navajo and the Pinyin transliteration of Mandarin.

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, linguists, speech-language pathologists, singers, actors, constructed language creators and translators.

The Vietnamese alphabet is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language. It uses the Latin script, based on its employment in the alphabets of Romance languages, in particular the Portuguese alphabet, with some digraphs and the addition of nine accent marks or diacritics – four of them to create additional sounds, and the other five to indicate the tone of each word. The many diacritics, often two on the same vowel, make written Vietnamese easily recognizable.

Đ, known as crossed D or dyet, is a letter formed from the base character D/d overlaid with a crossbar. Crossing was used to create eth (ð), but eth has an uncial as its base whereas đ is based on the straight-backed roman d. Crossed d is a letter in the alphabets of several languages and is used in linguistics as a phonetic symbol.

## Other uses

500 is the natural number following 499 and preceding 501.

Retroflex D is a Latin letter representing the voiced retroflex plosive. Its lower-case variant – d with tail, or d with retroflex hook – is also used to represent this sound in the International Phonetic Alphabet.

A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph. The term derives from the Ancient Greek διακριτικός, from διακρίνω. Diacritic is primarily an adjective, though sometimes used as a noun, whereas diacritical is only ever an adjective. Some diacritical marks, such as the acute ( ´ ) and grave ( ` ), are often called accents. Diacritical marks may appear above or below a letter, or in some other position such as within the letter or between two letters.

Ɗ is a letter of the Latin alphabet. The lower case, represents a voiced dental implosive or a voiced alveolar implosive in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It is used with the same value in the orthographies of various languages, notably some African languages, such as Fula and Hausa, also in Sindhi and used in Shona from 1931-1955.

### Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets

• 𐤃 : Semitic letter Dalet, from which the following symbols originally derive
• Δ δ : Greek letter Delta, from which the following symbols originally derive
• Ⲇ ⲇ : Coptic letter Delta
• Д д : Cyrillic letter De
• 𐌃 : Old Italic D, the ancestor of modern Latin D
•  : Runic letter dagaz, which is possibly a descendant of Old Italic D
• Runic letter thurisaz, another possible descendant of Old Italic D
• 𐌳 : Gothic letter daaz, which derives from Greek Delta

## Computing codes

CharacterDd
Unicode nameLATIN CAPITAL LETTER D  LATIN SMALL LETTER D
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode 68U+0044100U+0064
UTF-8 684410064
Numeric character reference &#68;&#x44;&#100;&#x64;
EBCDIC family196C413284
ASCII 1684410064
1Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

## Other representations

In British Sign Language (BSL), the letter 'd' is indicated by signing with the right hand held with the index and thumb extended and slightly curved, and the tip of the thumb and finger held against the extended index of the left hand.

## Related Research Articles

F is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

H is the eighth letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

K is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. In English, the letter K usually represents the voiceless velar plosive.

M is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

N is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

O is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

P is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

R is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

T is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is derived from the Semitic letter taw via the Greek letter tau. In English, it is most commonly used to represent the voiceless alveolar plosive, a sound it also denotes in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It is the most commonly used consonant and the second most common letter in English-language texts.

U is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is preceded by T, and is followed by V.

Z is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

Eng or engma is a letter of the Latin alphabet, used to represent a velar nasal in the written form of some languages and in the International Phonetic Alphabet.

J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its normal name in English is jay or, now uncommonly, jy. When used for the palatal approximant, it may be called yod or yot.

C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet. It is also the third letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is named cee in English.

## References

1. "D" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "dee", op. cit.
2. Lynch, John (1998). Pacific languages: an introduction. University of Hawaii Press. p. 97. ISBN   0-8248-1898-9.
3. Gordon, Arthur E. (1983). Illustrated Introduction to Latin Epigraphy. University of California Press. p. 44. ISBN   9780520038981 . Retrieved 3 October 2015.
4. Constable, Peter (2003-09-30). "L2/03-174R2: Proposal to Encode Phonetic Symbols with Middle Tilde in the UCS" (PDF).
5. Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF).
6. Everson, Michael (2006-08-06). "L2/06-266: Proposal to add Latin letters and a Greek symbol to the UCS" (PDF).
7. Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS" (PDF).
8. Cook, Richard; Everson, Michael (2001-09-20). "L2/01-347: Proposal to add six phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF).
• The dictionary definition of D at Wiktionary
• The dictionary definition of d at Wiktionary