D

Last updated

D
D d
(See below)
Usage
Writing system Latin script
Type Alphabetic
Language of origin Latin language
Phonetic usage[]
[]
[]
[~j]
[]
[]
Unicode valueU+0044, U+0064
Alphabetical position4
Numerical value: 4
History
Development
Time period~-700 to present
Descendants  Ď
ǅ
ǲ
Đ
Ð
Ƌ

Sisters Д
ד
د
ܕ

Դ դ

Variations(See below)
Other
Other letters commonly used with d(x)
Associated numbers4

D or d is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is dee (pronounced ), plural dees. [1]

History

Egyptian hieroglyph
door, fish
Phoenician
daleth
Greek
Delta
Etruscan
D
Roman
D

The Semitic letter Dāleth may have developed from the logogram for a fish or a door. There are many different Egyptian hieroglyphs that might have inspired this. In Semitic, Ancient Greek and Latin, the letter represented /d/; in the Etruscan alphabet the letter was superfluous but still retained (see letter B). The equivalent Greek letter is Delta, Δ.

The minuscule (lower-case) form of 'd' consists of a loop and a tall vertical stroke. It developed by gradual variations on the majuscule (capital) form. In handwriting, it was common to start the arc to the left of the vertical stroke, resulting in a serif at the top of the arc. This serif was extended while the rest of the letter was reduced, resulting in an angled stroke and loop. The angled stroke slowly developed into a vertical stroke.

Use in writing systems

In most languages that use the Latin alphabet, and in the International Phonetic Alphabet, d generally represents the voiced alveolar or voiced dental plosive /d/. However, in the Vietnamese alphabet, it represents the sound /z/ in northern dialects or /j/ in southern dialects. (See D with stroke and Dz (digraph).) In Fijian it represents a prenasalized stop /nd/. [2] In some languages where voiceless unaspirated stops contrast with voiceless aspirated stops, d represents an unaspirated /t/, while t represents an aspirated /tʰ/. Examples of such languages include Icelandic, Scottish Gaelic, Navajo and the Pinyin transliteration of Mandarin.

Other uses

Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets

• 𐤃 : Semitic letter Dalet, from which the following symbols originally derive
• Δ δ : Greek letter Delta, from which the following symbols originally derive
• Ⲇ ⲇ : Coptic letter Delta
• Д д : Cyrillic letter De
• 𐌃 : Old Italic D, the ancestor of modern Latin D
•  : Runic letter dagaz, which is possibly a descendant of Old Italic D
• Runic letter thurisaz, another possible descendant of Old Italic D
• 𐌳 : Gothic letter daaz, which derives from Greek Delta

Computing codes

CharacterDd
Unicode nameLATIN CAPITAL LETTER D  LATIN SMALL LETTER D
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode 68U+0044100U+0064
UTF-8 684410064
Numeric character reference &#68;&#x44;&#100;&#x64;
EBCDIC family196C413284
ASCII 1684410064
1Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Other representations

In British Sign Language (BSL), the letter 'd' is indicated by signing with the right hand held with the index and thumb extended and slightly curved, and the tip of the thumb and finger held against the extended index of the left hand.

Related Research Articles

A or a is the first letter and the first vowel letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is a, plural aes. It is similar in shape to the Ancient Greek letter alpha, from which it derives. The uppercase version consists of the two slanting sides of a triangle, crossed in the middle by a horizontal bar. The lowercase version can be written in two forms: the double-storey a and single-storey ɑ. The latter is commonly used in handwriting and fonts based on it, especially fonts intended to be read by children, and is also found in italic type.

E or e is the fifth letter and the second vowel letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is e, plural ees. It is the most commonly used letter in many languages, including Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Hungarian, Latin, Latvian, Norwegian, Spanish, and Swedish.

F or f is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is ef, plural efs.

G or g is the seventh letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is gee, plural gees.

H or h is the eighth letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is aitch, or regionally haitch.

K is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is kay, plural kays. The letter K usually represents the voiceless velar plosive.

M or m is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is em, plural ems.

N or n is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is en, plural ens.

O or o is the 15th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet and the fourth vowel letter in the modern English alphabet. Its name in English is o, plural oes.

P or p is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is pee, plural pees.

R or r is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is ar, plural ars, or in Ireland or.

S or s is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is ess, plural esses.

T or t is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is tee, plural tees. It is derived from the Semitic letter taw via the Greek letter tau. In English, it is most commonly used to represent the voiceless alveolar plosive, a sound it also denotes in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It is the most commonly used consonant and the second most common letter in English-language texts.

Z or z is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its usual names in English are zed and zee, with an occasional archaic variant izzard.

Eng or engma is a letter of the Latin alphabet, used to represent a velar nasal in the written form of some languages and in the International Phonetic Alphabet.

L is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is el, plural els.

J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its usual name in English is jay, with a now-uncommon variant jy. When used in the International Phonetic Alphabet for the y sound, it may be called yod.

C or c is the third letter in the English and ISO basic Latin alphabets. Its name in English is cee, plural cees.

I or i is the ninth letter and the third vowel letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is i, plural ies.

B or b is the second letter of the Latin-script alphabet. Its name in English is bee, plural bees. It represents the voiced bilabial stop in many languages, including English. In some other languages, it is used to represent other bilabial consonants.

References

1. "D" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "dee", op. cit.
2. Lynch, John (1998). Pacific languages: an introduction. University of Hawaii Press. p. 97. ISBN   0-8248-1898-9.
3. Gordon, Arthur E. (1983). . University of California Press. pp.  44. ISBN   9780520038981 . Retrieved 3 October 2015. roman numerals.
4. Constable, Peter (2003-09-30). "L2/03-174R2: Proposal to Encode Phonetic Symbols with Middle Tilde in the UCS" (PDF).
5. Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF).
6. Everson, Michael (2006-08-06). "L2/06-266: Proposal to add Latin letters and a Greek symbol to the UCS" (PDF).
7. Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS" (PDF).
8. Cook, Richard; Everson, Michael (2001-09-20). "L2/01-347: Proposal to add six phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF).
• The dictionary definition of D at Wiktionary
• The dictionary definition of d at Wiktionary