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DVB-T, short for Digital Video Broadcasting — Terrestrial, is the DVB European-based consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television that was first published in 1997 [1] and first broadcast in Singapore in February, 1998. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] This system transmits compressed digital audio, digital video and other data in an MPEG transport stream, using coded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (COFDM or OFDM) modulation. It is also the format widely used worldwide (including North America) for Electronic News Gathering for transmission of video and audio from a mobile newsgathering vehicle to a central receive point. It is also used in the US by Amateur television operators.



Rather than carrying one data carrier on a single radio frequency (RF) channel, COFDM works by splitting the digital data stream into a large number of slower digital streams, each of which digitally modulates a set of closely spaced adjacent sub-carrier frequencies. In the case of DVB-T, there are two choices for the number of carriers known as 2K-mode or 8K-mode. These are actually 1,705 or 6,817 sub-carriers that are approximately 4 kHz or 1 kHz apart.

DVB-T offers three different modulation schemes (QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM).

DVB-T has been adopted or proposed for digital television broadcasting by many countries (see map), using mainly VHF 7 MHz and UHF 8 MHz channels whereas Taiwan, Colombia, Panama and Trinidad and Tobago use 6 MHz channels. Examples include the UK's Freeview.

The DVB-T Standard is published as EN 300 744, Framing structure, channel coding and modulation for digital terrestrial television. This is available from the ETSI website, as is ETSI TS 101 154, Specification for the use of Video and Audio Coding in Broadcasting Applications based on the MPEG-2 Transport Stream, which gives details of the DVB use of source coding methods for MPEG-2 and, more recently, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC as well as audio encoding systems. Many countries that have adopted DVB-T have published standards for their implementation. These include the D-book in the UK, the Italian DGTVi, [9] the ETSI E-Book and the Nordic countries and Ireland NorDig.

DVB-T has been further developed into newer standards such as DVB-H (Handheld), which was a commercial failure and is no longer in operation, and DVB-T2, which was initially finalised in August 2011.

DVB-T as a digital transmission delivers data in a series of discrete blocks at the symbol rate. DVB-T is a COFDM transmission technique which includes the use of a Guard Interval. It allows the receiver to cope with strong multipath situations. Within a geographical area, DVB-T also allows single-frequency network (SFN) operation, where two or more transmitters carrying the same data operate on the same frequency. In such cases the signals from each transmitter in the SFN needs to be accurately time-aligned, which is done by sync information in the stream and timing at each transmitter referenced to GPS.

The length of the Guard Interval can be chosen. It is a trade-off between data rate and SFN capability. The longer the guard interval the larger is the potential SFN area without creating intersymbol interference (ISI). It is possible to operate SFNs which do not fulfill the guard interval condition if the self-interference is properly planned and monitored.

Technical description of a DVB-T transmitter

Scheme of a DVB-T transmission system Dvbt tx scheme.svg
Scheme of a DVB-T transmission system

With reference to the figure, a short description of the signal processing blocks follows.

Spectrum of a DVB-T signal in 8k mode (note the flat-top characteristics) Dvbt spectrum.jpg
Spectrum of a DVB-T signal in 8k mode (note the flat-top characteristics)
Available bit rates (Mbit/s) for a DVB-T system in 8 MHz channels
ModulationCoding rate Guard interval
QPSK 1/24.9765.5295.8556.032
16-QAM 1/29.95311.05911.70912.064
64-QAM 1/214.92916.58817.56418.096

Technical description of the receiver

The receiving STB adopts techniques which are dual to those ones used in the transmission.

Countries and territories using DVB-T or DVB-T2

Digital terrestrial television systems worldwide. Countries using DVB-T or DVB-T2 are shown in blue. Digital broadcast standards.svg
Digital terrestrial television systems worldwide. Countries using DVB-T or DVB-T2 are shown in blue.






DTT switch-off

While many countries have expected a shift to digital terrestrial television, a few have moved in the opposite direction following unsuccessful trials.

See also


  1. "ETSI EN 300 744 - Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Framing structure, channel coding and modulation for digital terrestrial television" (PDF). European Telecommunications Standards Institute. October 2015. p. 66.
  2. "DATAONE LIMITED RESPONSE TO CONSULTATION PAPER ON DATACASTING" (PDF). Infocomm Media Development Authority, Singapore.
  3. "TELEVISION BROADCAST FOR SINGAPORE - March 3, 1998" (PDF). 8 October 1999. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 October 1999. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  4. "Advent Television launches the world's first digital terrestrial service in Singapore" (PDF). 8 October 1999. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 October 1999. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  5. "The Future is in Digital Broadcasting and that future is with Advent Television". 11 April 2001. Archived from the original on 11 April 2001. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  6. "Press Release - April 27, 1998" (PDF). 4 June 2000. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 June 2000. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  7. "S'pore testing digital TV format". The Business Times. 5 March 1998. p. 4.
  8. "SBA plans to launch digital TV after trying out systems". The Straits Times. 9 March 1998. p. 30.
  9. "DGTVi - Per la Televisione Digitale Terrestre" (in Italian). Archived from the original on 2008-04-19. Retrieved 2008-07-30.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  10. DVB.org Archived 2011-03-20 at the Wayback Machine , Official information taken from the DVB website
  11. "About - DVB". Archived from the original on 1 September 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  12. "Colombia adopta el estándar europeo para la tv digital terrestre". El Espectador (in Spanish). 28 August 2008. Archived from the original on 13 April 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  13. "TV Digital no ha llegado a toda Colombia y la CNTV ya piensa en modificar la norma". Evaluamos (in Spanish). 21 July 2011.
  14. "Panama adopts DVB-T". DVB.org. 19 May 2009. Archived from the original on 3 September 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  15. "KTV Ltd" . Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  16. "Plan for the introduction of terrestrial digital television broadcasting (DVB-T) in the Republic of Bulgaria" (in Bulgarian). Ministry of Transport, Information Technology and Communications of Bulgaria . Retrieved 17 December 2012.
  17. "Digital Television". NURTS (TV tower operator). Archived from the original on 1 December 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
  18. "Digital Ísland" (in Icelandic). fjarskiptahandbokin.is. Archived from the original on 31 August 2009. Retrieved 27 October 2009.
  19. "Russia adopts DVB-T2". Advanced-Television.com. 29 September 2011.
  20. "ETV: trial DVB-T2 network" (in Serbian). Archived from the original on 16 April 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
  21. https://www.broadbandtvnews.com/2018/12/06/switzerland-to-switch-off-dtt-on-june-3-2019/
  22. "100,000 likes – Oqaab reaches over 1 Mio TV Households". Oqaab.af. 31 March 2015. Archived from the original on 23 March 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  23. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Hawkes, Rebecca (19 May 2014). "Samart eyes Middle East market for digital TV-enabled smartphone". Rapid TV News. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  24. "Digital TV services to be introduced in Bangladesh by 2014". Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union. 5 June 2012.
  26. "Standar Penyiaran Televisi Digital" (PDF). KomInfo.go.id. Ministry of Communication and Information Technology (Indonesia). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  27. Hawkes, Rebecca (26 February 2014). "Kuwait TV opts for Harris DVB-T2 technology". Rapid TV News. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  28. "Kyrgyztelecom launches DVB-T2 & DVB-S2". DVB.org. 7 November 2014. Archived from the original on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  29. "北朝鮮で4局が地上デジタル放送を実施中、ASUS ZenFone Go TVで確認". blogofmobile.com (in Japanese). 8 September 2019. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  30. Williams, Martyn (17 March 2013). "Report: DPRK testing digital TV". North Korea Tech - 노스코리아테크. Archived from the original on 23 September 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  31. "Qatar Goes DVB-T2". DVB.org. 11 December 2013. Archived from the original on 26 September 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  32. "Tajikistan Confirms DVB-T2 Adoption". DVB.org. 4 February 2014. Archived from the original on 29 December 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  33. Mochiko, Thabiso (26 November 2010). "BusinessDay - State U-turn on Nyanda's digital-TV signal plan". BusinessDay.co.za. BDFM Publishers. Archived from the original on 30 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  34. Etherington-Smith, James (3 January 2011). "DVB-T2 chosen as digital TV standard". MyBroadband.co.za. Retrieved 3 January 2011.

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