Da Cheng Rebellion

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Da Cheng (Chinese :大成國) was a rebel state that existed in Guangxi, southern China, from 1855 to 1864.

Chinese language family of languages

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the ethnic Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.

Guangxi Autonomous region

Guangxi ( ; alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; Chinese: 广西; Zhuang: Gvangjsih, officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in south China and bordering Vietnam and the Gulf of Tonkin. Formerly a province, Guangxi became an autonomous region in 1958. Its current capital is Nanning.

China Country in East Asia

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third or fourth largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

History

In April 1854, inspired by the Taiping Rebellion in central China, members of the Heaven and Earth Society in Guangdong province launched the Hongbing Uprising (红兵起义) in Foshan. The rebellion was led by Chen Kai (陳開) and Li Wenmao (李文茂), who are both of Zhuang ethnicity. They captured several counties and besieged Guangzhou but the Qing army managed to recover most of the territory. The rebels retreated west to Guangxi and captured Xunzhou (modern-day Guiping) in 1855, renamed it to Xiujing (秀京), and made it their capital. [1]

Taiping Rebellion Rebellion in Qing dynasty China

The Taiping Rebellion, which is also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or civil war that was waged in China from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.

Tiandihui Chinese secret society formed during the reign of Emperor Kangxi of Qing Dynasty

The Tiandihui, literally the Society of the Heaven and the Earth, also called Hongmen 洪門, is a Chinese fraternal organisation and secretive folk religious sect such as the White Lotus Sect. As the Tiandihui spread through different counties and provinces, it branched off into many groups and became known by many names, including the Sanhehui. The Hongmen grouping is today more or less synonymous with the whole Tiandihui concept, although the title "Hongmen" is also claimed by some criminal groups.

Red Turban Rebellion (1854–1856) 1854–1856 uprisings in the Qing dynasty

The Red Turban Rebellion of 1854–1856, sometimes known as the Red Turban Revolt and by some as just the Taiping Rebellion in Guangdong, was a series of uprisings by members of the Tiandihui or Heaven and Earth Society (天地會) in the Guangdong province of South China.

The Dacheng Kingdom army was joined by the forces of other Zhuang rebels such as Huang Dingfeng (黃鼎鳳), Li Wencai (李文彩) and Li Jingui (李錦貴), all rebelled against the Qing since the 1850s.

In November 1856, Li Wenmao besieged and captured Liuzhou. In April 1857, Chen Kai captured Wuzhou. They advanced to Yongzhou (now Nanning) and captured the city. In September 1857, the Dacheng Kingdom managed to expand half of Guangxi, an area equals to northern Vietnam. They issued their own currency called Pingjing Shengbao (平靖勝寶).

Liuzhou Prefecture-level city in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Liuzhou is a prefecture-level city in north-central Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China. The prefecture's population was 3,758,700 in 2010, including 1,436,599 in the built-up area made of 4 urban districts. Its total area is 18,777 km2 (7,250 sq mi) and 667 km2 (258 sq mi) for built up area.

Wuzhou Prefecture-level city in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Wúzhōu, formerly Ngchow, is a prefecture-level city in the east of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.

Nanning Prefecture-level city in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Nanning is the capital and largest city by population of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. It is known as the "Green City" because of its abundance of lush subtropical foliage. Located in the South of Guangxi, Nanning is surrounded by a hilly basin, with a warm, monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate. As of 2014, Nanning had a population of 6,913,800 with 4,037,000 in its urban area.

In 1857, Li Wenmao attacked Guilin. However, the Qing army, commanded by Jiang Yili (蒋益澧) managed to recapture Wuzhou. During a battle in Huaiyuan, Li Wenmao was killed. Liuzhou then fell to the Qing. In 1859, Chen Kai led a large land and naval force in an attack on Wuzhou. The attack failed and Chen Kai had to retreat with heavy losses.

Guilin Prefecture-level city in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Guilin, alternately romanized as Kweilin, is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. It is situated on the west bank of the Li River and borders Hunan to the north. Its name means "Forest of Sweet Osmanthus", owing to the large number of fragrant sweet osmanthus trees located in the region. The city has long been renowned for its scenery of karst topography.

In February 1861, the Qing army attacked Xiujing. The city fell after a six-month long siege. Chen Kai was killed in the battle. The rebellion then entered an insurgency phase, actively resisting the Qing army until the last rebel holdouts surrendered in May 1864.

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References

  1. Lu, Zhouxiang (2018). Politics and Identity in Chinese Martial Arts. New York: Routledge.