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Da Cheng (Chinese :大成國) was a rebel state that existed in Guangxi, southern China, from 1855 to 1864.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the ethnic Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.
Guangxi ( ; alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; Chinese: 广西; Zhuang: Gvangjsih, officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in south China and bordering Vietnam and the Gulf of Tonkin. Formerly a province, Guangxi became an autonomous region in 1958. Its current capital is Nanning.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third or fourth largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
In April 1854, inspired by the Taiping Rebellion in central China, members of the Heaven and Earth Society in Guangdong province launched the Hongbing Uprising (红兵起义) in Foshan. The rebellion was led by Chen Kai (陳開) and Li Wenmao (李文茂), who are both of Zhuang ethnicity. They captured several counties and besieged Guangzhou but the Qing army managed to recover most of the territory. The rebels retreated west to Guangxi and captured Xunzhou (modern-day Guiping) in 1855, renamed it to Xiujing (秀京), and made it their capital.
The Taiping Rebellion, which is also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or civil war that was waged in China from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.
The Tiandihui, literally the Society of the Heaven and the Earth, also called Hongmen 洪門, is a Chinese fraternal organisation and secretive folk religious sect such as the White Lotus Sect. As the Tiandihui spread through different counties and provinces, it branched off into many groups and became known by many names, including the Sanhehui. The Hongmen grouping is today more or less synonymous with the whole Tiandihui concept, although the title "Hongmen" is also claimed by some criminal groups.
The Red Turban Rebellion of 1854–1856, sometimes known as the Red Turban Revolt and by some as just the Taiping Rebellion in Guangdong, was a series of uprisings by members of the Tiandihui or Heaven and Earth Society (天地會) in the Guangdong province of South China.
The Dacheng Kingdom army was joined by the forces of other Zhuang rebels such as Huang Dingfeng (黃鼎鳳), Li Wencai (李文彩) and Li Jingui (李錦貴), all rebelled against the Qing since the 1850s.
In November 1856, Li Wenmao besieged and captured Liuzhou. In April 1857, Chen Kai captured Wuzhou. They advanced to Yongzhou (now Nanning) and captured the city. In September 1857, the Dacheng Kingdom managed to expand half of Guangxi, an area equals to northern Vietnam. They issued their own currency called Pingjing Shengbao (平靖勝寶).
Liuzhou is a prefecture-level city in north-central Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China. The prefecture's population was 3,758,700 in 2010, including 1,436,599 in the built-up area made of 4 urban districts. Its total area is 18,777 km2 (7,250 sq mi) and 667 km2 (258 sq mi) for built up area.
Wúzhōu, formerly Ngchow, is a prefecture-level city in the east of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.
Nanning is the capital and largest city by population of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. It is known as the "Green City" because of its abundance of lush subtropical foliage. Located in the South of Guangxi, Nanning is surrounded by a hilly basin, with a warm, monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate. As of 2014, Nanning had a population of 6,913,800 with 4,037,000 in its urban area.
In 1857, Li Wenmao attacked Guilin. However, the Qing army, commanded by Jiang Yili (蒋益澧) managed to recapture Wuzhou. During a battle in Huaiyuan, Li Wenmao was killed. Liuzhou then fell to the Qing. In 1859, Chen Kai led a large land and naval force in an attack on Wuzhou. The attack failed and Chen Kai had to retreat with heavy losses.
Guilin, alternately romanized as Kweilin, is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. It is situated on the west bank of the Li River and borders Hunan to the north. Its name means "Forest of Sweet Osmanthus", owing to the large number of fragrant sweet osmanthus trees located in the region. The city has long been renowned for its scenery of karst topography.
In February 1861, the Qing army attacked Xiujing. The city fell after a six-month long siege. Chen Kai was killed in the battle. The rebellion then entered an insurgency phase, actively resisting the Qing army until the last rebel holdouts surrendered in May 1864.
The Zhuang people are a Kra–Dai speaking ethnic group who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. Some also live in the Yunnan, Guangdong, Guizhou and Hunan provinces. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. With the Buyi, Tay–Nùng, and other northern Tai speakers, they are sometimes known as the Rau or Rao. Their population, estimated at 18 million people, makes them the largest minority in China.
Hong Tianguifu, also called Hong Tiangui and, in Qing historical record, Hong Futian, was the second and last king of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. He is popularly referred to as the Junior Lord (幼主). Officially, like his father Hong Xiuquan, he was the King of Heaven (天王). To differentiate, he is also called the Junior King of Heaven (幼天王).
Li Hongzhang, Marquess Suyi, was a Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty. He quelled several major rebellions and served in important positions in the Qing imperial court, including the Viceroy of Zhili, Huguang and Liangguang.
Li Zongren or Li Tsung-jen, courtesy name Delin, was a prominent Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang (KMT) military commander during the Northern Expedition, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War. He served as vice-president and acting President of the Republic of China under the 1947 Constitution.
Zeng Guofan, Marquis Yiyong, birth name Zeng Zicheng, courtesy name Bohan, was a Chinese statesman, military general, and Confucian scholar of the late Qing dynasty. He is best known for raising and organizing the Xiang Army to aid the Qing military in suppressing the Taiping Rebellion and restoring the stability of the Qing Empire. Along with other prominent figures such as Zuo Zongtang and Li Hongzhang of his time, Zeng set the scene for the Tongzhi Restoration, an attempt to arrest the decline of the Qing dynasty. Zeng was known for his strategic perception, administrative skill and noble personality on Confucianist practice, but also for the ruthlessness of his repression of rebellions.
Li Xiucheng was a military commander during the Taiping Rebellion. Born to a peasant family, he was known as the Loyal King by the end of his life. This title was bestowed after he refused a bribe from a Qing general officer to kill Hong Xiuquan, the founder and leader of the rebellion. As a general, he led Taiping forces to several victories. After his capture and interrogation at the third and final Battle of Nanjing in 1864, he was executed by Zeng Guofan. By the end of the rebellion, Li was the most important military leader of the rebel forces.
After the founding of the Republic of China, Guangxi served as the base for one of the most powerful warlord cliques of China: the Old Guangxi clique. Led by Lu Rongting (陆荣廷) and others, the clique was able to take control of neighbouring Hunan and Guangdong provinces as well. The Old Guangxi clique crumbled in the early 1920s, and was replaced by the New Guangxi clique, led by Li Zongren, Huang Shaohong, and Bai Chongxi.
The Fujian People's Government is the common name for the People's Revolutionary Government of the Republic of China (1933–1934), also known as the Fujian People's Government, was a short-lived anti-Kuomintang government in the Chinese Republic's Fujian Province. The rebellion that led to its formation and its collapse are known as the Fujian Incident or Fujian Rebellion.
Li Shixian was a pre-eminent military leader of the late Taiping Rebellion. He was the cousin of military leader Li Xiucheng and was known for being very tall for a native of Guangxi province, standing at 2 metres (6.6 ft) tall. During his military tenure, he was given the title of King of Shi (侍王). In the latter part of the Taiping rebellion, he led Taiping forces to many military victories. Later in his life, he invited an aging Wei Yuan to live in his home and was known to hold counsel with the famous scholar. He was eventually assassinated by a traitor in Guangdong.
Zeng Guoquan, courtesy name Yuanfu, art name Shuchun, was a Chinese official and military leader of the late Qing dynasty. He was the ninth brother of Zeng Guofan, a prominent statesman and general, and a descendant of the philosopher Zengzi. He served in the Xiang Army, a standing military force organised by his brother to counter the Taiping rebels, and was nicknamed "Ninth Marshal" (九帥). He was known for his expertise in siege warfare, particularly the use of trenches, hence he was also nicknamed "Zeng the Iron Container" (曾鐵桶). During the conquest of Tianjing (Nanjing), the capital of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Zeng was notorious for condoning massacres of the city populace, which resulted in him being called "Zeng the Butcher" (曾屠戶).
Mengshan County is a county under the administration of Wuzhou City in northeastern Guangxi, China. Its seat is located in Mengshan Town.
The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, literally the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace, later shortened to Heavenly Kingdom or Heavenly Dynasty, was an unrecognized oppositional state in China and Christian theocratic absolute monarchy from 1851 to 1864, supporting the overthrow of the Qing dynasty by Hong Xiuquan and his followers. The unsuccessful war it waged against the Qing is known as the Taiping Rebellion. Its capital was at Tianjing.
Li Jishen was a Chinese military commander and statesman. He served as commander of the Fourth Army of the Republic of China, governor of Guangdong, military affairs commissioner, and acting president of the Whampoa Military Academy. After opposing Chiang Kai-shek and being expelled from the Kuomintang in 1947, he became one of the six Vice Chairmen of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China with that government's founding on October 1, 1949.
Li Dingguo was a military general who fought for the Southern Ming against the Qing Dynasty.
Xiagu Danxin is a wuxia novel by Liang Yusheng. It was first serialised between 5 October 1967 and 20 June 1969 in the Hong Kong newspaper Sin Wan Pao (新晚報). It is a sequel to Yunhai Yugong Yuan and is closely related to two of Liang Yusheng's other novels, Binghe Xijian Lu and Fenglei Zhen Jiuzhou.
Zhu Hengjia (朱亨嘉), the 12th Prince of Jingjiang. He was a 10th generation descendant of Zhu Shouqian, 12th descendant of Zhu Xinglong, brother of Hongwu Emperor. His son was Shitao, who was a Chinese landscape painter and poet during the early part of the Qing Dynasty. He had claiming himself as regent of Ming dynasty but was later defeated.
Li Yonghe was a 19th century rebel leader from Yunnan province, Qing dynasty China.