Dae Jung-sang

Last updated
Da Jung-sang
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese
Korean name
Hangul 대중상 or 걸걸중상
Hanja 大仲象 or 乞乞仲象

Dae Jung-sang (?–698?), also known as Geolgeol Jungsang, was a key contributor to the founding of Balhae, and the father of Dae Jo-yeong, the founder of Balhae. Though much of the credit for the founding of Balhae went to his son, many historians still give credit to Dae Jung-sang as the main supporter and leader in the founding of Balhae.

Contents

Background

The Old Book of Tang state that his eldest son, Dae Jo-yeong, was a former Goguryeo general [1] [2] or chief of Sumo Mohe. [3] [4] [5]

Goguryeo Revival movement

Most of the Goguryeo Aristocracy, including him, were taken to Yingzhou (Hanzi :營州), the homeland of the Khitan. Yingzhou became part of the Tang's General Protectorate to Pacify the East, and the Khitan were enraged.

In 696, the Khitan led a revolt that killed the cruel governor of the protectorate and gave Yingzhou back to the Khitan. Dae Jung-sang allied with the Baishan Mohe leader Geolsa Biu (Hangul: 걸사비우, Hanja: 乞四比羽 pinyin: Qǐsì bǐyǔ), and the two powers opposed the Tang influence in 698. The two leaders resisted the Tang's attack, but were forced to retreat. Both Geolsa Biu, and Dae Jung-sang died in battle, but Dae Jo-yeong led the remaining Goguryeo and Malgal soldiers and defeated the Tang army at the Battle of Cheonmun-ryeong and established the Balhae. The state was created by the leader of the Mohe people, who subjugated the neighboring tribes both by diplomatic and military force. The people of Goguryeo were subject to diplomatic power and voluntarily recognized him as their leader. [6]

According to New Book of Tang, Wu Zetian created Dae as Duke of Jin (Zhen), Geolsa Biu as Duke of Heo (Xu), and pardon their crimes. Geolsa Biu refused the title and Wu sent general Li Kaigu to suppress the rebellions. Geolsa died in Battle of Tianmenling, Dae Jo-yeong led the others in victorious against Li. Dae Jung-sang died from sickness after the battle. [7]

Family

The most notable and famous of his children was his eldest, Dae Jo-yeong. Dae Jung-sang had another son, Dae Ya-bal (대야발), and probably also had other children besides Dae Jo-yeong because the Balhae Royal line consisted of two lineages, one from Dae Jo-yeong and the other from Dae Ya-bal.

Legacy

Dae Jung-sang's forgotten establishing of a Successor-state of Goguryeo laid the foundations for the founding of an even more powerful kingdom, which was Balhae. Despite all of his hard work, most people remember his son Dae Joyeong as the founder of Balhae. Nevertheless, his descendants continued on the Balhae Royal line to the fifteenth generation.

Though Balhae fell, it left a further legacy. After most population of Balhae was moved to Khitan by Liao Dynasty, the last princes of Balhae quickly gathered the Balhae Aristocracy and retreated to Goryeo for sanctuary. [8] Taejo of Goryeo gladly took them in and the Dae family continued on and still survives to this day as the Hyeop-gye Tae clan (협계 태씨).

See also

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References

  1. Old records of Silla 新羅古記(Silla gogi): ... 高麗舊將祚榮
  2. Rhymed Chronicles of Sovereigns 帝王韻紀(Jewang ungi): ... 前麗舊將大祚榮
  3. Solitary Cloud 孤雲集(Gounjib): ... 渤海之源流也句驪未滅之時本爲疣贅部落靺羯之屬寔繁有徒是名栗末小蕃甞逐句驪, 內徙其首領乞四羽及大祚榮等至武后臨朝之際自營州作孼而逃輒據荒丘始稱振國時有句驪遺燼勿吉雜流梟音則嘯聚白山鴟義則喧張黑姶與契丹濟惡旋於突厥通謀萬里耨苗累拒渡遼之轍十年食葚晚陳降漢之旗.
  4. Solitary Cloud 孤雲集(Gounjip): ... 其酋長大祚榮, 始受臣藩第五品大阿餐之秩
  5. Comprehensive Institutions 通典(Tongdian): ... 渤海夲栗末靺鞨至其酋祚榮立國自號震旦, 先天中 玄宗王子始去靺鞨號專稱渤海
  6. Maxim Stoyakin (2018). "ДВОРЦОВО-ПАРКОВАЯ АРХИТЕКТУРА В СТОЛИЦАХ КОГУРЁ И БОХАЯ" ["PALACE AND PARK ARCHITECTURE IN THE CAPITALS OF GOGURYEO AND BOHAI"]. RUSSIA AND THE ATP. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  7. "144". New Book of Tang. 235.
  8. Dyakova Olga Vasilyevna (2012). "К ПРОБЛЕМЕ ВЫДЕЛЕНИЯ В ПРИМОРЬЕ ПАМЯТНИКОВ ГОСУДАРСТВА ДУНДАНЬ И ИМПЕРИИ ЛЯО" ["TO THE PROBLEM OF IDENTIFYING IN PRIMORYE MONUMENTS OF THE STATE OF DUNDAN AND THE LIAO EMPIRE"]. Bulletin of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
Dae Jung-sang
 Died: 698
Chinese royalty
New creation Duke of Zhen
696–698
Succeeded by
Go of Balhae
as King of Zhen
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Bojang of Goguryeo
 TITULAR 
King of Goguryeo
Goguryeo claimant
668–698
Reason for succession failure:
Fall of Goguryeo
Succeeded by
Go of Balhae