China in 350 CE. Dai is visible at the top of the map.
|Status||Vassal of Jin Dynasty, Later Zhao, Former Yan, Former Qin|
• Status upgraded from dukedom to principality
|Today part of|| China |
|Literal meaning||State of Dai|
Kingdom of Dai
Dai, also formerly spelled Tai, was a state of the Xianbei clan of Tuoba, during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. It existed from AD 310 to 376,with its capital at Shengle (盛樂) (near modern Horinger County of Hohhot, Inner Mongolia).
The name "Dai" originated when Tuoba Yilu was appointed Duke of Dai (代公) by the Western Jin in 310 AD, as a reward for helping Liu Kun (劉琨), the Governor of Bingzhou (并州), fight against the Xiongnu state of Han Zhao. The fief was later promoted from a duchy to a principality. Dai was conquered in 376 by the Former Qin state, and its descendants later established the Northern Wei Dynasty in the 4th century.
|Posthumous name||Personal name||Period of Reign||Other|
|Shenyuan||Tuoba Liwei||219–277||Temple Name: Shizu 始祖|
|Yang||Tuoba Hena||325–329 and 335–337|
|Lie||Tuoba Yihuai||329–335 and 337–338|
|Zhaocheng||Tuoba Shiyijian||338–377||Era name: Jianguo 建國|
|Tuoba clan of Dai state family tree|
Year 338 (CCCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Ursus and Polemius. The denomination 338 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
The Northern Wei, also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba (Tabgach) clan of the Xianbei, which ruled northern China from 386 to 534 AD, during the period of the Northern and Southern Dynasties. Described as "part of an era of political turbulence and intense social and cultural change", the Northern Wei Dynasty is particularly noted for unifying northern China in 439: this was also a period of introduced foreign ideas, such as Buddhism, which became firmly established. The Northern Wei were referred to as "Plaited Barbarians" by writers of the Southern dynasties, who considered themselves the true upholders of Chinese culture.
The Xianbei were an ancient nomadic people that once resided in the eastern Eurasian steppes in what is today Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeastern China. They originated from the Donghu people who splintered into the Wuhuan and Xianbei when they were defeated by the Xiongnu at the end of the 3rd century BC. The Xianbei were largely subordinate to larger nomadic powers and the Han dynasty until they gained prominence in 87 AD by killing the Xiongnu chanyu Youliu. However unlike the Xiongnu, the Xianbei political structure lacked the organization to pose a concerted challenge to the Chinese for most of their time as a nomadic people.
The Han Zhao, or Former Zhao, was a dynasty of Southern Xiongnu origin during Sixteen Kingdoms period of Chinese history coeval with the Sima clan's Jin dynasty. In Chinese historiography, it was given two conditional state titles, the Northern Han for the state proclaimed in 304 by Liu Yuan, and the Former Zhao for the state proclaimed in 319 by Liu Yao. The reference to them as separate states should be considered misleading, given that when Liu Yao changed the name of the state from "Han" to "Zhao" in 319, he treated the state as having been continuous from the time that Liu Yuan founded it in 304; instead, he de-established royal lineage from the Han dynasty and claimed ancestry directly from Yu the Great of the Xia dynasty.
The proto-Mongols emerged from an area that had been inhabited by humans and predecessor hominin species as far back as the Stone Age over 800,000 years ago. The people there went through the Bronze and Iron Ages, forming tribal alliances, peopling, and coming into conflict with early China.
Zhangjiakou also known as Kalgan and several other names, is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hebei province in Northern China, bordering Beijing to the southeast, Inner Mongolia to the north and west, and Shanxi to the southwest. By 2019, its population was 4,650,000 inhabitants on 36,861.56 square kilometres (14,232.33 sq mi), divided into 17 Counties and Districts. The built-up area made of Qiaoxi, Qiaodong, Chongli, Xuanhua, Xiahuayuan Districts largely being conurbated had 1,500,000 inhabitants in 2019 on 1,412.7 km2 (545.4 sq mi).
Prince or King of Dai was an ancient and medieval Chinese title.
Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei ( 魏道武帝) (371–409), personal name Tuoba Gui (拓拔珪), né Tuoba Shegui (拓拔渉珪), was the founding emperor of the Northern Wei. He was the grandson of the last prince of Dai, Tuoba Shiyijian. After the fall of the Dai state to Former Qin in 376, he was presumed to be the eventual successor to the Dai throne. After Former Qin fell into disarray in 383 following its defeat by Jin forces at the Battle of Fei River, Tuoba Gui took the opportunity to reestablish Dai in 386. He soon changed the state's name to Wei and declared himself a prince. He was initially a vassal of Later Yan, but after defeating Later Yan emperor Murong Bao in 397 and seizing most of Later Yan's territory, he claimed the imperial title in 398.
Princess Dowager Helan (351–396), formally Empress Xianming, was, according to official history of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei, the mother of the founding emperor Emperor Daowu. Her husband was Tuoba Gui's father Tuoba Shi (拓拔寔), the heir apparent of the Dai prince Tuoba Shiyijian (拓拔什翼犍).
Tuoba Shiyijian was the last prince of the Tuoba Dai and ruled from 338 to 376 when Dai was conquered by the Former Qin. He was the son of Tuoba Yulü and the younger brother of Tuoba Yihuai, whom he succeeded in 338. In 340 he moved the capital to Shengle (盛樂). His grandson Tuoba Gui founded the Northern Wei dynasty.
Tuoba Yilu was the chieftain of the western Tuoba territory from 295 to 307, supreme chieftain of the Tuoba from 307 to 316, Duke of Dai from 310 to 315, and first ruler of the Dai kingdom from 315 to 316. He was the son of Tuoba Shamohan (拓跋沙漠汗) and the brother of Tuoba Yituo and Tuoba Fu.
Tuoba Pugen was the chieftain of the central Tuoba territory from 305 to 316, and in 316 ruled as prince of the Tuoba Dai as the supreme chieftain of the Tuoba clan.
Tuoba Yulü ruled as prince of the Tuoba Dai 316 to 321.
The following is a family tree of Chinese emperors (420–1279), from the Northern and Southern dynasties period, of first half of the fifth century AD, until the conquest of China by the Mongols under Kublai Khan, and the end of the Southern Song dynasty in 1279.
Battle of Canhe Slope refers to a battle in 395 where the Chinese/Xianbei state Later Yan, then ruling over northern and central China, had launched a punitive campaign against its former vassal Northern Wei, also of Xianbei extraction.
The Sixteen Kingdoms, less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history from 304 to 439 CE when the political order of northern China fractured into a series of short-lived dynastic states, most of which were founded by the "Five Barbarians," non-Chinese peoples who had settled in northern and western China during the preceding centuries and participated in the overthrow of the Western Jin dynasty in the early 4th century. The kingdoms founded by ethnic Xiongnu, Xianbei, Di, Jie, Qiang, as well as Chinese and other ethnicities, took on Chinese dynastic names, and fought against each other and the Eastern Jin dynasty, which succeeded the Western Jin and ruled southern China. The period ended with the unification of northern China in the early 5th century by the Northern Wei, a dynasty established by the Xianbei Tuoba clan, and the history of ancient China entered the Northern and Southern dynasties period.
The Tuoba also known as the Taugast or Tabgach, was a Xianbei clan in ancient China.
Dai Commandery was a commandery (jùn) of the state of Zhao established c. 300 BC and of northern imperial Chinese dynasties until the time of the Wen Emperor of the Sui dynasty. It occupied lands in what is now Hebei, Shanxi, and Inner Mongolia. Its seat was usually at Dai or Daixian, although it was moved to Gaoliu during the Eastern Han.
The Tuoba dynasty generally refers to the Northern Wei dynasty (386–535), which was ruled by the Tuoba clan of Xianbei ethnicity.
Yujiulü Mugulü, or Mugului, was a Xianbei slave and the ancestor the Yujiulü clan, from whom sprang the founders of the Rouran Khaganate.