Dalit

Last updated

A group of dalit women in 2021 Dalit-Poverty.jpg
A group of dalit women in 2021

Dalit (from Sanskrit : दलित, romanized: dalita meaning "broken/scattered"), also some of them previously known as untouchables, is the lowest stratum of the castes in the Indian subcontinent. [1] Dalits were excluded from the fourfold varna of the caste hierarchy and were seen as forming a fifth varna, also known by the name of Panchama. Several scholars have drawn parallels between Dalits and the Burakumin of Japan, [2] the Baekjeong of Korea [3] and the peasant class of the medieval European feudal system. [4]

Contents

Dalits predominantly follow Hinduism, with significant populations of the adherents of Buddhism, Sikhism, Christianity, and Islam. Scheduled Castes is the official term for Dalits, who get reservation under positive discrimination, as per the constitution of India.

Terminology

The term Dalit is a self-applied concept for those called the "untouchables" and others that were outside of the traditional Hindu caste hierarchy. [5] [6] Economist and reformer B. R. Ambedkar (1891–1956) said that untouchability came into Indian society around 400 CE, due to the struggle for supremacy between Buddhism and Brahmanism. [7] Some Hindu priests befriended untouchables and were demoted to low-caste ranks. Eknath, who was an excommunicated Brahmin, fought for the rights of untouchables during the Bhakti period. [8]

In the late 1880s, the Marathi word 'Dalit' was used by Jyotirao Phule for the outcasts and Untouchables who were oppressed and broken in the Hindu society. [9] Dalit is a vernacular form of the Sanskrit दलित (dalita). In Classical Sanskrit, this means "divided, split, broken, scattered". This word was repurposed in 19th-century Sanskrit to mean "(a person) not belonging to one of the four Varnas". [10] It was perhaps first used in this sense by Pune-based social reformer Jyotirao Phule, in the context of the oppression faced by the erstwhile "untouchable" castes from other Hindus. [11] The term dalits was in use as a translation for the British Raj census classification of Depressed Classes prior to 1935. It was popularised by Ambedkar, himself a Dalit, [12] who included all depressed people irrespective of their caste into the definition of Dalits. [13] It covered people who were excluded from the fourfold varna system of Hinduism and thought of themselves as forming a fifth varna, describing themselves as Panchama. [14] In the 1970s its use was invigorated when it was adopted by the Dalit Panthers activist group. [5]

Socio-legal scholar Oliver Mendelsohn and political economist Marika Vicziany wrote in 1998 that the term had become "intensely political ... While the use of the term might seem to express appropriate solidarity with the contemporary face of Untouchable politics, there remain major problems in adopting it as a generic term. Although the word is now quite widespread, it still has deep roots in a tradition of political radicalism inspired by the figure of B. R. Ambedkar." They went on to suggest that its use risked erroneously labelling the entire population of untouchables in India as being united by a radical politics. [11] Anand Teltumbde also detects a trend towards denial of the politicised identity, for example among educated middle-class people who have converted to Buddhism and argue that, as Buddhists, they cannot be Dalits. This may be due to their improved circumstances giving rise to a desire not to be associated with what they perceive to be the demeaning Dalit masses. [15]

James Lochtefeld, a professor of religion and Asian studies, said in 2002 that the "adoption and popularization of [the term Dalit] reflects their growing awareness of the situation, and their greater assertiveness in demanding their legal and constitutional rights". [16]

Other terms

Official term

India's National Commission for Scheduled Castes considers official use of dalit as a label to be "unconstitutional" because modern legislation prefers Scheduled Castes ; however, some sources say that Dalit has encompassed more communities than the official term of Scheduled Castes and is sometimes used to refer to all of India's oppressed peoples. A similar all-encompassing situation prevails in Nepal.[ citation needed ]

Scheduled Castes is the official term for Dalits in the opinion of India's National Commissions for Scheduled Castes (NCSC), who took legal advice that indicated modern legislation does not refer to Dalit and that therefore, it says, it is "unconstitutional" for official documents to do so. In 2004, the NCSC noted that some state governments used Dalits rather than Scheduled Castes in documentation and asked them to desist. [17]

Some sources say that Dalit encompasses a broader range of communities than the official Scheduled Caste definition. It can include nomadic tribes and another official classification that also originated with the British Raj positive discrimination efforts in 1935, being the Scheduled Tribes. [18] It is also sometimes used to refer to the entirety of India's oppressed peoples, [5] which is the context that applies to its use in Nepalese society. [6] An example of the limitations of the Scheduled Caste category is that, under Indian law, such people can only be followers of Buddhism, Hinduism or Sikhism, [19] yet there are communities who claim to be Dalit Christians and Muslims, [20] and the tribal communities often practise folk religions. [21]

Harijan

The term Harijan, or 'children of God', was coined by Narsinh Mehta, a Gujarati poet-saint of the Bhakti tradition, to refer to all devotees of Krishna irrespective of caste, class, or sex. [22] Mahatma Gandhi, an admirer of Mehta's work, first used the word in the context of identifying Dalits in 1933. Ambedkar disliked the name as it placed Dalits in relation to a greater Hindu nation rather than as in an independent community like Muslims. In addition, many Dalits found, and still find, the term patronizing and derogatory, with some even claiming that the term really refers to children of devadasis. [23] [24] [ page needed ] When untouchability was outlawed after Indian independence, the use of the word Harijan to describe ex-untouchables became more common among other castes than within Dalits themselves. [25]

Regional terms

In Southern India, Dalits are sometimes known as Adi Dravida , Adi Karnataka , and Adi Andhra, which literally mean First Dravidians, Kannadigas, and Andhras, respectively. These terms were first used in 1917 by Southern Dalit leaders, who believed that they were the indigenous inhabitants of India. [26] The terms are used in the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh/Telangana, respectively, as a generic term for anyone from a Dalit caste.[ citation needed ][ clarification needed ]

In Maharashtra, according to historian and women's studies academic Shailaja Paik, Dalit is a term mostly used by members of the Mahar caste, into which Ambedkar was born. Most other communities prefer to use their own caste name. [27]

In Nepal, aside from Harijan and, most commonly, Dalit, terms such as Haris (among Muslims), Achhoot, outcastes and neech jati are used. [12]

History

Gopal Baba Walangkar (c. 1840–1900) is generally considered to be the pioneer of the Dalit movement, seeking a society in which they were not discriminated against. Another pioneer was Harichand Thakur (c. 1812–1878) with his Matua organisation that involved the Namasudra (Chandala) community in the Bengal Presidency. Ambedkar himself believed Walangkar to be the progenitor. [28] Another early social reformer who worked to improve conditions for Dalits was Jyotirao Phule (1827–1890).[ citation needed ]

The present system has its origins in the 1932 Poona Pact between Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi, when Ambedkar conceded his demand that the Dalits should have an electorate separate from the caste Hindus in return for Gandhi accepting measures along these lines. [29] The notion of a separate electorate had been proposed in the Communal Award made by the British Raj authorities, [30] and the outcome of the Pact – the Government of India Act 1935 – introduced the new term of Scheduled Castes, as a replacement for the term Depressed Classes, and also reserved seats for them in the legislatures. [31]

Soon after its independence in 1947, India introduced a reservation system to enhance the ability of Dalits to have political representation and to obtain government jobs and education.[ clarification needed ] The 1950 Constitution of India included measures to improve the socioeconomic conditions of Dalits. Aside from banning untouchability, these included the reservation system, a means of positive discrimination that created the classification of Scheduled Castes as Dalits. Communities that were categorised as being one of those groups were guaranteed a percentage of the seats in the national and state legislatures, as well as in government jobs and places of education.

By 1995, of all federal government jobs in India – 10.1 per cent of Class I, 12.7 per cent of Class II, 16.2 per cent of Class III, and 27.2 per cent of Class IV jobs were held by Dalits. [32] Of the most senior jobs in government agencies and government-controlled enterprises, only 1 per cent were held by Dalits, not much change in 40 years.[ citation needed ] In the 21st century, Dalits have been elected to India's highest judicial and political offices. [33] [34] In 1997, India elected its first Dalit President, K. R. Narayanan. Many social organisations have promoted better conditions for Dalits through education, healthcare and employment. Nonetheless, while caste-based discrimination was prohibited and untouchability abolished by the Constitution of India, such practices are still widespread. To prevent harassment, assault, discrimination and similar acts against these groups, the Government of India enacted the Prevention of Atrocities Act, also called the SC/ST Act, on 31 March 1995.

In accordance with the order of the Bombay High Court, the Information and Broadcasting Ministry (I&B Ministry) of the Government of India issued an advisory to all media channels in September 2018, asking them to use "Scheduled Castes" instead of the word "Dalit". [35]

Demographics

Scheduled Castes distribution in India by state and union territory according to the 2011 Census of India. Punjab had the highest proportion of its population as SC (around 32%), while India's island territories and two northeastern states had approximately zero. 2011 Census Scheduled Caste caste distribution map India by state and union territory.svg
Scheduled Castes distribution in India by state and union territory according to the 2011 Census of India. Punjab had the highest proportion of its population as SC (around 32%), while India's island territories and two northeastern states had approximately zero.

Scheduled Caste communities exist across India and comprised 16.6% of the country's population, according to the 2011 Census of India. [36] Uttar Pradesh (21%), West Bengal (11%), Bihar (8%) and Tamil Nadu (7%) between them accounted for almost half the country's total Scheduled Caste population. [37] They were most prevalent as a proportion of the states' population in Punjab, at about 32 per cent, [38] while Mizoram had the lowest at approximately zero. [19]

Similar groups are found throughout the rest of the Indian subcontinent; less than 2 per cent of Pakistan's population are Hindu and 70–75 per cent of those Hindus are Dalits, [39] in Nepal, [6] Bangladesh had 5 million Dalits in 2010 with the majority being landless and in chronic poverty, [40] and Sri Lanka. [41] They are also found as part of the Indian diaspora in many countries, including the United States, United Kingdom, Singapore, and the Caribbean. [42] [43] [44] [45]

India is home to over 200 million Dalits. [46] According to Paul Diwakar, a Dalit activist from the National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights, "India has 600,000 villages and almost every village a small pocket on the outskirts is meant for Dalits." [47]

Socioeconomic status and discrimination

Discrimination against Dalits has been observed across South Asia and among the South Asian diaspora. In 2001, the quality of life of the Dalit population in India was worse than that of the overall Indian population on metrics such as access to health care, life expectancy, education attainability, access to drinking water and housing. [48] [49] [50] According to a 2007 report by Human Rights Watch (HRW), the treatment of Dalits has been like a "hidden apartheid" and that they "endure segregation in housing, schools, and access to public services". HRW noted that Manmohan Singh, then Prime Minister of India, saw a parallel between the apartheid system and untouchability. [51] Eleanor Zelliot also notes Singh's 2006 comment but says that, despite the obvious similarities, race prejudice and the situation of Dalits "have a different basis and perhaps a different solution". [18] Though the Indian Constitution abolished untouchability, the oppressed status of Dalits remains a reality. In rural India, stated Klaus Klostermaier in 2010, "they still live in secluded quarters, do the dirtiest work, and are not allowed to use the village well and other common facilities". [52] In the same year, Zelliot noted that "In spite of much progress over the last sixty years, Dalits are still at the social and economic bottom of society." [18]

The South Asia State of Minorities Report 2020 has found that since the BJP (the Indian People's Party) [53] has returned to political power in India as of May 2018, "Hate crimes against minorities have seen a spike – taking the form of mob lynching and vigilante violence against Muslims, Christians, and Dalits. BJP also strengthened and expanded a series of discriminatory laws and measures that target religious minorities. These include anti-conversion laws, blamed by human rights groups for empowering Hindutva groups to conduct campaigns of harassment, social exclusion and violence against Christians, Muslims, and other religious minorities across the country’. Laws ostensibly meant for the protection of cows continue to provide institutional backing for similar campaigns against Muslims and Dalits." [54] [55]

While discrimination against Dalits has declined in urban areas and in the public sphere, [56] it still exists in rural areas and in the private sphere, in everyday matters such as access to eating places, schools, temples and water sources. [57] Some Dalits successfully integrated into urban Indian society, where caste origins are less obvious. In rural India, however, caste origins are more readily apparent and Dalits often remain excluded from local religious life, though some qualitative evidence suggests that exclusion is diminishing. [58] [59]

According to the 2014 NCAER/University of Maryland survey, 27 per cent of the Indian population still practices untouchability; the figure may be higher because many people refuse to acknowledge doing so when questioned, although the methodology of the survey was also criticised for potentially inflating the figure. [60] Across India, Untouchability was practised among 52 per cent of Brahmins, 33 per cent of Other Backward Classes and 24 per cent of non-Brahmin forward castes. [61] Untouchability was also practised by people of minority religions – 23 per cent of Sikhs, 18 per cent of Muslims and 5 per cent of Christians. [62] According to statewide data, Untouchability is most commonly practised in Madhya Pradesh (53 per cent), followed by Himachal Pradesh (50 per cent), Chhattisgarh (48 per cent), Rajasthan and Bihar (47 per cent), Uttar Pradesh (43 per cent), and Uttarakhand (40 per cent). [63]

Examples of segregation have included the Madhya Pradesh village of Ghatwani, where the Scheduled Tribe population of Bhilala do not allow Dalit villagers to use the public borewell for fetching water and thus they are forced to drink dirty water. [64] In metropolitan areas around New Delhi and Bangalore, Dalits and Muslims face discrimination from upper caste landlords when seeking places to rent. [65] [66]

In 1855, Mutka Salve, a 14-year-old student of Dalit leader Savitribai Phule, wrote that during the rule of Baji Rao of the Maratha Empire, the Dalit castes were chased away from their lands to build large buildings. They were also forced to drink oil mixed with red lead causing them to die, and then they were buried in the foundations of buildings, thus wiping out generations of Dalits. Under the rule of Baji Rao, if a Dalit crossed in front of a gym, they would cut off his head and play "bat and ball" on the ground, with their swords as bats and his head as a ball. Under these 17th century kings, human sacrifice of untouchable persons was not unusual. They also created intricate rules and operations to ensure that they stayed untouchables. [67] George Kunnath claims that there "is and has been an internal hierarchy between the various Dalit castes". According to Kunnath, the Dusadhs are considered the highest while the Musahars are considered the lowest within the Dalit groups. [68] :38

Education

According to an analysis by The IndiaGoverns Research Institute, Dalits constituted nearly half of primary school drop-outs in Karnataka during the period 2012–14. [69] [ clarification needed ] A sample survey in 2014, conducted by Dalit Adhikar Abhiyan and funded by ActionAid, found that among state schools in Madhya Pradesh, 88 per cent discriminated against Dalit children. In 79 per cent of the schools studied, Dalit children are forbidden from touching mid-day meals. They are required to sit separately at lunch in 35 per cent of schools, and are required to eat with specially marked plates in 28 per cent. [70]

There have been incidents and allegations of SC and ST teachers and professors being discriminated against and harassed by authorities, upper castes colleagues and upper caste students in different education institutes of India. [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] In some cases, such as in Gujarat, state governments have argued that, far from being discriminatory, their rejection when applying for jobs in education has been because there are no suitably qualified candidates from those classifications. [77]

Poverty

According to a 2014 report to the Ministry of Minority Affairs, 33.8 per cent of Scheduled Caste (SC) populations in rural India were living below the poverty line in 2011–12. In urban areas, 21.8 per cent of SC populations were below the poverty line. [78] [79] A 2012 survey by Mangalore University in Karnataka found that 93 per cent of Dalit families in the state of Karnataka live below the poverty line. [80]

Some Dalits have achieved affluence, although most remain poor. Some Dalit intellectuals, such as Chandra Bhan Prasad, have argued that the living standards of many Dalits have improved since the economic system became more liberalised starting in 1991 and have supported their claims through large surveys. [81] [82] According to the Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011, nearly 79 per cent of Adivasi households and 73 per cent of Dalit households were the most deprived among rural households in India. While 45 per cent of SC households are landless and earn a living by manual casual labour, the figure is 30 per cent for Adivasis. [83]

Occupations

In the past, they were believed to be so impure that upper caste Hindus considered their presence to be polluting. The "impure status" was related to their historic hereditary occupations that caste Hindus considered to be "polluting" or debased, such as working with leather, disposing of dead animals, manual scavenging, or sanitation work. [84]

Forced by the circumstance of their birth and poverty, Dalits in India continue to work as sanitation workers: manual scavengers, cleaners of drains, garbage collectors, and sweepers of roads. [85] :4 As of 2019, an estimated 40 to 60 per cent of the 6 million Dalit households are engaged in sanitation work. [85] :5 The most common Dalit caste performing sanitation work is Valmiki (also Balmiki) caste. [85] :3

Healthcare and nutrition

Discrimination against Dalits exists in access to healthcare and nutrition. A sample survey of Dalits, conducted over several months in Madhya Pradesh and funded by ActionAid in 2014, found that health field workers did not visit 65 per cent of Dalit settlements. 47 per cent of Dalits were not allowed entry into ration shops; and 64 per cent were given less grains than non-Dalits. [70] In Haryana state, 49 per cent of Dalit children under five years were underweight and malnourished while 80 per cent of those in the 6–59 months age group were anaemic in 2015. [86]

Crime

Dalits comprise a slightly disproportionate number of India's prison inmates. [87] While Dalits (including both SCs and STs) constitute 25 per cent of the Indian population, they account for 33.2 per cent of prisoners. [88] About 24.5 per cent of death row inmates in India are from Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes which is proportionate to their population. The percentage is highest in Maharashtra (50 per cent), Karnataka (36.4 per cent) and Madhya Pradesh (36 per cent). [89] Dalits have been arrested on false pretexts. [90] According to Human Rights Watch, politically motivated arrests of Dalit rights activists occur and those arrested can be detained for six months without charge. [91]

Caste-related violence between Dalit and non-Dalits stems from ongoing prejudice by upper caste members. [92] The Bhagana rape case, which arose out of a dispute of allocation of land, is an example of atrocities against Dalit girls and women. [93] In August 2015, due to continued alleged discrimination from upper castes of the village, about 100 Dalit inhabitants converted to Islam in a ceremony at Jantar Mantar, New Delhi. [94] Inter-caste marriage has been proposed as a remedy, [95] but according to a 2014 survey of 42,000 households by the New Delhi-based National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) and the University of Maryland, it was estimated that only 5 per cent of Indian marriages cross caste boundaries. [96]

According to data for 2000 collected by India's National Crime Records Bureau, 25,455 crimes against Dalits were committed in the year 2000, the latest year for which the data is only available, 2 Dalits are assaulted every hour, 3 Dalit women are raped every day, 2 Dalits are murdered; and 2 Dalit homes are set on fire every day. [97] Amnesty International documented a high number of sexual assaults against Dalit women, which were often committed by landlords, upper-caste villagers, and policemen, according to a study published in 2001. [98] According to the research, only about 5% of assaults are recorded, and policemen dismiss at least 30% of rape reports as false. The study also discovered that cops often seek bribes, threaten witnesses, and conceal evidence. Victims of rape have also been killed. [97] There have been reports of Dalits being forced to eat human faeces and drink urine by upper caste members and the police. [99] [100] [101] [102] In September 2015, a 45-year-old dalit woman was allegedly stripped naked and was forced to drink urine by perpetrators in Madhya Pradesh. [103] In some parts of India, there have been allegations that Dalit grooms riding horses for wedding ceremonies have been beaten up and ostracised by upper caste people. [104] [105] [106] In August 2015, upper caste people burned houses and vehicles belonging to Dalit families and slaughtered their livestock in reaction to Dalits daring to hold a temple car procession at a village in Tamil Nadu. [107] [108] In August 2015, it was claimed that a Jat Khap Panchayat ordered the rape of two Dalit sisters because their brother eloped with a married Jat girl of the same village. [109] [110] [111] In 2003, the higher caste Muslims in Bihar opposed the burials of lower caste Muslims in the same graveyard. [112] A Dalit activist was killed in 2020 for social media posts criticising Brahmins. [113] A dalit was killed in 2019 for eating in front of upper-caste men. [114]

Prevention of Atrocities Act

The Government of India has attempted on several occasions to legislate specifically to address the issue of caste-related violence that affects SCs and STs. Aside from the Constitutional abolition of untouchability, there has been the Untouchability (Offences) Act of 1955, which was amended in the same year to become the Protection of Civil Rights Act. It was determined that neither of those Acts were effective, so the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe (Prevention of Atrocities) Act of 1989 (POA) came into force. [115]

The POA designated specific crimes against SCs and STs as "atrocities" – a criminal act that has "the quality of being shockingly cruel and inhumane" – which should be prosecuted under its terms rather than existing criminal law. [115] It created corresponding punishments. Its purpose was to curb and punish violence against Dalits, including humiliations such as the forced consumption of noxious substances. Other atrocities included forced labour, denial of access to water and other public amenities, and sexual abuse. The Act permitted Special Courts exclusively to try POA cases. The Act called on states with high levels of caste violence (said to be "atrocity-prone") to appoint qualified officers to monitor and maintain law and order.[ citation needed ]

In 2015, the Parliament of India passed the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act to address issues regarding implementation of the POA, including instances where the police put procedural obstacles in the way of alleged victims or indeed outright colluded with the accused. It also extended the number of acts that were deemed to be atrocities. [115] [116] One of those remedies, in an attempt to address the slow process of cases, was to make it mandatory for states to set up the exclusive Special Courts that the POA had delineated. Progress in doing so, however, was reported in April 2017 to be unimpressive. P. L. Punia, a former chairman of the NCSC, said that the number of pending cases was high because most of the extant Special Courts were in fact not exclusive but rather being used to process some non-POA cases, and because "The special prosecutors are not bothered and the cases filed under this Act are as neglected as the victims". [117] While Dalit rights organisations were cautiously optimistic that the amended Act would improve the situation, legal experts were pessimistic. [115]

In 2018, Supreme Court of India observed that the SC/ST Atrocities Act was being misused to blackmail people. [13]

Religion

Discrimination is illegal under Indian law by the Removal of Civil Disabilities Act (Act 21 of 1938), the Temple Entry Authorization and Indemnity Act 1939 (Act XXII of 1939) and Article 17 of the Constitution which outlawed Untouchability. [118] After India's independence in 1947, secular nationalism based on a "composite culture" made all people equal citizens. In Pakistan there are tensions between forces that want a modern secular state or an Islamic one. [119] The constitution of Bangladesh proclaims Islam is the state religion but upholds secularism. [120]

Hinduism

Most Dalits in India are Hindu. [121] There have been incidents which showed that Dalits were restricted from entering temples by high-caste Hindus, [122] [123] [124] and participation in religious processions. [125] [126]

A school of untouchables near Bangalore, by Lady Ottoline Morrell A school of untouchables near Bangalore by Lady Ottoline Morrell 2.jpg
A school of untouchables near Bangalore, by Lady Ottoline Morrell

In the 19th century, the Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj and the Ramakrishna Mission actively participated in the rights of Dalits. While Dalits had places to worship, the first upper-caste temple to openly welcome Dalits was the Laxminarayan Temple in Wardha in 1928. It was followed by the Temple Entry Proclamation issued by the last King of Travancore in the Indian state of Kerala in 1936.[ citation needed ]

In the 1930s, Gandhi and Ambedkar disagreed regarding retention of the Varna system. Whilst Ambedkar wanted to see it destroyed, Gandhi thought that it could be modified by reinterpreting Hindu texts so that the untouchables were absorbed into the Shudra varna. It was this disagreement that led to the Poona Pact. [29] Gandhi began the Harijan Yatra to help the Dalits, but ran into some opposition from Dalits that wanted a complete break from Hinduism. [127]

The declaration by princely states of Kerala between 1936 and 1947 that temples were open to all Hindus went a long way towards ending untouchability there.[ citation needed ] However, educational opportunities to Dalits in Kerala remain limited. [128]

Other Hindu groups attempted to reconcile with the Dalit community. Hindu temples are increasingly receptive to Dalit priests, a function formerly reserved for Brahmins. Brahmins such as Subramania Bharati passed Brahminhood onto a Dalit[ citation needed ], while in Shivaji's Maratha Empire Dalit warriors (the Mahar Regiment) joined his forces. [129] [130]

The fight for temple entry rights for Dalits continues to cause controversy. [131] In a 2015 incident in Meerut, a Dalit belonging to the Valmiki caste was denied entry to a Hindu temple; he went on to convert to Islam. [132] In September 2015, four Dalit women were fined by the upper-caste Hindus for entering a temple in Karnataka. [133]

There have been allegations that Dalits in Nepal are denied entry to Hindu temples. [134] [135] In at least one case, Dalits were reportedly beaten by upper-caste people while attempting to enter a local temple. [136]

Buddhism

In 1956, the Dalit jurist Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (1891–1956) launched the Dalit Buddhist movement, leading several mass conversions of Dalits from Hinduism to Buddhism. Ambedkar's Buddhism is a new kind of Buddhism that focuses on social and political engagement. [137] [138] About half a million Dalits joined Ambedkar in rejecting Hinduism and challenging its caste system. [139] [140] The movement is centered in Maharashtra, and according to the 2011 census, there were 6.5 million Marathi Buddhists (mainly Dalit Buddhists) in Maharashtra. [141]

Another Dalit Buddhist leader and reformer was Pandit Iyothee Thass, founder of the Sakya Buddhist Society of Tamil Nadu. [142]

Sikhism

Guru Nanak in Guru Granth Sahib calls for everyone to treat each other equally. Subsequent Sikh Gurus, all of whom came from the Khatri caste, also denounced the hierarchy of the caste system. [143] Despite this, social stratification exists in the Sikh community. The bulk of the Sikhs of Punjab belong to the Jat caste; [144] there are also two Dalit Sikh castes in the state, called the Mazhabis and the Ramdasias. [145]

Sunrinder S. Jodhka says that, in practice, Sikhs belonging to the landowning dominant castes have not shed all their prejudices against the dalit castes. While dalits would be allowed entry into the village gurudwaras they would not be permitted to cook or serve langar (the communal meal). Therefore, wherever they could mobilise resources, the Sikh dalits of Punjab have tried to construct their own gurudwara and other local-level institutions in order to attain a certain degree of cultural autonomy. [146] In 1953, Sikh leader Master Tara Singh succeeded in winning the demands from the government to include Sikh castes of the converted untouchables in the list of scheduled castes. In the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee (SGPC), 20 of the 140 seats are reserved for low-caste Sikhs. [147]

Sikh women are required to have the surname "Kaur", and men, the surname "Singh", in order to eradicate caste identities and discrimination. [148]

In 2003 the Talhan village Gurudwara endured a bitter dispute between Jat Sikhs and Chamars. The Chamars came out in force and confronted the Randhawa and Bains Jat Sikh landlords, who refused to give the Chamars a share on the governing committee of a shrine dedicated to Shaheed Baba Nihal Singh. The shrine earned 3–7 crore Indian Rupees, and the Jat Sikh landlords allegedly "gobbled up a substantial portion of the offerings". Though Dalits form more than 60 per cent of Talhan's 5,000-strong population, local traditions ensured that they were denied a place on the committee. The landlords, in league with radical Sikh organisations and the SGPC, attempted to keep out the Dalits by razing the shrine overnight and constructing a gurdwara on it, but the Dalit quest for a say in the governing committee did not end. [149]

Chamars fought a four-year court battle with the landlords and their allies, including the Punjab Police. In that time Jats conducted several boycotts against the Chamars. The Jat Sikhs and their allies cut off the power supply to their homes. In addition, various scuffles and fights set Chamar youths armed with lathis, rocks, bricks, soda bottles and anything they could find fought Jat Sikh landlords, youths and the Punjab police. Dalit youngsters painted their homes and motorcycles with the slogan, Putt Chamar De (proud sons of Chamars) in retaliation to the Jat slogan, Putt Jattan De. [149]

Jainism

Historically Jainism was practised by many communities across India. [150] They are often conservative and are generally considered upper-caste. [151]

In 1958, [152] a Sthanakvasi Jain called Muni Sameer Muni [153] [154] came into contact with members of the Khatik community in the Udaipur region, who decided to adopt Jainism. Their centre, Ahimsa Nagar, located about four miles from Chittorgarh, was inaugurated by Mohanlal Sukhadia in 1966. Sameer Muni termed them Veerwaal, [155] that is, belonging to Mahavira. A 22-year-old youth, Chandaram Meghwal, was initiated as a Jain monk at Ahore town in Jalore district in 2005. [156] In 2010 a Mahar engineer called Vishal Damodar was initiated as a Jain monk by Acharya Navaratna Sagar Suriji at Samet Shikhar. [157] Acharya Nanesh, the eighth Achayra of Sadhumargi Jain Shravak Sangha, had preached among the Balai community in 1963 near Ratlam. [158] His followers are called Dharmapal. [159] In 1984, some of the Bhangis of Jodhpur came under the influence of Acharya Shri Tulsi and adopted Jainism. [160] [161]

Christianity

Christian Dalits are found in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal. [162]

Mass conversions of lower caste Hindus to Christianity and Islam took place in order to escape the discrimination. The main Dalit groups that participated in these conversions were the Chuhras of Punjab, Chamars of North India (Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh), Vankars of Gujarat, and Pulayas of Kerala. [163] The first people converted to Christianity by Jesuits of the Madura Mission were members of Nadars, Maravars, and Pallar. [164] They believed that "Christianity is a true religion; a desire for protection from oppressors and, if possible, material aid; the desire for education for their children; and the knowledge that those who have become Christians had improved". [165]

Christianity was thought to be egalitarian and could provide mobility away from the caste. Sometimes the only change seen was their personal religious identity. Even after conversion, in some cases Dalits were discriminated against due to the "residual leftover" practice of caste discrimination from their previous traditions. This is attributed to the predominantly Hindu society they lived in. [166] Discrimination against Dalit Christians also remained in interactions and mannerisms between castes; for example, during the earlier days, the 'lower caste Christians' had to [cover] their mouths when talking to a Syrian Christian. [163] In many cases they were still referred to by their Hindu caste names: For example Pulayans in Kerala, Pariah in Tamil Nadu, and Madigas in Andhra Pradesh, by members of all religious backgrounds. [167]

Even after conversion, to some extent segregation, restriction, hierarchy, and graded ritual purity remained. Data shows that there is more discrimination and less class mobility among the people living in the rural areas, where incidents of caste discrimination is higher among people from all religious backgrounds. [163] In many cases, the churches referred to the Dalits as 'New Christians'. It is alleged to be a derogatory term which classifies the Dalit Christians to be looked down upon by other Christians. During the earlier days of Christianity, in some churches in south India the Dalits had either separate seating, or had to attend the mass outside. [167] Dalit Christians are also said to be grossly underrepresented amongst the clergy in some places. [168]

Caste-based occupations held by Dalits also show a clear segregation which perpetuated even after becoming Christian. Occupational patterns (including manual scavenging) are prevalent among Dalit Christians in north-west India are said to be quite similar to that of Dalit Hindus. [169] Occupational discrimination for Dalit Christians goes so far as to restrict not only employment but in some cases for clean sanitation and water. [170]

Islam

Most of India's 140 million Muslims are descended from local converts. Many of them converted to Islam to escape Hindu upper-caste oppression. 75% of the present Indian Muslim population are Dalits. [171] [172] In 2003, the higher caste Muslims in Bihar opposed the burials of lower caste Muslims in the same graveyard.[ Dalit#cite note-rediff burial-116]

Political involvement

Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) is an Indian Dalit party. Flags of "Bahujan Samaj Party" at Shivaji Park.png
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) is an Indian Dalit party.

Dalit-led political parties include:

National Dalit-led political parties in India

Dalit leaders at Bahujan Samaj Party head office Dileep bsp.jpg
Dalit leaders at Bahujan Samaj Party head office

Other recognized state political parties

Nepali Dalit-led parties

Dalit-led political parties in Pakistan

Other dalit groups

Anti-Dalit prejudices exist in groups such as the extremist militia Ranvir Sena, largely run by upper-caste landlords in Bihar. They oppose equal treatment of Dalits and have resorted to violence. The Ranvir Sena is considered a terrorist organisation by the government of India. [181] In 2015, Cobrapost exposed many leaders especially like C. P. Thakur alongside former PM Chandra Shekhar associated with Ranvir Sena in Bihar Dalit massacres [182] while governments of Nitish Kumar (under pressure from BJP), Lalu Prasad Yadav and Rabri Devi did nothing to get justice for Dalits. [183]

The rise of Hindutva's (Hindu nationalism) role in Indian politics has accompanied allegations that religious conversions of Dalits are due to allurements like education and jobs rather than faith. Critics[ who? ] argue that laws banning conversion and limiting social relief for converts mean that conversion impedes economic success. However, Bangaru Laxman, a Dalit politician, was a prominent member of the Hindutva movement.[ citation needed ]

Another political issue is Dalit affirmative-action quotas in government jobs and university admissions. About 8 per cent of the seats in the National and State Parliaments are reserved for Scheduled Caste and Tribe candidates.[ citation needed ]

Jagjivan Ram (1908–1986) was the first scheduled caste leader to emerge at the national level from Bihar. [184] He was member of the Constituent assembly that drafted India's constitution. [185] Ram also served in the interim national government of 1946 [186] He served in the cabinets of Congress party Prime ministers Jawaharlal Nehru, [187] Lal Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi. [188] His last position in government was as Deputy Prime Minister of India in the Janata Party government of 1977–1979, [189] [190] [191]

In modern times several Bharatiya Janata Party leaders were Dalits, including Dinanath Bhaskar, Ramchandra Veerappa and Suraj Bhan.[ citation needed ]

In India's most populous state, Uttar Pradesh, Dalits have had a major political impact. [192] The Dalit-led Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) had previously run the government and that party's leader, Mayawati, served several times as chief minister. [193] Regarding her election in 2007, some reports claimed her victory was due to her ability to win support from both 17 per cent of Muslims and nearly 17 per cent Brahmins [194] alongside 80 per cent of Dalits. [195] However, surveys of voters on the eve of elections, indicated that caste loyalties were not the voters' principal concern. Instead, inflation and other issues of social and economic development dictated the outcome. [196] [197] [198] [199] Mayawati's success in reaching across castes has led to speculation about her as a potential future Prime Minister of India. [200]

Aside from Mayawati in Uttar Pradesh, Damodaram Sanjivayya was chief minister of Andhra Pradesh from 11 January 1960 to 12 March 1962, and Jitan Ram Manjhi was chief minister of Bihar for just under a year.[ citation needed ] In 1997, K. R. Narayanan, who was a Dalit, was elected as President of India. [32] In 2017, Ramnath Kovind was elected as the President of India, becoming the second dalit president of the country. [201]

Votebank

Votebank politics are common in India, usually based on religion or caste. Indeed, the term itself was coined by the Indian sociologist M. N. Srinivas. [202] Dalits are often used as a votebank. [203] [204] [205] There have been instances where it has been alleged that an election-winning party reneged on promises made to the Dalits made during the election campaign [206] or have excluded them from party affairs. [207]

Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Sub-Plan

The SC, ST Sub-Plan, or Indiramma Kalalu, is a budget allocation by the Government of Andhra Pradesh for the welfare of Dalits. The law was enacted in May 2013. SCs and STs have separate panels for spending. The plan was meant to prevent the government from diverting funds meant for SCs and STs to other programs, which was historically the case. As of 2013, no equivalent national plan existed. [208] Scheduled Castes Sub Plan and Tribal Sub-Plan funds are often diverted by state governments to other purposes. [209]

While the Indian Constitution has provisions for the social and economic uplift of Dalits to support their upward social mobility, these concessions are limited to Hindus. Dalits who have converted to other religions have asked that benefits be extended to them. [210]

Beyond the Indian subcontinent

United Kingdom

After World War II, immigration from the former British Empire was largely driven by labour shortages. [211] Like the rest of the Indian subcontinent diaspora, Dalits immigrated and established their own communities.[ citation needed ]

A 2009 report alleged that caste discrimination is "rife" in the United Kingdom. [212] The report alleged that casteism persists in the workplace and within the National Health Service [213] and at doctor's offices. [212] [214]

Some claim that caste discrimination is non-existent. [215] Some have rejected the government's right to interfere in the community. The Hindu Forum of Britain conducted their own research, concluding that caste discrimination was "not endemic in British society", that reports to the contrary aimed to increase discrimination by legislating expression and behaviour and that barriers should instead be removed through education. [216]

A 2010 study found that caste discrimination occurs in Britain at work and in service provision. While not ruling out the possibility of discrimination in education, no such incidents were uncovered. The report found favourable results from educational activities. However, non-legislative approaches were claimed to be less effective in the workplace and would not help when the authorities were discriminating. One criticism of discrimination law was the difficulty in obtaining proof of violations. Perceived benefits of legislation were that it provides redress, leads to greater understanding and reduces the social acceptance of such discrimination. [217]

More recent studies in Britain were inconclusive and found that discrimination was "not religion specific and is subscribed to by members of any or no religion". [218] Equalities Minister Helen Grant found insufficient evidence to justify specific legislation, while Shadow Equalities minister Kate Green said that the impact is on a relatively small number of people. [218] Religious studies professor Gavin Flood of the Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies concluded that the Hindu community in Britain is particularly well integrated, loosening caste ties. [219] Casteist beliefs were prevalent mainly among first generation immigrants, with such prejudices declining with each successive generation due to greater assimilation. [218]

From September 2013 to February 2014, Indian philosopher Meena Dhanda led a project on 'Caste in Britain' for the UK Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC), which focused on the proposed inclusion of a provision in the Equality Act 2010 to protect British citizens against caste discrimination. [220] In 2018 the UK government decided not to include caste as a "protected characteristic" within the terms of the Act, and to rely instead on case law to identify tests for caste-based discrimination. [221]

Supporters of anti-caste legislation include Lord Avebury and Lady Thornton. [222]

Sikh diaspora in Britain

A Sikh gurdwara in Smethwick. The majority of gurdwaras in Britain are caste based and one can indirectly inquire about a person's caste based upon which gurdwara the person attends. Smethwick Gurdwara - geograph.org.uk - 234468.jpg
A Sikh gurdwara in Smethwick. The majority of gurdwaras in Britain are caste based and one can indirectly inquire about a person's caste based upon which gurdwara the person attends.

Sikhs in the United Kingdom are affected by caste. Gurdwaras such as those of the Ramgarhia Sikhs are organised along caste lines and most are controlled by a single caste. [223] In most British towns and cities with a significant Sikh population, rival gurdwaras can be found with caste-specific management committees. [224] The caste system and caste identity is entrenched and reinforced. [223] [225]

A Valmiki Temple in the UK. Caste segregation has meant that Mazhabi Sikhs and Hindu Churas have united to establish their own temples throughout Britain. Some Valmiki temples keep a copy of the Guru Granth Sahib and Mazhabi Sikhs and Valmikis prayer together. Balmiki.jpg
A Valmiki Temple in the UK. Caste segregation has meant that Mazhabi Sikhs and Hindu Churas have united to establish their own temples throughout Britain. Some Valmiki temples keep a copy of the Guru Granth Sahib and Mazhabi Sikhs and Valmikis prayer together.

Caste-based discrimination has occurred amongst Sikhs in the UK. At a sports competition in Birmingham in 1999, Jat Sikhs refused to eat food that had been cooked and prepared by the Chamar community. [227]

The few gurdwaras that accept inter-caste marriages do so reluctantly. Gurdwaras may insist on the presence of Singh and Kaur in the names of the bridegroom and bride, or deny them access to gurdwara-based religious services and community centres. [228]

In the Caribbean

It is estimated that in 1883, about one-third of the immigrants who arrived in the Caribbean were Dalits. The shared experience of being exploited in a foreign land gradually broke down caste barriers in the Caribbean Hindu communities. [45]

In Continental Europe

The Romani people, originating in northern India, are said to be of Dalit ancestry. [229] [230] Between 1001 and 1026, the Romani fought under their Hindu rulers to fight the Ghaznavids. [229]

In the United States

Many Dalits first came to the United States to flee caste-based oppression in South Asia. After the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, the demand for labourers brought in many caste-diverse South Asian immigrants, many of whom were Dalit.[ citation needed ] After the 1965 Immigration and Naturalization Act, immigrants from India were primarily professionals and students, largely from upper caste or dominant caste families. However, from the 1990s onwards, many more of the skilled professionals arriving from India have been Dalit, due to multiple generations of affirmative action policies in India, as well as ongoing efforts of organised resistance against caste discrimination. [231] [232]

In 2018, Equality Labs released a report on "Caste in the United States". This report found that one in two Dalit Americans live in fear of their caste being "outed". In addition, 60% have experienced caste-based discriminatory jokes, and 25% have suffered verbal or physical assault because of their caste. [233] [234]

In late June 2020, the California Department of Fair Employment and Housing filed a lawsuit against Cisco Systems, alleging that a Dalit engineer at the company faced discrimination from two of his upper-caste supervisors for his Dalit background. [235] The lawsuit claims that "higher caste supervisors and co-workers imported the discriminatory system's practices into their team and Cisco's workplace". [236] In 2023, California Civil Rights Department voluntarily dismissed its case alleging caste discrimination against two Cisco engineers, while still keeping alive its litigation against Cisco Systems. [7]

Literature

Dalit literature encompasses writings by Dalits about their lived experiences, and it has emerged as a significant literary movement and forms a distinct part of Indian literature. [237] It has formed an identity across various Indian languages, including Marathi, Bangla, Hindi, Kannada, Punjabi, Sindhi, Odia, Tamil, and others. The earliest identifiably Dalit writers were Madara Chennaiah, an 11th-century cobbler-saint who lived in the reign of Western Chalukyas and who is regarded by some scholars as the "father of Vachana poetry" and Dohara Kakkaiah, a Dalit by birth, six of whose confessional poems survive. [238] The origins of modern Dalit writing can be traced back to the works of Marathi Dalit Bhakti poets and Tamil Siddhas, suggesting a long-standing tradition of marginalized voices. [239] [240] This literary movement gained momentum in the mid-20th century, challenging the prevailing portrayals of life in mainstream literature. The publication of Jyotirao Phule's Gulamgiri in 1873 marked a seminal moment in Dalit literature, shedding light on the plight of the Untouchables. [241]

Dalit literature in India has flourished in various regional languages, reflecting the diverse experiences and struggles of Dalit communities across the country. In Maharashtra, Baburao Bagul's collection of stories, "Jevha Mi Jat Chorali" (When I had Concealed My Caste), published in 1963, marked a significant turning point, portraying the harsh realities of Dalit lives and garnering critical acclaim. [242] [243] [244] Writers like Namdeo Dhasal and Daya Pawar further strengthened the Dalit movement in Maharashtra introducing the seminal "Dalit Panther" as part of the little magazine movement. [245] Baburao Bagul, Bandhu Madhav [246] and Shankar Rao Kharat, worked in the 1960s. Later the little magazine movement became popular. [247] In Bengal, the Dalit literary movement began in 1992 after the suicide of Chuni Kotal, leading to the formation of the Bangla Dalit Sahitya Sanstha and the launch of the magazine "Chaturtha Duniya". [248] [249] Prominent Dalit authors in Bengal include Manoranjan Byapari, Jatin Bala, and Kalyani Charal. Tamil Nadu has a long history of Dalit literature, starting from the efforts of Parayars in the late 19th century. [250] The Tamil Dalit literary movement gained momentum in the 1990s, influenced by the Mandal Commission report and Ambedkar centenary celebrations. [251] [252] Writers like Bama, Joseph Macwan, and Gogu Shyamala have made significant contributions to Tamil Dalit literature. In Telugu literature, Dalit voices gained prominence through the activism of leaders like Kathi Padma Rao and Bojja Tarakam, addressing issues of caste discrimination and social injustice. [253] [254] Gujarati Dalit literature emerged in the 1970s with magazines like Puma and Panther, inspired by the Dalit Panthers movement in Maharashtra. Writers such as Rameshchandra Parmar and Sahil Parmar played vital roles in its development. [255] [256] [257] Odia Dalit literature has a rich history dating back to the fifteenth century, with significant contributions from Sudramuni Sarala Dasa and Bhima Bhoi. [258] [259] Writers like Basudeb Sunani and Pitambar Tarai have furthered the Dalit literary movement in Odisha. Additionally, Dalit literature encompasses various forms such as poetry, autobiographies, and oral history narratives, with notable works including "Karukku" by Bama and "The Weave of My Life" by Urmila Pawar. The Indian author Rajesh Talwar has written a play titled 'Gandhi, Ambedkar, and the Four Legged Scorpion' in which the personal experiences of Ambedkar and the sufferings of the community have been highlighted. [260]

In Sri Lanka, writers such as K. Daniel [261] and Dominic Jeeva gained mainstream popularity.

In the film industry

Until the 1980s, Dalits had little involvement in Bollywood or other film industries of India [262] and the community were rarely depicted at the heart of storylines. [263] Chirag Paswan (son of Dalit leader Ram Vilas Paswan) launched his career in Bollywood with his debut film Miley Naa Miley Hum in 2011. Despite political connections and the financial ability to struggle against ingrained prejudices, Chirag was not able to "bag" any other movie project in the following years. Chirag, in his early days, described Bollywood as his "childhood dream", but eventually entered politics instead. When the media tried to talk to him about "Caste in Bollywood", he refused to talk about the matter. [264] A recent Hindi film to portray a Dalit character in the leading role, although it was not acted by a Dalit, was Eklavya: The Royal Guard (2007). [265] The continued use of caste based references to Dalit sub-castes in South Indian films (typecast and pigeonholed in their main socio-economic sub-group) angers many Dalit fans. [266]

A Brazilian telenovela India: A Love Story was broadcast in 2009 where the main female character Maya, who is of upper class, falls in love with a Dalit person. [267] [268]

Internal conflicts

Several Dalit groups are rivals and sometimes communal tensions are evident. A study found more than 900 Dalit sub-castes throughout India, with internal divisions. [269] Emphasising any one caste threatens what is claimed to be an emerging Dalit identity and fostering rivalry among SCs. [270]

A DLM (Dalit Liberation Movement) party leader said in the early 2000s that it is easier to organise Dalits on a caste basis than to fight caste prejudice itself. [270]

Balmikis and Pasis in the 1990s refused to support the BSP, claiming it was a Jatav party [271] but over 80 per cent of dalits from all united Dalit castes voted BSP to power in 2007. [195]

Many converted Dalit Sikhs claim a superior status over the Hindu Raigars, Joatia Chamars and Ravidasis and sometimes refuse to intermarry with them. [272] They are divided into gotras that regulate their marriage alliances. In Andhra Pradesh, Mala and Madiga were constantly in conflict with each other [273] but as of 2015 Mala and Madiga students work for common dalit cause at University level. [274]

Although the Khateek (butchers) are generally viewed as a higher caste than Bhangis, the latter refuse to offer cleaning services to Khateeks, believing that their profession renders them unclean. They also consider the Balai, Dholi and Mogya as unclean and do not associate with them. [275]

Notable people

See also

Similarly discriminated groups

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">B. R. Ambedkar</span> Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer (1891–1956)

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar was an Indian jurist, economist, social reformer and political leader who headed the committee drafting the Constitution of India from the Constituent Assembly debates, served as Law and Justice minister in the first cabinet of Jawaharlal Nehru, and inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement after renouncing Hinduism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dalit Buddhist movement</span> Modern sociopolitical movement among Dalits

The Neo Buddhist movement is a religious as well as a socio-political movement among Dalits in India which was started by B. R. Ambedkar. It re-interpreted Buddhism and created a new school of Buddhism called Navayana. The movement has sought to be a socially and politically engaged form of Buddhism.

Untouchability is a form of social institution that legitimises and enforces practices that are discriminatory, humiliating, exclusionary and exploitative against people belonging to certain social groups. Although comparable forms of discrimination are found all over the world, untouchability involving the caste system is largely unique to South Asia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes</span> Official designations given to various groups of indigenous people in India

The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are officially designated groups of people and among the most disadvantaged socio-economic groups in India. The terms are recognized in the Constitution of India and the groups are designated in one or other of the categories. For much of the period of British rule in the Indian subcontinent, they were known as the Depressed Classes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mahar</span> Caste in India found predominantly in the state of Maharashtra

Mahar is an Indian caste found largely in the state of Maharashtra and neighbouring areas. Most of the Mahar community followed B. R. Ambedkar in converting to Buddhism in the middle of the 20th century. There are still some Mahars who practice Hinduism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Republican Party of India</span> Indian political party

The Republican Party of India was a political party in India. It had its roots in the Scheduled Castes Federation led by B. R. Ambedkar. The 'Training School for Entrance to Politics' was established by Ambedkar in 1956 which was to serve as an entry point to the Republican Party of India (RPI). The first batch of the school consisted of 15 students. Its first batch turned out to be last batch as the school was closed after Ambedkar's death in 1956.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Madiga</span> Caste in South India

Madiga is a Telugu caste from southern India. They mainly live in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Karnataka, with a small minority in Tamil Nadu. Madigas are historically associated with the work of tannery, leatherwork and small handicrafts. Today, most are agricultural labourers. They are categorized as a Scheduled Caste by the Government of India. Within the Madiga community, there are various sub-castes include Bindla, Chindu, Dakkali and Mashti. Madigas have their own classes, the priestly class is known as Madiga Dasari. The Sangaris, Thothis, etc. have different works for their community.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chamar</span> Dalit caste of the Indian subcontinent

Chamar is a Dalit community classified as a Scheduled Caste under modern India's system of affirmative action. They are found throughout the Indian subcontinent, mainly in the northern states of India and in Pakistan and Nepal.

Chuhra, also known as Bhanghi and Balmiki, is a Dalit caste in India and Pakistan. Populated regions include the Punjab region of India and Pakistan, as well as Uttar Pradesh in India, among other parts of the Indian subcontinent such as southern India. Their traditional occupation is sweeping, a "polluting" occupation that caused them to be considered untouchables in the caste system.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mazhabi Sikh</span> Community from Northern India that follows Sikhism

Mazhabi Sikh is a community from Northern India, especially Punjab region, who follow Sikhism. Mazhabi are part of wider category of Dalit Sikhs, who convert from the hindu Valmiki community. The word Mazhabi is derived from the Arabic term mazhab, and can be translated as the faithful. They live mainly in Indian Punjab, Rajasthan and Haryana.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Caste system in India</span> Social stratification practiced in India

The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic instance of social classification based on castes. It has its origins in ancient India, and was transformed by various ruling elites in medieval, early-modern, and modern India, especially in the aftermath of the collapse of the Mughal Empire and the establishment of the British Raj. It is today the basis of affirmative action programmes in India as enforced through its constitution. The caste system consists of two different concepts, varna and jati, which may be regarded as different levels of analysis of this system.

Jatav , also known as Jatava/Jatan/ Jatua/Jhusia /Jataau/Jatiya, is an Indian community that are considered to be a subcaste of the Chamar caste, who are classified as a Scheduled Caste under modern India's system of positive discrimination.

The caste system among South Asian Christians often reflects stratification by sect, location, and the caste of their predecessors. There exists evidence to show that Christian individuals have mobility within their respective castes. But, in some cases, social inertia caused by their old traditions and biases against other castes remain, causing caste system to persist among South Asian Christians, to some extent. Christian priests, nuns, Dalits and similar groups are found in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Caste politics</span> Identity politics on caste system lines in India

In India, a caste although it's a western stratification arrived from Portuguese word Casta and Latin word castus ,is a social group where membership is decided by birth. Broadly, Indian castes are divided into the Forward Castes, Other Backward Classes, Scheduled Castes, and Scheduled Tribes. Indian Christians and Indian Muslims are also function as castes. With castes separating individuals into different social groups, it follows that each group will have conflicting interests; oftentimes putting those with lower social standing in less favorable positions. An attempt to address this inequality has been the reservation system, which essentially acts as affirmative action to provide representation to caste groups that have been systematically disadvantaged. There have also been other cases where political parties, like the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), was formed to challenge the power of the upper castes.

Caste-related violence in India has occurred and continues to occur in various forms.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pasi (caste)</span> Dalit community of India

The Pasi is a Dalit (untouchable) community of India. Pasi refers to tapping toddy, a traditional occupation of the Pasi community. The Pasi are divided into Gujjar, Kaithwas, and Boria. They are classified as an Other Backward Class in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. They live in the northern Indian states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.

Dalit literature is a genre of Indian writing that focuses on the lives, experiences, and struggles of the Dalit community, who have faced caste-based oppression and discrimination for centuries. This literature encompasses various Indian languages such as Marathi, Bangla, Hindi, Kannada, Punjabi, Sindhi, Odia and Tamil and includes diverse narratives like poems, short stories, and autobiographies. The movement originated in response to the caste-based social injustices in mid-twentieth-century independent India and has since spread across various Indian languages, critiquing caste practices and experimenting with different literary forms.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">B. Shyam Sunder</span>

B. Shyam Sunder was born in Aurangabad district in Bombay Presidency, British India. His father was B. Manicham, a railway employee, his mother Sudha Bai and Manik bai younger sister. He was a political thinker, jurist, prolific writer, parliamentarian and a revolutionary leader. In 1937, he founded the Dalit-Muslim unity movement at Parbhani in Aurangabad, Maharashtra and urged his people to join hands with Muslims. He was a legislator representing Andhra Pradesh and Mysore State.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mahad Satyagraha</span> Satyagraha or water led by B R Ambedkar

Mahad Satyagraha or Chavdar Tale Satyagraha was a satyagraha led by B. R. Ambedkar on 20 March 1927 to allow untouchables to use water in a public tank in Mahad, Maharashtra, India. The day is observed as Social Empowerment day in India.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ambedkarism</span> Philosophy or ideology of B. R. Ambedkar

Ambedkarism is called as the teaching, ideology or philosophy of B.R. Ambedkar, an Indian economist, barrister, social reformer, and the first of Minister of Law and Justice in the first cabinet of Jawaharlal Nehru. Ambedkarism includes special focus on subjects such as fraternity, democracy, communal electorates, conversion out of Hinduism, political power, rule of law, Navayana, among others. An Ambedkarite is one who follows the philosophy of Ambedkar. Icons of Ambedkarite ideology also include Periyar, Jyotirao Phule and others.

References

  1. "From Buddhist texts to East India Company to now, 'Dalit' has come a long way". The Times of India. 5 September 2018.
  2. Hankins, Joseph D (2014). Working Skin: Making Leather, Making a Multicultural Japan. University of California Press. p. 113. ISBN   9780520959163.
  3. Sudrania, OP (9 September 2012). "Castes in a Global Perspective - Is Caste Only a Hindu Problem? (Part 6)". ChakraNews.com. Archived from the original on 5 May 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  4. Noble, Thomas (2002). The Foundations of Western Civilization . Chantilly, VA: The Teaching Company. ISBN   978-1565856370.
  5. 1 2 3 Kaminsky; Long, Roger D. (2011). India Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic. ABC-CLIO. p. 156. ISBN   978-0-313-37463-0 via Google Books.
  6. 1 2 3 Kanmony, Jebagnanam Cyril (2010). Dalits and Tribes of India. Mittal Publications. p. 198. ISBN   978-81-8324-348-3 via Google Books.
  7. 1 2 "Top RSS leader misquotes Ambedkar on untouchability". Hindustan Times . Archived from the original on 16 April 2015.
  8. "Eknath | Marathi Poet, Bhakti Movement & Maharashtra". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
  9. Robinson, Rowena (2003). Christians of India. New Delhi: Sage Publications. pp. 193–96. ISBN   0761998225 via Google Books.
  10. "Dalit, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, June 2016. Web. 23 August 2016.
  11. 1 2 Mendelsohn, Oliver; Vicziany, Marika (1998). The Untouchables: Subordination, Poverty and the State in Modern India. Cambridge University Press. p. 4. ISBN   978-0-521-55671-2.
  12. 1 2 Katuwal, Shyam Bahadur (2009). "The Issues and Concerns of Dalit Labourers in Nepal". In Mohanty, Panchanan; Malik, Ramesh C.; Kasi, Eswarappa (eds.). Ethnographic Discourse of the Other: Conceptual and Methodological Issues. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 114. ISBN   978-1-4438-0856-9 via Google Books.
  13. 1 2 "Independent labour party: 19th July (1937) in Dalit History – Dr. Ambedkar took oath as the member of Bombay Legislative Council". drambedkarbooks.com/. Dr. Ambedkar Books. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  14. Sagar, S.; Bhargava, V. (2017). "Dalit Women in India: Crafting Narratives of Success". In Chaudhary, Nandita; Hviid, Pernille; Marsico, Giuseppina; Villadsen, Jakob Waag (eds.). Resistance in Everyday Life: Constructing Cultural Experiences. Springer. p. 22. ISBN   978-9-81103-581-4 via Google Books.
  15. Teltumbde, Anand (2016). Dalits: Past, present and future. Routledge. pp. 10–11. ISBN   978-1-31552-643-0 via Google Books.
  16. Lochtefeld, James G. (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 168. ISBN   978-0-8239-3179-8 via Google Books.
  17. "Dalit word un-constitutional says SC". Express India . 18 January 2008. Archived from the original on 22 September 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
  18. 1 2 3 Zelliot, Eleanor (2010). "India's Dalits: Racism and Contemporary Change". Global Dialogue. 12 (2). Archived from the original on 30 April 2013.
  19. 1 2 3 4 Census of India 2011, Primary Census Abstract Dokuwiki ppt.png PPT , Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, Government of India (28 October 2013).
  20. Fuller, C. J. (March 1976). "Kerala Christians and the Caste System". Man. New series. 11 (1): 53–70. doi:10.2307/2800388. JSTOR   2800388.
  21. "Tribal Religions". U.S. Library of Congress . Library of Congress Country Studies. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  22. Ramabadran, Sudharshan; Paswan, Guru (2021). Makers of Modern Dalit History. Penguin Random House India. p. xv. ISBN   978-0143451426.
  23. "Stop calling Dalits 'Harijan': SC calls the term abusive, as we remain ignorant and insensitive". The News Minute. 27 March 2017. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  24. Omvedt, Gail (2008). Ambedkar: towards an enlightened India. New Delhi: Penguin. ISBN   978-0143065906.
  25. Perez, Rosa Maria (2004). Kings and untouchables : a study of the caste system in western India. New Delhi: Chronicle Books. p. 15. ISBN   978-8-18028-014-6 . Retrieved 25 July 2017 via Google Books.
  26. Mendelsohn, Oliver; Vicziany, Marika (1998). The Untouchables: Subordination, Poverty and the State in Modern India. Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN   978-0-52155-671-2 via Google Books.
  27. Paik, Shailaja (September 2011). "Mahar–Dalit–Buddhist: The history and politics of naming in Maharashtra". Contributions to Indian Sociology. 45 (2): 217–241. doi:10.1177/006996671104500203. S2CID   144346975.
  28. Teltumbde, Anand (2016). Dalits: Past, present and future. Routledge. pp. 52–54. ISBN   978-1-31552-643-0.
  29. 1 2 Keane, David (2007). "Why the Hindu Caste System Presents a New Challenge for Human Rights". In Rehman, Javid; Breau, Susan (eds.). Religion, Human Rights and International Law: A Critical Examination of Islamic State Practices. BRILL. pp. 284–285. ISBN   978-9-04742-087-3 via Google Books.
  30. Gould, William (2011). Religion and Conflict in Modern South Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 151–152. ISBN   978-1-13949-869-2 via Google Books.
  31. Srivastava, B. N. (2003). "Positive Discrimination in the Constitution of India". In Lal, A. K. (ed.). Social Exclusion: Essays in Honour of Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak. Vol. 1. Concept Publishing. p. 181. ISBN   978-8-18069-053-2 via Google Books.
  32. 1 2 "Status of caste system in modern India" (PDF). Ambedkar.org. 2004. pp. 34–35.
  33. "Profile: Mayawati Kumari". BBC News . 16 July 2009.
  34. "Meira Kumar, a Dalit leader is the new Lok Sabha Speaker". NCHRO. 2009.
  35. "Stop using the term Dalit: I&B Ministry tells media". India Today.
  36. "SCs, STs form 25% of population, says Census 2011 data". The Indian Express. 1 May 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  37. Sivakumar, B. (2 May 2013). "Half of India's dalit population lives in 4 states". The Times of India . Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  38. "Scheduled Caste Population in Punjab". Welfare Department. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
  39. Ghosh, Lipi (29 November 2020). Political Governance and Minority Rights: The South and South-East Asian Scenario. Taylor & Francis. pp. 115–. ISBN   978-1-00-008390-3 via Google Books.
  40. Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: International Development Committee. DFID's programme in Bangladesh: third report of session 2009–10, Vol. 2: Oral and written evidence . The Stationery Office; 4 March 2010. ISBN   978-0-215-54435-3. p. 93–.
  41. Bandarage, Asoka (2008). The Separatist Conflict in Sri Lanka: Terrorism, Ethnicity, Political Economy. Routledge. p. 186. ISBN   978-1-13597-085-7 via Google Books.
  42. Soundararajan, Thenmozhi (20 August 2012). "Black Indians". Outlook India. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  43. Rath, Kayte (5 March 2013). "Outlaw caste discrimination in UK, peers tell government". BBC News . Retrieved 16 March 2013.
  44. Lepoer, Barbara Leitch. "GPO for the Library of Congress". Library of Congress . Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  45. 1 2 Naidu, Janet. "Retention and Transculturation of Hinduism in the Caribbean". Guyana Journal. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  46. "India top court recalls controversial caste order". BBC News. 1 October 2019.
  47. "Under India's caste system, Dalits are considered untouchable. The coronavirus is intensifying that slur". CNN. 16 April 2020.
  48. Shankar, Deepa (2007). "What is the progress in elementary education participation in India during the last two decades?" (PDF). The World Bank.
  49. Singh, Darshan (2009). "Development of Scheduled Castes in India – A Review" (PDF). Journal of Rural Development . 28 (4): 529–42. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2010.
  50. Desai, Sonalde; Kulkarni, Veena (May 2008). "Changing Educational Inequalities in India in the Context of Affirmative Action". Demography . 45 (2): 245–70. doi:10.1353/dem.0.0001. PMC   2474466 . PMID   18613480.
  51. "India: "Hidden Apartheid" of Discrimination Against Dalits". Human Rights Watch. 27 May 2002. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
  52. Klostermaier, Klaus (2010). A Survey of Hinduism: Third Edition. State University of New York Press. p. 297. ISBN   978-0-7914-8011-3 via Google Books.
  53. "They're Hindu too but still feel at the bottom of India's social ladder". NBC News . Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  54. Scroll Staff (14 December 2020). "India a dangerous, violent place for Muslims under Modi government, says minorities report". Scroll.in. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  55. "South Asia State of Minorities Report 2019" (PDF). minorityrights.org. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  56. "The caste system". BBC . Archived from the original on 21 May 2009.
  57. Dasgupta, Manas (28 January 2010). "Untouchability still prevalent in rural Gujarat: survey". The Hindu . India. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  58. "Hindus Support Dalit Candidates in Tamil Nadu". Indianchristians.in. 15 October 2006. Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  59. Sengupta, Somini (29 August 2008). "Crusader Sees Wealth as Cute for Caste Bias". The New York Times . India. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  60. Vij, Shivam (1 December 2014). "Between the bathroom and the kitchen, there is caste". Scroll. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  61. Bhandare, Namita (6 December 2014). "Casteism exists in India, let's not remain in denial". Hindustan Times . Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  62. Tharoor, Shashi (8 December 2014). "Why Caste Won't Disappear From India". HuffPost .
  63. Chishti, Seema (29 November 2014). "Biggest caste survey: One in four Indians admit to practising untouchability". The Indian Express. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  64. "Dalits in MP village not allowed to use public borewell". Hindustan Times . 23 May 2015. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  65. Chishti, Seema (16 June 2015). "Study shows NCR homeowners turn away Dalits and Muslims". The Indian Express. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  66. "In 5 star Bengaluru hotel, Dalits show they have arrived". Hindustan Times . 1 September 2015. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  67. "Contesting Power, Contesting Memories". Economic and Political Weekly. 47 (42): 7–8. 5 June 2015.
  68. Kunnath, George (2013). "Compliance or Defiance? The Case of Dalits and Mahadalits" (PDF). University of Oxford . pp. 36–59. S2CID   35045790.
  69. "Half of school dropouts in K'taka are dalits". The Times of India . 5 December 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  70. 1 2 Sarkar, Sravani (5 December 2014). "Children bear the brunt of caste abuses in rural areas". Hindustan Times . Archived from the original on 13 December 2014.
  71. Lama, Prawesh (7 December 2011). "Dalit professor 'harassed' for SC quota reforms thesis". India Today. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  72. "VHP, Bajrang Dal activists beat up a Dalit professor". The Hindu . 1 February 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  73. "Professor attempts suicide near Rajkot". The Times of India . 15 April 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  74. "dalit-headmistress-accuses-upper-caste-teachers-of-harassment" . Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  75. "Headmaster booked for abusing dalit teacher". Business Standard. Press Trust of India. 28 March 2015.
  76. "Dalit professor alleges harassment by colleague, students". The Hindu . 24 March 2013.
  77. Rana, Niyati (25 April 2015). "Prejudice reserved". Ahmedabad Mirror. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
  78. "Dalits in India are poorer than Muslims: Government report". dna. 7 November 2014.
  79. Mukunth, Vasudevan (2 December 2014). "Who among India's young are likely to become modern slaves?". Scroll.in.
  80. "93% dalit families still live below poverty line, says survey". The Times of India . 28 October 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
  81. Sengupta, Somini (29 August 2008). "Crusader Sees Wealth as Cure for Caste Bias". The New York Times. India. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  82. Wax, Emily (31 August 2008). "In an Indian Village, Signs of the Loosening Grip of Caste". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  83. "Landlessness is higher among Dalits but more adivasis are 'deprived'". The Indian Express . 6 July 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  84. Lochtefeld, James G. (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z . The Rosen Publishing Group. p.  720. ISBN   978-0-8239-3180-4.
  85. 1 2 3 PRIA (2019): Lived Realities of Women Sanitation Workers in India: Insights from a Participatory Research Conducted in Three Cities of India. Participatory Research in Asia, New Delhi, India
  86. Saini, Manvir (29 July 2015). "49% of Haryana's dalit kids are malnourished: Report". The Times of India . Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  87. Arunachalam, Pon Vasanth (3 November 2014). "Prejudice Blamed For Dalit Prisoners". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014.
  88. Arunachalam, Pon Vasanth (3 November 2014). "Skew in Dalit Jail Inmate Ratio: NCRB". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 12 December 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  89. Sen, Jahnavi (6 May 2016). "Three-Quarters of Death Row Prisoners are from Lower Castes or Religious Minorities". The Wire.
  90. "Withdraw false cases, release arrested Dalits: Congress on police action". The Times of India . 4 April 2018. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  91. "India: Dalit rights activists detained". Refworld. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees . Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  92. Wax, Emily (21 June 2007). "A 'Broken People' in Booming India". The Washington Post . Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  93. Dubey, Priyanka (10 September 2014). "A Portrait of the Indian as a Young Dalit Girl". Yahoo! News/Grist Media. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
  94. Saini, Manvir (9 August 2015). "Dalits from Bhagana convert to Islam". The Times of India . Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  95. Guha, Ramachandra (26 October 2014). "They were rivals, but with the same mission". Hindustan Times . Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  96. S., Rukmini (13 November 2014). "5% of Indian marriages are inter-caste: survey". The Hindu . Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  97. 1 2 "India's "Untouchables" Face Violence, Discrimination". National Geographic . 2 June 2003. Archived from the original on 20 February 2021. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  98. "Sex hell of Dalit women exposed". The Guardian . 9 May 2001. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  99. "Dalit tortured, forced to eat human excreta". The Times of India. 19 September 2014.
  100. Rajan, M. C. (14 January 2010). "Upper caste youths force Dalit to eat excreta in Tamil Nadu". India Today.
  101. "Man tortured, made to drink urine by cops". The Times of India .
  102. "Dalit youth assaulted, forced to eat human faeces in UP". Hindustan Times . 25 April 2015.
  103. Nair, Nithya (2 September 2015). "Dalit woman allegedly stripped in Madhya Pradesh, forced to consumed urine". India.com. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  104. "Families of 2 dalit grooms ostracized for riding horse as marriage ritual". The Times of India . 19 June 2014.
  105. "Dalit groom beaten up in M.P. village for riding a horse". The Hindu . Press Trust of India. 9 June 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  106. Dhar, Aarti (14 July 2014). "Dalit wedding fetes face feudal rage in Rajasthan". The Hindu .
  107. "Temple procession row: TN police nab 75 for torching Dalit houses". The Indian Express . 18 August 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  108. Sivaraman, R. (17 August 2015). "70 held for burning Dalit houses in Villupuram". The Hindu . Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  109. "Jat leaders in UP village deny ordering rape of Dalit sisters". Hindustan Times . 1 September 2015. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  110. Basu, Indrani (8 September 2015). "9 Things You Need To Know About The Khap 'Rape Order' in India". HuffPost . Retrieved 13 September 2015.
  111. Bahuguna, Ankush (28 August 2015). "A Khap Panchayat in UP Wants Two Dalit Sisters Raped Because Their Brother Eloped with a Married Woman". mensxp.com. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  112. Sahay, Anand Mohan. "Backward Muslims protest denial of burial". Rediff.com . Retrieved 6 March 2003.
  113. "'Anti-Brahmin' posts on social media: 5 more held for murder of Dalit lawyer in Kutch". The Indian Express . 28 September 2020. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  114. "The Indian Dalit man killed for eating in front of upper-caste men". BBC News . 19 May 2019. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  115. 1 2 3 4 Sampath, G. (23 August 2015). "Children of a different law". The Hindu . Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  116. "Centre notifies rules for amended SC/ST Act". The Hindu . 24 April 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  117. Ramachandran, Smriti Kak (16 April 2017). "States lag in setting up courts to address SC, ST grievances". Hindustan Times . Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  118. "Fighting caste discrimination is about changing attitude, than law". The Times of India . Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  119. "An Islamic or secular Pakistan?". Deutsche Welle. 26 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  120. "Bangladesh". United States Department of State . Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  121. S. Gurusamy. Dalit Empowerment in India . MJP Publisher; 11 June 2019. GGKEY:SW8XELLJGLC. p. 104–.
  122. Kesalu, Satri Veera; Srinivasulu, Vukkala (1 November 2019). "Dalits and Their Religious Identity in India: A Critical Look at Existing Practices". Contemporary Voice of Dalit. 11 (2): 94–106. doi:10.1177/2455328X18822909. ISSN   2455-328X. S2CID   150583258.
  123. Kumar, Anuj (1 November 2019). "Dalit women not allowed to enter temple". The Hindu . ISSN   0971-751X . Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  124. Sura, Ajay (8 January 2020). "Not allowed to enter temple, dalit minister tells Himachal Pradesh assembly". The Times of India. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  125. Arulselvan, S. (2 April 2016). "Resisting ritual repression and reclaiming social positions by Dalits in Tamilnadu: a critical discourse analysis of media text". Media Asia. 43 (2): 91–101. doi:10.1080/01296612.2016.1237459. ISSN   0129-6612. S2CID   131863641.
  126. Chandran, Rina (6 March 2020). "Denied in life, India's lower-caste Dalits fight for land in death". Reuters . Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  127. Nath, Suryakant (2013). "Gandhi's Harijan Padyatra in Orissa in 1934: Claims over a Contested Social Space". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 74: 564–570. ISSN   2249-1937. JSTOR   44158858.
  128. Rushdi, Aaliya. "In Kerala, Dalit students facing difficulties to get educated" . Retrieved 25 March 2010.
  129. Pansare, Govind (28 August 2015). "How history has systematically distorted the figure of Shivaji: Excerpt from Govind Pansare's book". Scroll.in.
  130. Chari, Mridula (3 January 2016). "Why lakhs of Indians celebrate the British victory over the Maratha Peshwas every New Year". Scroll.in.
  131. "Temples of Unmodern India". The Times of India . 4 June 2007. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  132. Ali, Mohammad (14 March 2015). "Denied temple access, Dalit converts to Islam". The Hindu . Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  133. T., Sathish G. (7 September 2015). "Dalits fume over fine on their women for entering temple in Karnataka". The Hindu . Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  134. Jha, Hari Bansh (October 2005). "Nepal's Downtrodden". Hinduism Today. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 31 January 2009.
  135. "Dalits 'barred' from entering temple". The Kathmandu Post. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  136. "Nepal: Dalits beaten up for entering temple". Rediff.com. Press Trust of India. 18 September 2006. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  137. Gary Tartakov (2003). Robinson, Rowena (ed.). Religious Conversion in India: Modes, Motivations, and Meanings. Oxford University Press. pp. 192–213. ISBN   978-0-19-566329-7 via Google Books.
  138. Christopher Queen (2015). Steven M. Emmanuel (ed.). A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 524–525. ISBN   978-1-119-14466-3 via Google Books.
  139. Skaria, A (2015). "Ambedkar, Marx and the Buddhist Question". Journal of South Asian Studies. 38 (3). Taylor & Francis: 450–452. doi: 10.1080/00856401.2015.1049726 ., Quote: "Here [Navayana Buddhism] there is not only a criticism of religion (most of all, Hinduism, but also prior traditions of Buddhism), but also of secularism, and that criticism is articulated moreover as a religion."
  140. Omvedt, Gail (2003). Buddhism in India: Challenging Brahmanism and Caste (3rd ed.). London/New Delhi/Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. pp. 2–15, 210–213.
  141. "Census GIS Household". Archived from the original on 6 July 2010.
  142. Teltumbde, Anand (2016). Dalits: Past, Present and Future. Taylor & Francis. pp. 57–59. ISBN   978-1-315-52644-7 via Google Books.
  143. Oberoi, Harjot (1994). The construction of religious boundaries: culture, identity, and diversity in the Sikh tradition. Chicago: Oxford University Press. p. 109. ISBN   978-0226615936 . Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  144. "Akali Dal demands inclusion of Jat Sikhs in OBC list". News East West. 23 December 2013.
  145. McLeod, W. H. (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Lanham: Scarecrow Press. p. 49. ISBN   978-0-81086-344-6 . Retrieved 30 July 2017 via Google Books.
  146. Jodhka, Surinder S (17 May 2002). "Caste and Untouchability in Rural Punjab". Economic and Political Weekly. 37 (19): 1822. JSTOR   4412102.
  147. "Punjabi". apnaorg.com.
  148. Cole, Owen (2010). Sikhism - An Introduction: Teach Yourself. John Murray Press. p. 51. ISBN   9781444131017 via Google Books.
  149. 1 2 Singh, Vikram Jit (18 February 2006). "Talhan scores for dalit rights". Tehelka. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014.
  150. Sangave 1980, pp. f63–124.
  151. Chapple, Christopher Key (2006). Jainism and Ecology: Nonviolence in the Web of Life. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 79. ISBN   978-81-208-2045-6.
  152. Nathuram Chandalia, Mewad men Veerwal Pravriti, pp. 220–21
  153. वीरवाल जैन समाज के गुरु की पुण्यतिथि मार्च में, Bhaskar News Network|31 December 2013
  154. "Latest Udaipur News 31/12/2013: वीरवाल जैन समाज के गुरु की पुण्यतिथि मार्च में – www.bhaskar.com". bhaskar.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  155. "dharm ke naam par desh tak bant gae: pahaadiya" धर्म के नाम पर देश तक बंट गए : पहाड़िया [Even the country was divided in the name of religion: Paharia] (in Hindi). 18 October 2013.
  156. "Dalit youth turns Jain monk". Jaipur. Abha Sharma DH News Service. 1 February 2005. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  157. "Dalit Engineer Becomes a Jain Monk". Ahimsa Times. June 2010.
  158. 'दिव्य महापुरुष थे आचार्य नानेश' Vinay N. Joshi on 14 June 2010,
  159. 'दाता' के दातार बन गए तारणहार, नवभारत टाइम्स, 20 September 2010
  160. Shyamlal (1997). From Higher Caste to Lower Caste: The Processes of Asprashyeekaran and the Myth of Sanskritization. Rawat Publications. pp. 129, 135.
  161. Shyamlal (1992). "Jain Movement and Socio-Religious Transformation of the 'Bhangis' of Jodhpur, Rajasthan". Indian Journal of Social Work. 53: 59–68. I01743
  162. Mohanty, Panchanan; Malik, Ramesh C.; Kasi, Eswarappa (2009). Ethnographic Discourse of the Other: Conceptual and methodological issues. Cambridge Scholars. pp. 39–116.
  163. 1 2 3 Sobin, George (2012). "Dalit Christians in India" (PDF). DalitStudies.org.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 November 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  164. Mosse, David (September 1996). "[no title cited]". The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 2 (3).[ full citation needed ]
  165. The Report of Conference Held at Madras. South Indian Missionary Congress. Madras, Tamil Nadu, IN. 1908.
  166. Dumont, Louis (1980). Homo Hierarchicus: The caste system and its implications (Complete Revised ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  167. 1 2 Louis, Prakash (2007). Caste-based discrimination and atrocities on Dalit Christians and the need for reservations (Report). Working Paper Series. Vol. II. New Delhi, IN: Indian Institute of Dalit Studies.
  168. "Indian Dalits find no refuge from caste in Christianity". BBC News. 14 September 2010.
  169. Dogar, Vidya Sagar (2000). Rural Christian Community in North West India. New Delhi, IN.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  170. Jose, Kananaikil. 1990. Scheduled Castes Converts and Social Disabilities: A survey of Tamil Nadu[ full citation needed ]
  171. Soutik Biswas (10 May 2016). "Why are many Indian Muslims seen as untouchable?". BBC News . Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  172. "Dalit Muslims". Outlook . 20 June 2002. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  173. "Recognized National Parties". Election Commission of India. 25 October 2021. Retrieved 11 December 2021.
  174. "Non-Dalits flock to RPI". Mumbai Mirror.
  175. "Dalit Panthers: Another View". Economic and Political Weekly. 9 (18): 715–716. 1974. ISSN   0012-9976. JSTOR   41497050.
  176. Madhavan, Narayanan (5 June 2016). "How Muhammad Ali inspired India's Dalits". Hindustan Times .
  177. "Madras HC orders ECI to consider VCK's request for star symbol". India TV News. 4 April 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  178. "How the VCK Emerged as More Than 'Just a Dalit Party' in the Tamil Nadu Elections". The Wire.
  179. Varghese, Anil (17 September 2015). "Nepal Dalit leader says Modi's stress on consensus has meant dilution in draft constitution". Scroll.in. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
  180. "10 parties register amendment proposals". The Kathmandu Post. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
  181. "Ranvir Sena banned and declared as a Terrorist Group". Daily News and Analysis. 3 June 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  182. Venkat, Vidya (18 August 2015). "Cobrapost film on Bihar Dalit massacres 'exposes' BJP links". The Hindu. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  183. "Nitish, Lalu and BJP in the dock again over Dalit massacres in Bihar". Tehelka. 27 August 2015. Archived from the original on 12 September 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  184. Verma, R.K., 1991. Caste and Bihar Politics. Economic and Political Weekly, pp.1142–1144.
  185. Kohli, Atul, ed. (2001). The success of India's democracy. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge University Press. p. 37. ISBN   978-0521805308 . Retrieved 12 September 2017 via Google Books.
  186. Sharma, Jagdish Chandra (2002). Indian prime ministership: a comprehensive study. New Delhi: Concept. p. 19. ISBN   9788170229247 . Retrieved 12 September 2017 via Google Books.
  187. Haqqi, Anwarul Haque, Indian Political Science Association (1986). Indian Democracy at the Crossroads I. New Delhi: Mittal Publications. p. 122 via Google Books.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  188. Brass, Paul R. (1994). The Politics of India since Independence (The new Cambridge history of India.) (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 249. ISBN   978-0521453622 via Google Books.
  189. Sharma, Jagdish Chandra (2002). Indian prime ministership: a comprehensive study. New Delhi: Concept. pp. 39–40. ISBN   9788170229247 via Google Books.
  190. Mirchandani, G.G. (2003). 320 Million Judges. Abhinav Publications. pp. 95–96. ISBN   9788170170617 . Retrieved 11 September 2017 via Google Books.
  191. "Niece vs aunt in battle for Jagjivan Ram legacy". The Indian Express . 20 March 2014.
  192. Pai, Sudha (1994). "Caste and Communal Mobilisation in the Electoral Politics of Uttar Pradesh". Indian Journal of Political Science. LV, No3 (July September 1994). Indian Political Science Association: 307–20.
  193. Raina, J. N. (30 May 2007). "Can Maya recreate another 'rainbow' in Delhi?". Asian Tribune. World Institute For Asian Studies. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  194. Stancati, Margherita; Agarwal, Vibhuti (16 February 2012). "17% of BSP votes came from Brahmins, according to a survey by the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies". The Wall Street Journal . Retrieved 18 September 2015.
  195. 1 2 Vij, Shivam (21 May 2009). "UP's Dalits Remind Mayawati: Democracy is a Beautiful". Kafila. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
  196. "Mayawati bets on Brahmin-Dalit card for U.P. polls". The Hindu . India. 14 March 2007. Archived from the original on 15 March 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  197. Sengupta, Somini (12 May 2007). "Brahmin Vote Helps Party of Low Caste Win in India". The New York Times . India. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  198. "The victory of caste arithmetic". Rediff.co.in. 11 May 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  199. "Why Mayawati is wooing the Brahmins". Rediff News. 28 March 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  200. Beckett, Paul (11 August 2008). "Mayawati Plans to Seek India's Premier Post". The Wall Street Journal . Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  201. Gilani, Iftikhar (20 June 2017). "KR Narayanan to RN Kovind — A tale of two Dalit Presidents". DNA India. Retrieved 10 July 2021.
  202. Harshe, Rajen (2008). "Thinking about Democracy, Identity Politics and Development in India". In Brar, Bhupinder; Kumar, Ashutosh; Ram, Ronki (eds.). Globalization and the Politics of Identity in India. Pearson Education India. pp. 205, 279. ISBN   978-8-13178-525-6 via Google Books.
  203. Mishra, Mayank (23 April 2014). "Deciphering the 'Dalit vote bank'". Business Standard. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  204. "All players eye Dalit vote bank". The Tribune. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  205. Kumar, Sanjay (20 March 2014). "The BJP's Dalit game plan". Mint.
  206. "KCR has betrayed Dalits: TDP". The Hindu . 4 January 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  207. "CPI(M) accused of sidelining Dalits". The Hindu . 19 January 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  208. "Central legislation of SC/ST sub-plan may be a reality soon". The New Indian Express. 29 August 2013. Archived from the original on 1 September 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  209. "Why They Remain on the Margins. Adivasis and Dalits have been deprived of a staggering Rs 5 lakh crore over three decades by successive governments". Archived from the original on 31 March 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  210. Sikand, Yoginder. "The 'Dalit Muslims' and the All-India Backward Muslim Morcha". indianet.nl. Retrieved 20 June 2008.
  211. "A Short history of immigration". BBC News . 2002. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  212. 1 2 Jones, Sam (11 November 2009). "Asian caste discrimination rife in UK, says report". The Guardian . London. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  213. Cohen, Nick (24 August 2009). "The secret scandal of Britain's caste system". The Guardian . Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  214. Nelson, Dean (31 March 2010). "India clashes with Britain over Equality Bill racism law" . The Daily Telegraph . London. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  215. "Does the caste system still linger in the UK?". BBC News . 12 March 2009. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  216. Suroor, Hasan (4 September 2010). "Caste discrimination – U.K. Dalits win the argument, nearly". The Hindu . Chennai, India. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  217. Government Equalities Office (1 December 2010). "Caste Discrimination and Harassment in Great Britain". Home Office, UK Government. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  218. 1 2 3 Datani, Pratik (13 August 2013). "Caste Discrimination Reforms in Britain". HuffPost . Retrieved 17 August 2013.
  219. Flood, Gavin. Briefing on Caste Legislation (PDF) (Report).
  220. "Dr Meena Dhanda – University of Wolverhampton". wlv.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 21 October 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  221. Pimenta, T., UK: Government Decides Against Writing Caste into the Equality Act 2010, Boyes Turner, accessed 29 September 2022
  222. Jones, Sam (30 November 2012). "Campaigners urge government to tackle caste discrimination in UK". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  223. 1 2 3 Coward, Harold G.; Hinnells, John R.; Williams, Raymond Brady (1 February 2012). The South Asian Religious Diaspora in Britain, Canada, and the United States. State University of New York Press. p. 133. ISBN   978-0-7914-9302-1.
  224. Ballard 1994, p. 110.
  225. Ballard 1994, pp. 110–11.
  226. Takhar 2005, p. 133.
  227. Human rights watch (2001) Caste discrimination: A global concern. Human Rights Commission. p. 22
  228. Singh, Ramindar (10 January 2012). "Multiculturalism: The Rise of Mixed-marriage Britain, Islam and Pluralism". Newageislam.com. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  229. 1 2 Davies, William D.; Dubinsky, Stanley (9 August 2018). Language Conflict and Language Rights: Ethnolinguistic Perspectives on Human Conflict. Cambridge University Press. p. 257. The largest cohort of Roma is hypothesized to have entered the Punjab region of present-day Pakistan between 1001 and 1026 to fight on behalf of Hindu rulers against incursions of the Islamic Ghaznavid dynasty. Their motivation for doing so may have been a promise of promotion in caste (having at that time been associated with the Dalit caste, i.e. "untouchables").
  230. Nelson, Dean (3 December 2012). "European Roma descended from Indian 'untouchables', genetic study shows" . The Daily Telegraph . Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  231. Zwick-Maitreyi, M., Soundararajan, T., Dar, N., Bheel, R.F., and Balakrishnan, P. (2018) "Caste in the United States. A Survey of Caste among South Asian Americans." Equality Labs, USA. 28
  232. Lerche, Jens. "Transnational Advocacy Networks and Affirmative Action for Dalits in India."
  233. Zwick-Maitreyi, M., Soundararajan, T., Dar, N., Bheel, R.F., and Balakrishnan, P. (2018) "Caste in the United States. A Survey of Caste among South Asian Americans." Equality Labs, USA. 8–10
  234. "The US isn't safe from the trauma of caste bias" . Retrieved 21 June 2023.
  235. "Case to Watch: Cisco lawsuit tests anti-bias laws' application to Indian caste system | Business Information & News | FE | Westlaw Today". today.westlaw.com. Retrieved 21 June 2023.
  236. "California sues Cisco for bias based on Indian caste system". AP NEWS. July 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2023.
  237. "Meena Kandasamy: Brief Introduction to Dalit Literature". Muse India. Archived from the original on 7 January 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2008.
  238. "Dohaara Kakkayya (ಡೋಹಾರ ಕಕ್ಕಯ್ಯ)". Lingayat Religion. Retrieved 12 May 2023.
  239. Satchidanandan, K (25 January 2013). "Mainstreaming the subaltern". Frontline. Vol. 30, no. 01.
  240. Gundappa, Dr. (2019). "Emergence of Dalit Literature in India" (PDF). Shodhmanthan. X (3): 27–28. ISSN   0976-5255.
  241. M.S., Thimmanaik (2019). "Dalit Literature and Culture in Marginalized Society" (PDF). Shodhmanthan. X (3): 104–105. ISSN   0976-5255.
  242. Issues of Language and Representation:Babu Rao Bagul Handbook of twentieth-century literatures of India, Editors: Nalini Natarajan, Emmanuel Sampath Nelson. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1996. ISBN   0-313-28778-3. Page 368.
  243. Mother 1970 Indian short stories, 1900–2000, by E. V. Ramakrishnan. Sahitya Akademi. Page 217, Page 409 (Biography).
  244. Jevha Mi Jat Chorali Hoti (1963) Encyclopaedia of Indian literature vol. 2. Editors Amaresh Datta. Sahitya Akademi, 1988. ISBN   81-260-1194-7. Page 1823.
  245. "Of art, identity, and politics". The Hindu . 23 January 2003. Archived from the original on 2 July 2003.
  246. Dalit literature is not down and out any more [ permanent dead link ] Times of India , 7 July 1989
  247. Mishra, Jugal Kishore. "A Critical study of Dalit Literature in India" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2008.
  248. Taneja, Nidhima (30 April 2022). "Meet Chuni Kotal, the Dalit Advasi woman from Bengal who battled stigma in Indian education". ThePrint. Retrieved 7 May 2023.
  249. admin (9 August 2016). "A Brief Introductory Overview of Bengali Dalit Literature – Y – The ILF Samanvay Blog" . Retrieved 7 May 2023.
  250. Buck, David C.; M, Kannan (9 October 2020), Kannan, M. (ed.), "Introduction", Tamil dalit literature : My own experience, Mondes Indiens/South Asia, Pondichéry: Institut Français de Pondichéry, pp. vii–xxxviii, ISBN   979-10-365-4987-8 , retrieved 6 May 2023
  251. Mangalam, B. (1 January 2007). "Tamil Dalit literature: an overview". Language Forum. 33 (1): 73–85.
  252. Geetha, Krishnamurthy Alamelu (1 August 2011). "From Panchamars to Dalit". Prose Studies. 33 (2): 117–131. doi:10.1080/01440357.2011.632220. ISSN   0144-0357. S2CID   162139858.
  253. Bharathi, Thummapudi (2008). A history of Telugu Dalit literature. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications. ISBN   978-81-7835-688-4. OCLC   276229077.
  254. PURUSHOTHAM, K (2010). "Evolution of Telugu Dalit Literature". Economic and Political Weekly. 45 (22): 55–63. ISSN   0012-9976. JSTOR   27807079.
  255. "Dalit Theatre in Gujarati: Trends, Patterns, Differences". Sahapedia. Retrieved 6 May 2023.
  256. rti_admin (31 January 2012). "Gujarati Dalit Literature: An Overview". Round Table India. Retrieved 6 May 2023.
  257. "Tale of Dalit Sahitya in Gujarati literature". The Times of India. 25 February 2018. ISSN   0971-8257 . Retrieved 6 May 2023.
  258. Malik, Suratha Kumar (2021). "Genesis, Historicity and Persistence of Dalit Protest Literature and Movements in Odisha". Contemporary Voice of Dalit. 13 (1): 81–94. doi:10.1177/2455328X20987370. ISSN   2455-328X. S2CID   233926734.
  259. KUMAR, RAJ (21 September 2023). "Caste and the literary imagination in the context of Odia literature: a reading of Akhila Nayak's Bheda". Dalit Literatures in India. doi:10.4324/9781315684314. ISBN   9781315684314 . Retrieved 6 May 2023.
  260. "Amazon.com: Books". Amazon.
  261. "Lesson – 4 : P10144 – The Novels of K. Daniel".
  262. Ghosh, Avijit (6 April 2008). "Dalits strive to make it in Hindi, Bhojpuri films". The Times of India . Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  263. "Dalit Representation in Bollywood". Mainstream Weekly. 4 May 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  264. "Dalits in Bollywood: A skewed equation nobody is willing to talk about". Merinews. 21 September 2011. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  265. Dhaliwal, Nirpal (16 December 2010). "How Bollywood is starting to deal with India's caste system". The Guardian . Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  266. Naig, Udhav (27 July 2015). "Caste references polarise Tamil film fans". The Hindu . Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  267. Grudgings, Stuart (18 August 2009). "India is cool in Brazil thanks to hot 'novela'". Reuters . Retrieved 29 April 2021.
  268. Rai, Swapnil; Straubhaar, Joseph (28 June 2016). "BRICS| Road to India—A Brazilian Love Story: BRICS, Migration, and Cultural Flows in Brazil's Caminho das Indias". International Journal of Communication. 10: 17. ISSN   1932-8036.
  269. Shinde, Prem K. Dalits and Human Rights: Dalits: security and rights implications. p. 54.
  270. 1 2 Gorringe 2005, p. 10.
  271. Jain 2005, p. 322.
  272. Jain 2005, p. 306.
  273. Jeremiah, Anderson H. M. (14 May 2013). Community and Worldview Among Paraiyars of South India: 'Lived' Religion. A&C Black. ISBN   978-1-4411-7881-7.
  274. Henry, Nikhila (6 September 2015). "The rising rage against in-campus policing". The Hindu . Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  275. Shyamlal (1 January 1992). The Bhangi: A Sweeper Caste, Its Socio-economic Portraits : with Special Reference to Jodhpur City. Popular Prakashan. p. 25. ISBN   978-81-7154-550-6.

Sources

Further reading