Dalmatia

Last updated
Dalmatia

Dalmacija
Dalmatia (Kotor).svg
  •   Dalmatia proper
  • Sometimes regarded as Dalmatia:
  (striped) Gračac municipality
Country Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia
Largest city Split
Area
2
  Total12,158 km2 (4,694 sq mi)
Population
 (2011) 2
  Total852,068
  Density70/km2 (180/sq mi)
^ Dalmatia is not an official subdivision of the Republic of Croatia; it constitutes a historical region only.
^ The figures are an approximation based on statistical data for the four southernmost Croatian Counties (Zadar without Gračac, Šibenik-Knin, Split-Dalmatia, Dubrovnik-Neretva). [1] [2]

Dalmatia ( /dælˈmʃə,-tiə/ ; Croatian : Dalmacija [dǎlmaːtsija] ; Italian : Dalmazia; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, [3] alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia, and Istria.

Contents

Dalmatia is a narrow belt of the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south. The hinterland (Dalmatian Zagora) ranges in width from fifty kilometres in the north, to just a few kilometres in the south; it is mostly covered by the rugged Dinaric Mountains. Seventy-nine islands (and about 500 islets) run parallel to the coast, the largest (in Dalmatia) being Brač, Pag, and Hvar. The largest city is Split, followed by Zadar, Dubrovnik, and Šibenik.

The name of the region stems from an Illyrian tribe called the Dalmatae, who lived in the area in classical antiquity. Later it became a Roman province, and as result a Romance culture emerged, along with the now-extinct Dalmatian language, later largely replaced with related Venetian. With the arrival of Croats to the area in the 8th century, who occupied most of the hinterland, Croatian and Romance elements began to intermix in language and culture.

After the Medieval Kingdom of Croatia fell in 1102, its cities and lands were often conquered by, or switched allegiance to, the kingdoms of the region during the Middle Ages. The longest-lasting rule was the one of the Republic of Venice, which controlled most of Dalmatia between 1420 and 1797, with the exception of the small but stable Republic of Ragusa (1358–1808) in the south. Between 1815 and 1918, it was a province of the Austrian Empire known as the Kingdom of Dalmatia. After the Austro-Hungarian defeat in the First World War, Dalmatia was split between the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes which controlled most of it, and the Kingdom of Italy which held several smaller parts, and after World War II, the Socialist Republic of Croatia as a part of Yugoslavia took complete control over the area. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, Dalmatia became a part of an independent Croatian state.

Name

The name Dalmatia derives from the name of the Dalmatae tribe, which is connected with the Illyrian word delme meaning "sheep", compare the Albanian word for sheep, delmë. [4] Its Latin form Dalmatia gave rise to its current English name. In the Venetian language, once dominant in the area, it is spelled Dalmàssia, and in modern Italian Dalmazia. The modern Croatian spelling is Dalmacija, pronounced  [dǎlmaːt͡sija] .

Dalmatia is referenced in the New Testament at 2 Timothy 4:10, so its name has been translated in many of the world's languages.

Definition

In antiquity the Roman province of Dalmatia was much larger than the present-day Split-Dalmatia County, stretching from Istria in the north to modern-day Albania in the south. [5] Dalmatia signified not only a geographical unit, but was an entity based on common culture and settlement types, a common narrow eastern Adriatic coastal belt, Mediterranean climate, sclerophyllous vegetation of the Illyrian province, Adriatic carbonate platform, and karst geomorphology.[ citation needed ]

Modern area

The extent of the Kingdom of Dalmatia (blue) which existed within Austria-Hungary until 1918, on a map of modern-day Croatia and Montenegro Dalmatia (Kingdom).svg
The extent of the Kingdom of Dalmatia (blue) which existed within Austria-Hungary until 1918, on a map of modern-day Croatia and Montenegro

Dalmatia is today a historical region only, not formally instituted in Croatian law. Its exact extent is therefore uncertain and subject to public perception. According to Lena Mirošević and Josip Faričić of the University of Zadar: [6]

...the modern perception of Dalmatia is mainly based on the territorial extent of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia, with the exception of Rab island, which is geographically related to the Kvarner area and functionally to the LittoralGorski Kotar area, and with the exception of the Bay of Kotor, which was annexed to another state (Montenegro) after World War I. Simultaneously, the southern part of Lika and upper Pounje, which were not a part of Austrian Dalmatia, became a part of Zadar County. From the present-day administrative and territorial point of view, Dalmatia comprises the four Croatian littoral counties with seats in Zadar, Šibenik, Split, and Dubrovnik.

"Dalmatia" is therefore generally perceived to extend approximately to the borders of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia. However, due to territorial and administrative changes over the past century, the perception can be seen to have altered somewhat with regard to certain areas, and sources conflict as to their being part of the region in modern times:

Culture and ethnicity

The inhabitants of Dalmatia are culturally subdivided into two groups. The urban families of the coastal cities, commonly known as Fetivi, [16] are culturally akin to the inhabitants of the Dalmatian islands (known derogatorily as Boduli). The two are together distinct, in the Mediterranean aspects of their culture, from the more numerous inhabitants of the Zaleđe, the hinterland. Referred to (sometimes derogatorily) as the Vlaji, their name originated from the Vlachs with whom they have no ethnical connection. [17] The latter are historically more influenced by Ottoman culture, merging almost seamlessly at the border with the Herzegovinian Croats and southern Bosnia and Herzegovina in general. Population of present-day Dalmatia is descended from Croats who assimilated with already existing Romanized Illyrians, upon their arrival. [18]

The former two groups (inhabitants of the islands and the cities) historically included many Venetian and Italian speakers, many of whom identified as Italians (esp. after the Italian unification). Their presence, relative to those identifying as Croats, decreased dramatically over the course of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century. The Italian speakers constituted (according to the Italian linguist Bartoli) nearly one third of Dalmatians in the second half of the 18th century. [19] According to the Austrian census it had decreased to 12.5% in 1865 and 3.1% in 1890. [20] There remains, however, a strong cultural, and, in part, ancestral heritage among the natives of the cities and islands, who today almost exclusively identify as Croats, but retain a sense of regional identity.

Geography and climate

The ancient core of the city of Split, the largest city in Dalmatia, built in and around the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian Split center from the air 1.jpg
The ancient core of the city of Split, the largest city in Dalmatia, built in and around the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian
Rocky beach at Brac island (Croatia), in the Adriatic Sea, during the summer Rocky beach at Brac island, in the Adriatic Sea within Croatia.jpg
Rocky beach at Brač island (Croatia), in the Adriatic Sea, during the summer
The historic core of the city of Dubrovnik, in southern Dalmatia Dubrovnik crop.jpg
The historic core of the city of Dubrovnik, in southern Dalmatia

Most of the area is covered by the Dinaric Alps mountain range running from north-west to south-east. On the coasts the climate is Mediterranean, while further inland it is moderate Mediterranean. In the mountains, winters are frosty and snowy, while summers are hot and dry. To the south winters are milder. Over the centuries many forests have been cut down and replaced with bush and brush. There is evergreen vegetation on the coast. The soils are generally poor, except on the plains where areas with natural grass, fertile soils, and warm summers provide an opportunity for tillage. Elsewhere, land cultivation is mostly unsuccessful because of the mountains, hot summers, and poor soils, although olives and grapes flourish. Energy resources are scarce. Electricity is mainly produced by hydropower stations. There is a considerable amount of bauxite.[ citation needed ]

The largest Dalmatian mountains are Dinara, Mosor, Svilaja, Biokovo, Moseć, Veliki Kozjak, and Mali Kozjak. The regional geographical unit of historical Dalmatia[ clarification needed ] – the coastal region between Istria and the Gulf of Kotor – includes the Orjen mountains with the highest peak in Montenegro, 1894 m. In present-day Dalmatia, the highest peak is Dinara (1913 m), which is not a coastal mountain, while the highest coastal Dinaric mountains are on Biokovo (Sv. Jure, 1762 m) and Velebit (Vaganski vrh, 1757 m), [21] although the Vaganski vrh itself is located in Lika-Senj County. [22]

The largest Dalmatian islands are Brač, Korčula, Dugi Otok, Mljet, Vis, Hvar, Pag and Pašman. The major rivers are Zrmanja, Krka, Cetina, and Neretva.

The Adriatic Sea's high water quality, [23] along with the immense number of coves, islands, and channels, makes Dalmatia an attractive place for nautical races, nautical tourism, and tourism in general. Dalmatia also includes several national parks that are tourist attractions: Paklenica karst river, Kornati archipelago, Krka river rapids, and Mljet island.

Administrative division

The area of Dalmatia roughly corresponds to Croatia's four southernmost counties, listed here north to south: [1]

County County seatArea (km2)Population (2011 census)
Zadar County Zadar 3,642170,017
Šibenik-Knin County Šibenik 2,939109,375
Split-Dalmatia County Split 4,534454,798
Dubrovnik-Neretva County Dubrovnik 1,783122,568
Total12,898857,743

Other large Dalmatian cities include Biograd, Kaštela, Sinj, Solin, Omiš, Knin, Metković, Makarska, Trogir, Ploče, and Imotski.

History

Antiquity

Province of Dalmatia during the Roman Empire REmpire Dalmatia.svg
Province of Dalmatia during the Roman Empire
Independent Dalmatia - Extent of Marcellinus' Control (454-468) and Julius Nepos' Control (468-480) Marcellinus Dalmatia.jpg
Independent Dalmatia - Extent of Marcellinus' Control (454–468) and Julius Nepos' Control (468–480)

Dalmatia's name is derived from the name of an Illyrian tribe called the Dalmatae who lived in the area of the eastern Adriatic coast in the 1st millennium BC. It was part of the Illyrian Kingdom between the 4th century BC and the Illyrian Wars (220, 168 BC) when the Roman Republic established its protectorate south of the river Neretva. The name "Dalmatia" was in use probably from the second half of the 2nd century BC and certainly from the first half of the 1st century BC, defining a coastal area of the eastern Adriatic between the Krka and Neretva rivers. [24] It was slowly incorporated into Roman possessions until the Roman province of Illyricum was formally established around 32–27 BC. In 9 AD the Dalmatians raised the last in a series of revolts [25] together with the Pannonians, but it was finally crushed and, in 10 AD, Illyricum was split into two provinces, Pannonia and Dalmatia, which spread into larger area inland to cover all of the Dinaric Alps and most of the eastern Adriatic coast. [26]

The historian Theodore Mommsen wrote in his book, The Provinces of the Roman Empire, that all Dalmatia was fully romanized by the 4th century AD. However, analysis of archaeological material from that period has shown that the process of Romanization was rather selective. While urban centers, both coastal and inland, were almost completely romanized, the situation in the countryside was completely different. Despite the Illyrians being subject to a strong process of acculturation, they continued to speak their native language, worship their own gods and traditions, and follow their own social-political tribal organization which was adapted to Roman administration and political structure only in some necessities. [27]

The collapse of the Western Roman Empire, with the beginning of the Migration Period, left the region subject to Gothic rulers Odoacer and Theodoric the Great. They ruled Dalmatia from 480 to 535 AD, when it was restored to the Eastern (Byzantine) Empire by Justinian I.[ citation needed ]

Middle Ages

The Middle Ages in Dalmatia were a period of intense rivalry among neighboring powers: the waning Byzantine Empire, the Kingdom of Croatia (later in a personal union with Hungary), the Bosnian Kingdom, and the Venetian Republic. Dalmatia at the time consisted of the coastal cities functioning much like city-states, with extensive autonomy, but in mutual conflict and without control of the rural hinterland (the Zagora). Ethnically, Dalmatia started out as a Roman region, with a romance culture that began to develop independently, forming the now-extinct Dalmatian language.

9th century Dalmatian principalities, 9th century.png
9th century

In the Early Medieval period, Byzantine Dalmatia was ravaged by an Avar invasion that destroyed its capital, Salona, in 639 AD, an event that allowed for the settlement of the nearby Diocletian's Palace in Spalatum (Split) by Salonitans, greatly increasing the importance of the city. The Avars were followed by the great South Slavic migrations. [28]

The Slavs, loosely allied with the Avars, permanently settled the region in the first half of the 7th century AD and remained its predominant ethnic group ever since. The Croats soon formed their own realm: the Principality of Dalmatian Croatia ruled by native Princes of Guduscan origin. The meaning of the geographical term "Dalmatia" now shrank to the coastal cities and their immediate hinterland. These cities were the romance-speaking Dalmatian city-states and remained influential as they were well fortified and maintained their connection with the Byzantine Empire. The original name of the cities was Jadera, Spalatum, Crespa, Arba, Tragurium, Vecla, Ragusium and Cattarum. The language and the laws were initially Latin, but after a few centuries they developed their own neo-Latin language (the "Dalmatico"), that lasted until the 19th century. The cities were maritime centres with a huge commerce mainly with the Italian peninsula and with the growing Republic of Venice. The two communities were somewhat hostile at first, but as the Croats became Christianized this tension increasingly subsided. A degree of cultural mingling soon took place, in some enclaves stronger, in others weaker, as Slavic influence and culture was more accentuated in Ragusa, Spalatum, and Tragurium.

In about 925 AD, Duke Tomislav was crowned, establishing the Kingdom of Croatia, and extending his influence further southwards to Zachlumia. As an ally of the Byzantine Empire, the King was given the status of Protector of Dalmatia, and became its de facto ruler.

An engraving of the seaward walls of the city of Split by Robert Adam, 1764. The walls were originally built for the Roman Diocletian's Palace. SPLIT-Adam S front view.jpg
An engraving of the seaward walls of the city of Split by Robert Adam, 1764. The walls were originally built for the Roman Diocletian's Palace.

In the High Medieval period, the Byzantine Empire was no longer able to maintain its power consistently in Dalmatia, and was finally rendered impotent so far west by the Fourth Crusade in 1204. The Venetian Republic, on the other hand, was in the ascendant, while the Kingdom of Croatia became increasingly influenced by Hungary to the north, being absorbed into it via personal union in 1102. Thus, these two factions became involved in a struggle in this area, intermittently controlling it as the balance shifted. During the reign of King Emeric, the Dalmatian cities separated from Hungary by a treaty. [29] A consistent period of Hungarian rule in Dalmatia was ended with the Mongol invasion of Hungary in 1241. The Mongols severely impaired the feudal state, so much so that that same year, King Béla IV had to take refuge in Dalmatia, as far south as the Klis fortress. The Mongols attacked the Dalmatian cities for the next few years but eventually withdrew without major success.

In the south, due to its protected location, Kotor became a major city for the salt trade. The area flourished during the 14th century under the rule of Serbian emperor Dušan the Mighty, who was notorious for his aggressive law enforcement, and made the Bay of Kotor a particularly safe place for doing business. [30] In 1389 Tvrtko I, the founder of the Bosnian Kingdom, was able to control the Adriatic littoral between Kotor and Šibenik, and even claimed control over the northern coast up to Rijeka, and his own independent ally, Dubrovnik (Ragusa). This was only temporary, as Hungary and the Venetians continued their struggle over Dalmatia after Tvrtko's death in 1391. By this time, the whole Hungarian and Croatian Kingdom was facing increasing internal difficulties, as a 20-year civil war ensued between the Capetian House of Anjou from the Kingdom of Naples, and King Sigismund of the House of Luxembourg. During the war, the losing contender, Ladislaus of Naples, sold his "rights" on Dalmatia to the Venetian Republic for a mere 100,000 ducats. The much more centralized Republic came to control all of Dalmatia by the year 1420, it was to remain under Venetian rule for 377 years (1420–1797). [31]

Early modern period (1420–1815)

Map of the Republic of Ragusa, dated 1678 Map of Ragusa.jpg
Map of the Republic of Ragusa, dated 1678

From 1420 to 1797 the Republic of Venice controlled most of Dalmatia, calling it Esclavonia in the 15th century [32] with the southern enclave, the Bay of Kotor, being called Albania Veneta . Venetian was the commercial lingua franca in the Mediterranean at that time, and it heavily influenced Dalmatian and to a lesser degree coastal Croatian and Albanian.

The southern city of Ragusa (Dubrovnik) became de facto independent in 1358 through the Treaty of Zadar when Venice relinquished its suzerainty over it to Louis I of Hungary. In 1481, Ragusa switched allegiance to the Ottoman Empire. This gave its tradesmen advantages such as access to the Black Sea, and the Republic of Ragusa was the fiercest competitor to Venice's merchants in the 15th and 16th centuries.

Ottoman Bosnia at its peak territorial extent just before the Morean War in 1684 Bosnia Eyalet, Central europe 1683.png
Ottoman Bosnia at its peak territorial extent just before the Morean War in 1684

The Republic of Venice was also one of the powers most hostile to the Ottoman Empire's expansion, and participated in many wars against it. As the Ottomans took control of the hinterland, many Christians took refuge in the coastal cities of Dalmatia. The border between the Dalmatian hinterland and the Ottoman Bosnia and Herzegovina greatly fluctuated until the Morean War, when the Venetian capture of Knin and Sinj set much of the borderline at its current position. [33]

Dalmatian possessions of the Republic of Venice in 1797 Republic of Venice 1796.png
Dalmatian possessions of the Republic of Venice in 1797

After the Great Turkish War and the Peace of Passarowitz, more peaceful times made Dalmatia experience a period of certain economic and cultural growth in the 18th century, with the re-establishment of trade and exchange with the hinterland. This period was abruptly interrupted with the fall of the Republic of Venice in 1797. Napoleon's troops stormed the region and ended the independence of the Republic of Ragusa as well, saving it from occupation by the Russian Empire and Montenegro.

In 1805, Napoleon created his Kingdom of Italy around the Adriatic Sea, annexing to it the former Venetian Dalmatia from Istria to Kotor. In 1808 he annexed to this Italian Kingdom the just conquered Republic of Ragusa. A year later in 1809 he removed the Venetian Dalmatia from his Kingdom of Italy and created the Illyrian Provinces, which were annexed to France, and created his marshal Nicolas Soult Duke of Dalmatia.

Napoleon's rule in Dalmatia was marked with war and high taxation, which caused several rebellions. On the other hand, French rule greatly contributed to Croatian national awakening (the first newspaper in Croatian was published then in Zadar, the Il Regio Dalmata – Kraglski Dalmatin ), the legal system and infrastructure were finally modernized somewhat in Dalmatia, and the educational system flourished. French rule brought a lot of improvements in infrastructure; many roads were built or reconstructed. Napoleon himself blamed Marshal Auguste Marmont, the governor of Dalmatia, that too much money was spent. However, in 1813, the Habsburgs once again declared war on France and, by the following year, had restored control over Dalmatia.

Nineteenth century

At the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Dalmatia was granted as a province to the Emperor of Austria. It was officially known as the Kingdom of Dalmatia.

Map of Dalmatia, Croatia, and Sclavonia (Slavonia). Engraved by Weller for the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge under the Supervision of Charles Knight, dated January 1, 1852. Dalmatia is the area detailed in the smaller map annexed map on the right. Dalmatia 1852.JPG
Map of Dalmatia, Croatia, and Sclavonia (Slavonia). Engraved by Weller for the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge under the Supervision of Charles Knight, dated January 1, 1852. Dalmatia is the area detailed in the smaller map annexed map on the right.

In 1848, the Croatian Assembly (Sabor) published the People's Requests, in which they requested among other things the abolition of serfdom and the unification of Dalmatia and Croatia. The Dubrovnik Municipality was the most outspoken of all the Dalmatian communes in its support for unification with Croatia. A letter was sent from Dubrovnik to Zagreb with pledges to work for this idea. In 1849, Dubrovnik continued to lead the Dalmatian cities in the struggle for unification. A large-scale campaign was launched in the Dubrovnik paper L'Avvenire (The Future) based on a clearly formulated programme: the federal system for the Habsburg territories, the inclusion of Dalmatia into Croatia and the Slavic brotherhood. The president of the council of Kingdom of Dalmatia was the politician Baron Vlaho Getaldić.

In the same year, the first issue of the Dubrovnik almanac appeared, Flower of the National Literature (Dubrovnik, cvijet narodnog književstva), in which Petar Preradović published his noted poem "To Dubrovnik". This and other literary and journalistic texts, which continued to be published, contributed to the awakening of the national consciousness reflected in efforts to introduce the Croatian language into schools and offices, and to promote Croatian books. The Emperor Franz Joseph brought the so-called Imposed Constitution which prohibited the unification of Dalmatia and Croatia and also any further political activity with this end in view. The political struggle of Dubrovnik to be united with Croatia, which was intense throughout 1848–49, did not succeed at that time.

In 1861 was the meeting of the first Dalmatian Assembly, with representatives from Dubrovnik. Representatives of Kotor came to Dubrovnik to join the struggle for unification with Croatia. The citizens of Dubrovnik gave them a festive welcome, flying Croatian flags from the ramparts and exhibiting the slogan: Ragusa with Kotor. The Kotorans elected a delegation to go to Vienna; Dubrovnik nominated Niko Pucić, who went to Vienna to demand not only the unification of Dalmatia with Croatia, but also the unification of all Croatian territories under one common Assembly. During this period, the Habsburgs carried out an aggressive anti-Italian policy through a forced slavization of the region.

It was stated during the Council of Austrians Ministers, on November 12, 1866: [34]

“His Majesty -Franz Joseph- has expressed the precise order that we decisively oppose the influence of the Italian element still present in some Crown lands, and to aim unsparingly and without the slightest compunction at the Germanization or Slavicization – depending on the circumstances – of the areas in question, through a suitable entrustment of posts to political magistrates and teachers, as well as through the influence of the press in South Tyrol, Dalmatia, and the Adriatic Coast.”

Twentieth century

In 1905 a dispute arose in the Austrian Reichsrat over whether Austria should pay for Dalmatia. It has been argued that in the conclusion of the so-called " April Laws " is written "given by Banus Count Keglevich of Buzin ", which explained the historical affiliation of Dalmatia to Hungary. [35] Two years later Dalmatia elected representatives to the Austrian Reichsrat.

Dalmatia was a strategic region during World War I that both Italy and Serbia intended to seize from Austria-Hungary. Italy joined the Triple Entente Allies in 1915 upon agreeing to the London Pact that guaranteed Italy the right to annex a large portion of Dalmatia in exchange for Italy's participation on the Allied side. From 5–6 November 1918, Italian forces were reported to have reached Lissa, Lagosta, Sebenico, and other localities on the Dalmatian coast. [36] By the end of hostilities in November 1918, the Italian military had seized control of the entire portion of Dalmatia that had been guaranteed to Italy by the London Pact and by 17 November had seized Rijeka as well. [37] In 1918, Admiral Enrico Millo declared himself Italy's Governor of Dalmatia. [37] Famous Italian nationalist Gabriele d'Annunzio supported the seizure of Dalmatia, and proceeded to Zadar in an Italian warship in December 1918. [38] However, in spite of the guarantees of the London Pact to Italy of a large portion of Dalmatia and Italian military occupation of claimed territories of Dalmatia, during the peace settlement negotiations of 1919 to 1920 the Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson that advocated self-determination of nations took precedence, with Italy only being permitted to annex Zadar from Dalmatia, while the rest of Dalmatia was to be part of Yugoslavia.

At the end of the First World War, the Austrian Empire disintegrated, and Dalmatia was again split between the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) which controlled most of it, and the Kingdom of Italy which held small portions of northern Dalmatia around Zadar and the islands of Cres, Lošinj, and Lastovo. Italy entered the First World War in a territorial gamble, mostly to gain Dalmatia. But Italy got only a small part of its pretensions, so Dalmatia mostly stayed Yugoslav until Benito Mussolini invaded Yugoslavia in 1941 and occupied the region.

In 1922, the territory of the former Kingdom of Dalmatia was divided into two provinces, the District of Split (Splitska oblast), with its capital in Split, and the District of Dubrovnik (Dubrovačka oblast), with its capital in Dubrovnik. In 1929, the Littoral Banovina (Primorska Banovina), a province of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, was formed. Its capital was Split, and it included most of Dalmatia and parts of present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. The southern parts of Dalmatia were in Zeta Banovina, from the Gulf of Kotor to Pelješac peninsula including Dubrovnik. In 1939, Littoral Banovina was joined with Sava Banovina (and with smaller parts of other banovinas) to form a new province named the Banovina of Croatia. The same year, the ethnic Croatian areas of the Zeta Banovina from the Gulf of Kotor to Pelješac, including Dubrovnik, were merged with a new Banovina of Croatia.

During World War II, in 1941, Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, Hungary, and Bulgaria occupied Yugoslavia, redrawing their borders to include former parts of the Yugoslavian state. A new Nazi puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), was created, and Fascist Italy was given some parts of the Dalmatian coast, notably around Zadar and Split, as well as many of the area's islands. The remaining parts of Dalmatia became part of the NDH. Many Croats moved from the Italian-occupied area and took refuge in the satellite state of Croatia, which became the battleground for a guerrilla war between the Axis and the Yugoslav Partisans. Following the surrender of Italy in 1943, most of Italian-controlled Dalmatia was taken over by German forces and reverted to control under the puppet Independent State of Croatia. Zadar was razed by the Allies during World War II, starting the exodus of its Italian population. After WWII, Dalmatia became part of the People's Republic of Croatia, part of the SFR Yugoslavia (then called the Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia).

The territory of former Kingdom of Dalmatia was divided between two federal Republics of Yugoslavia and most of the territory went to Croatia, leaving only the Bay of Kotor to Montenegro. When Yugoslavia dissolved in 1991, those borders were retained and remain in force. During the Croatian war of Independence, most of Dalmatia was a battleground between the Croatian government and the Yugoslav People's Army, which aided the local Serb rebels, with much of the northern part of the region around Knin and the far South around, but not including, Dubrovnik being placed under the control of Serb forces. Croatia did regain the southern territories in 1992 but did not regain the north until 1995.

Cities by population

  1. Split (178,102)
  2. Zadar (75,082)
  3. Šibenik (46,332)
  4. Dubrovnik (42,615)

See also

Related Research Articles

Dalmatian or Dalmatic is an extinct Romance language that was spoken in the Dalmatia region of present-day Croatia, and as far south as Kotor in Montenegro [needs citation]. The name refers to a tribe of the Illyrian linguistic group, Dalmatae. The Ragusan dialect of Dalmatian, the most studied prestige dialect, was the official language of the Republic of Ragusa for much of its medieval history until it was gradually supplanted by other local languages.

Zadar City in Zadar County, Croatia

Zadar is the oldest continuously-inhabited Croatian city. It is situated on the Adriatic Sea, at the northwestern part of Ravni Kotari region. Zadar serves as the seat of Zadar County and of the wider northern Dalmatian region. The city proper covers 25 km2 (9.7 sq mi) with a population of 75,082 in 2011, making it the second-largest city of the region of Dalmatia and the fifth-largest city in the country.

Split-Dalmatia County County in southern Croatia

Split-Dalmatia County is the central-southern Dalmatian county in Croatia. The administrative center is Split. The population of the county is 455,242 (2011). The land area is 4540 km2.

Prevlaka Peninsula in Croatia

Prevlaka is a small peninsula in southern Croatia, near the border with Montenegro, at the entrance to the Bay of Kotor on the eastern Adriatic coast.

Korčula island in Croatia

Korčula is a Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea. It has an area of 279 km2 (108 sq mi); 46.8 km (29.1 mi) long and on average 7.8 km (4.8 mi) wide — and lies just off the Dalmatian coast. Its 15,522 inhabitants (2011) make it the second most populous Adriatic island after Krk and the most populous Croatian island not connected to the mainland by a bridge. The population are almost entirely ethnic Croats (95.74%). The island is twinned with Rothesay in Scotland.

Kingdom of Dalmatia second kingdom, crown land of the Austrian Empire (1815-1867) and the Cisleithanian half of Austria-Hungary (1867-1918)

The Kingdom of Dalmatia was a crown land of the Austrian Empire (1815–1867) and the Cisleithanian half of Austria-Hungary (1867–1918). It encompassed the entirety of the region of Dalmatia, with its capital at Zadar.

The History of Dalmatia concerns the history of the area that covers eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea and its inland regions, from the 2nd century BC up to the present day.

Francesco Maria Appendini was an Italian Latin and Italian scholar who studied Slavic languages in the Republic of Ragusa. The French invasion prevented him from returning to Italy, and he adopted Republic of Ragusa as his own country. He took it upon himself to investigate its history and antiquities.

Republic of Ragusa Former maritime republic in Europe

The Republic of Ragusa was an aristocratic maritime republic centered on the city of Dubrovnik in Dalmatia that carried that name from 1358 until 1808. It reached its commercial peak in the 15th and the 16th centuries, before being conquered by Napoleon's French Empire and formally annexed by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy in 1808. It had a population of about 30,000 people, of whom 5,000 lived within the city walls. Its Latin motto was "Non bene pro toto libertas venditur auro", which means "Liberty is not well sold for all the gold".

Treaty of Zadar

The Treaty of Zadar, also known as the Treaty of Zara, was a peace treaty signed in Zadar, Dalmatia on February 18, 1358 by which the Venetian Republic lost influence over its Dalmatian holdings. The Treaty of Zadar ended hostilities between Louis I of Hungary/Croatia and the Republic of Venice, who were contesting control of a series of territories along the eastern Adriatic coastline in present-day Croatia.

Dalmatian Italians

Dalmatian Italians are the historical Italian national minority living in the region of Dalmatia, now part of Croatia and Montenegro. Since the middle of the 19th century, the community, counting according to some sources nearly 20% of all Dalmatian population in 1840, suffered from a constant trend of decreasing presence and now numbers only around 1,000–4,000 people. Throughout history, though small in numbers in the last two centuries, it exerted a vast and significant influence on the region.

Croatian Dominican Province organization

The Croatian Dominican Province of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary is a province of the Dominican Order, established in 1962 with a merger of Dalmatian Province, consisting of convents along Dalmatian coast and islands, and Congregation of Dubrovnik and convents in Gruž, with a house established in Zagreb in 1927. Today province consist of 13 convents and houses located in Croatia ten (10) convents and houses, Slovenia two (2) houses, and in Bosnia and Herzegovina one (1) house.

Governorate of Dalmatia

The Governorate of Dalmatia, was a territory divided in three Provinces of Italy during Italian Kingdom and Italian Empire epoch, created in April 1941 at the start of World War II in Yugoslavia from the existing Province of Zara together with occupied Yugoslav territory annexed by Italy after the invasion of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers and the signing of the Rome Treaties.

Split, Croatia City in Split-Dalmatia, Croatia

Split is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia, with about 250,000 people living in its urban area. It lies on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea and is spread over a central peninsula and its surroundings. An intraregional transport hub and popular tourist destination, the city is linked to the Adriatic islands and the Apennine peninsula.

The history of the Croatian Navy can be traced from the Middle Ages until modern times.

Dalmatia (theme) Byzantine province

The Theme of Dalmatia was a Byzantine theme on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea in Southeastern Europe, headquartered at Jadera.

Venetian Dalmatia

Venetian Dalmatia refers to parts of Dalmatia under the rule of the Republic of Venice, mainly from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The first possessions were acquired around 1000, but Venetian Dalmatia was fully consolidated from 1420 and lasted until 1797 when the republic disappeared with Napoleon's conquests.

Dalmatian city-states

Dalmatian city-states were the Dalmatian localities where the local Romance population survived the Barbarian invasions after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 400s CE. Eight little cities were created by those autochthonous inhabitants that maintained political links with the Byzantine Empire. The original name of the cities was Jadera, Spalatum, Crespa, Arba, Tragurium, Vecla, Ragusium and Cattarum. The language and the laws where initially Latin, but after a few centuries they developed their own neo-Latin language, that lasted until the 19th century. The cities were maritime centres with a huge commerce mainly with the Italian peninsula and with the growing Republic of Venice.

The city of Split was founded as the Greek colony of Aspálathos (Aσπάλαθος) in the 3rd or 2nd century BC. It became a prominent settlement around 650 CE when it succeeded the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona. After the Sack of Salona by the Avars and Slavs, the fortified Palace of Diocletian was settled by the Roman refugees. Split became a Byzantine city, to later gradually drift into the sphere of the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Croatia, with the Byzantines retaining nominal suzerainty. For much of the High and Late Middle Ages, Split enjoyed autonomy as a free city, caught in the middle of a struggle between Venice and the King of Hungary for control over the Dalmatian cities.

Croatian–Venetian wars

The Croatian–Venetian wars were a series of periodical, punctuated medieval conflicts and naval campaigns waged for control of the northeastern coast of the Adriatic Sea between the City-state of Venice and the Principality of Croatia, at times allied with neighbouring territories – the Principality of the Narentines and Zahumlje in the south and Istrian peninsula in the north. First struggles occurred at the very beginning of the existence of two conflict parties, they intensified in the 9th century, lessened during the 10th century, but intensified again since the beginning of the 11th century.

References

  1. 1 2 "Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
  2. "Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census: County of Zadar". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
  3. Frucht, Richard C. (2004). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. 1 (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 413. ISBN   1576078000 . Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  4. Wilkes, John (1995). The Illyrians. The Peoples of Europe. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 244. ISBN   0-631-19807-5.
  5. Robert Stallaerts (22 December 2009). Historical Dictionary of Croatia. Scarecrow Press. pp. 89–. ISBN   978-0-8108-7363-6.
  6. 1 2 Mirošević, Lena; Faričić, Josip (2011). Perception of Dalmatia in Selected Foreign Lexicographic Publications. XVI. Geoadria. p. 124.; Department of Geography, University of Zadar.
  7. Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Anali Zavoda za Povijesne Znanosti Hrvatske Akademije Znanosti i Umjetnosti u Dubrovniku, p.405, Volume 38
  8. Encyclopædia Britannica: Dalmatia
  9. Bousfield, Jonathan (2010). The Rough Guide to Croatia . Penguin. p.  263. ISBN   978-1-84836-936-8.
  10. "Dalmatia on Enciclopedia Treccani".
  11. James, Ryan; Mastrini, Hana; Baker, Mark; Torme Olson, Karen; Charlton, Angela; Bain, Keith; de Bruyn, Pippa (2009). Frommer's Eastern Europe . John Wiley & Sons. p.  120. ISBN   978-0470473344. dalmatia borders counties.
  12. Turnock, David (2003). The Human Geography of East Central Europe. Routledge. p. 318. ISBN   1134828004.
  13. Heenan, Patrick; Lamontagne, Monique (1999). The Central and Eastern Europe Handbook. Taylor & Francis. p. 168. ISBN   1579580890.
  14. "Gorilo u nekoliko dalmatinskih županija" [Fire in several Dalmatian counties]. Nacional (in Croatian). Zagreb. 2008. Archived from the original on 2014-05-31. Retrieved 2014-05-30.
  15. "Za 29 dalmatinskih malih kapitalnih projekata 14.389.000 kuna" [14,389,000 kuna for 29 Dalmatian capital projects]. Ministry of Regional Development and EU Funds (in Croatian). Republic of Croatia: Ministry of Regional Development and EU Funds. Retrieved 2014-05-30.
  16. Bousfield, Jonathan (2003). The Rough Guide to Croatia. Rough Guides. p. 293. ISBN   1843530848.
  17. http://www.enciklopedija.hr/natuknica.aspx?id=65061
  18. http://www.enciklopedija.hr/natuknica.aspx?id=13743
  19. Seton-Watson, "Italy from Liberalism to Fascism, 1870-1925". p. 107
  20. Perselli, Guerrino. I censimenti della popolazione dell'Istria, con Fiume e Trieste, e di alcune città della Dalmazia tra il 1850 ed il 1936
  21. Ostroški, Ljiljana, ed. (December 2015). "Geographical and Meteorological Data". Statistički ljetopis Republike Hrvatske 2015 [Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia 2015](PDF). Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia (in Croatian and English). 47. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. p. 48. ISSN   1333-3305 . Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  22. "Vaganski vrh" [Vaganski peak] (in Croatian). Croatian Mountaineering Association. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  23. "Cyprus and Croatia top EU rankings for bathing water quality". European Commission. July 28, 2011. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  24. S.Čače, Ime Dalmacije u 2. i 1. st. prije Krista, Radovi Filozofskog fakulteta u Zadru, godište 40 za 2001. Zadar, 2003, pp. 29, 45.
  25. Charles George Herbermann, The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference (1913)
  26. M.Zaninović, Ilirsko pleme Delmati, pp. 58, 83-84.
  27. A. Stipčević, Iliri, Školska knjiga Zagreb, 1974, p. 70
  28. Curta Florin. Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1250. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, 2006; ISBN   978-0-521-81539-0 ()
  29. cit: Hunc iste, postquam Dalmatae pacto hoc a Hungaria separati se non tulissent, revocatum contra Emericum armis vindicavit, ac Chelmensi Ducatu, ad mare sito, parteque Macedoniae auxit. AD 1199. Luc. lib. IV. cap. III. Diplomata Belae IV. AD 1269.
  30. Rick Steves Snapshot Dubrovnik by Rick Steves and Cameron Hewitt
  31. Greene, Carol (1984). Yugoslavia - Carol Greene - Google Livres. ISBN   9780516027913 . Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  32. "Esclavonia, formerly called Dalmatia", according to the Spanish traveler Pedro Tafur, who sailed down the coast in 1436 (Pedro Tafur, Andanças e viajes ).
  33. Nazor, Ante (February 2002). "Inhabitants of Poljica in the War of Morea (1684-1699)". Povijesni Prilozi (in Croatian). Croatian Institute of History. 21 (21). ISSN   0351-9767 . Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  34. Angelo Filippuzzi. La campagna del 1866 nei documenti militari austriaci: operazioni terrestri. Padova, Antoniana. p. 396.
  35. Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Hauses der Abgeordneten des österreichischen Reichsrates, Ausgaben 318-329, Seite 29187, Austria, Reichsrat, Abgeordnetenhaus, published 1905.
  36. Giuseppe Praga, Franco Luxardo. History of Dalmatia. Giardini, 1993. Pp. 281.
  37. 1 2 Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: the Journalist, the Soldier, the Fascist. Oxford, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Berg, 2005. Pp. 17.
  38. A. Rossi. The Rise of Italian Fascism: 1918-1922. New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2010. Pp. 47.